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Report essay format pmr

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art essays don gray A Non-Theory on Non-Art. Report Essay Format Pmr. “It is in the studio that it helps the most to have a theory. ” -William R. Everdell The First Moderns p.69. Among monuments and decorated gravestones in a cemetery in Woodstock, New York, reserved exclusively for artists, the headstone which marks the of essays final resting place of Milton Avery is, some would say, suitably unelaborate. Report Essay Pmr. A simple, plain-fact statement which supplies, in free-hand, an earthly identity along with arrival and departure dates in the lower corners. While Gray grants that Avery was capable of creating an “extremely effective note” in his paintings, he finds them generally too passive; too lacking a “strength of creativity, personality or physical energy” to be seriously engaging as works of pmr essay letter, art. Against a backdrop of many of Gray’s most pertinent observations about the state of contemporary art, his statements defining Avery strike a resonance with an arguably danceable melody but an equally valid counterpoint swells in format pmr, the debate on how such work is to be judged. His dismissal of abstract expressionism as a footnote to essay water is precious, art history in pmr, an article written the same year as the Avery piece (“Reassessing the New York School” 1982) came long before the processes of historical theory had opportunity to solidify and consideration of Avery remains strapped to a figurative pendulum which swings into a Rothko haze of Color Field and for grading system, Minimalist theory.

Critic Doug Harvey, in an L.A. Weekly review of Avery’s later work on August 15, 2002, considers that Avery was an influence on Rothko as much as Matisse was an influence on Avery. He notes Avery’s tenuous link to Pop Art at a time when “Pop was breaking the art-world stranglehold of Clement Greenberg’s critical doctrine of flatness, which disdained Avery’s refusal to essay format, abandon pictorial content” -- a plight which locked in Avery as “a quaint, even naïve Modernist who was unable to make the break from the essay depiction of people, places and things in order to explore the rarefied sphere of pure abstraction.” There is format, a parallel in Gray’s complaint that the short college life freedom permitted contemporary artists is an illusion; “There is a very strong academy today. The hard-edge geometric academy,” he writes in “Questioning Contemporary Art” as he growls about “culture merchants, accustomed to thinking in pmr, aesthetic clichés” and “trying to live on the air of theory, without roots in the earth of human experience. ” Gray recognizes that “Abstraction, whether of the pmr essay expressionist or academic variety, is a turning inward toward an emotional, mystical or cerebral ideal in attempted escape from report pmr our disruptive, tormenting world” and that this inward swap of equivalency is a shout for pmr essay letter, life and speaks of essay format, “the drive in America for security at any price following the destruction of World War II -- a grey flannel suit and who invented, a house in the suburbs -- (which) was the context of materialism, ‘rationality’ and limited emotional expectations in report, which the Abstract-Expressionists fought to essay of divorce, maturity.” He opines that “only an age such as ours could consider the report essay format work of Andy Warhol art” and, in viewing the short essay college life art establishment, his conclusions are merely one follow-the-money step from conspiracy theory. Satirist, actor, songwriter Alan Arkin brilliantly anticipated cognitive response to visual metaphor in a classic skit he performed in when he was part of the report Second City improvisational group in the 1950s.

Playing a beatnik in essay water is precious, a gallery of format pmr, contemporary art, Arkin asked a starchy tourist how she felt about a particular painting. “Well,” she responded hesitantly. “I have gas. I can’t be objective. ” Sensing she has misunderstood his question, Arkin insists “No, no, no. How do you and thesis, your gas feel about that painting?” It is not detail Don Gray raves up in his description of Jan Vermeer’s circa 1660 painting Maidservant Pouring Milk , it is his own response to it: “The simple act of pouring milk becomes charged with its elemental life-giving significance, as if it were some sacred ritual fluid like blood or holy water, because of the solidity of the essay pmr forms and the intensity of feeling within them. While extremely realistic, such a masterpiece reveals the density of essential fine art form uncluttered by pmr essay letter, unnecessary accumulation of essay, picky, illustrational, surface detail that may seduce the ignorant, but obscures and denies foundational substance.” Ignorance of the laws of metaphor is no excuse to miss “substance,” as I’m sure Gray would agree. If Cernuschi had said “screw the inscrutable,” he would have never kindled his theories. “The light seems not only to flood in from the window, but emanate from the substance of reality itself,” Gray marvels. “The thin strand of milk pours from the circular black depths of the jug as if from the mysterious source of all existence, a firm but tenuous, living link of of divorce, life and light.” Is this too simplistic a view of the act of pmr, pouring?

As the milk emerges and descends, you will notice a subtle clockwise twist of metaphor. A complexity of a simple act; a mere detail? Some sort of ghostly physical law of gravity or something else with a spiral nature? Are there subtle laws of the psyche which govern turns of “free will”? Patterns of “spontaneous” gesture within the letter artist’s psyche? Where do we start our theories? “The predominant first impression is simplicity of composition and speed of execution, as evidenced by the thinness of the paint and the sketchy, gestural brushwork,” writes Harvey in his appreciation of Milton Avery. “It is essay, this superficial slightness that has given rise to the mistaken perception of Avery as glib and for grading system thesis, shallow. Certainly these paintings, once conceived, must have been executed very quickly -- but the essay longer you look at them, the clearer it becomes that their seemingly tranquil surfaces veil a profound and complex formal and emotional reservoir.” Do we need a separate perspective or theory to adequately weigh such work?

The answer to that question may be found in the closing lines of the Second City skit mentioned above as the tour guide describes and introduction system thesis, explains a work of art. When one of the tourists scowls and pronounces decisively “I don’t like it!” He just as decisively tells her “Well, you are wrong!” In this year’s edition of New Art International , we offer a fresh and diverse collection of essay, representational and abstract visions from artists around the world. From the renown Robert Angeloch- whose own area of work straddles the twilight between figurative and for grading system thesis, non-objective art to new and lesser known talents seeking new definitions of themselves in their creations.

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Le traitement litteraire du conte africain : deux exemples chez Bernard Dadie et Birago Diop. 1 Parmi les tres nombreux types de relation que la culture orale africaine a pu entretenir avec la production ecrite, notamment la fixation des ?uvres qu’elle execute oralement en des livres de langues africaines comme europeennes, il est un cas sur lequel nous aimerions nous arreter un instant dans ce volume. Report Essay? C’est celui de la transposition en francais ecrit, par un ecrivain reconnu et ayant des pretentions litteraires, d’?uvres orales dites originellement dans une langue africaine. Who Invented Essays Tumblr? Dans l’histoire litteraire de l’Afrique francophone, une telle pratique a surtout concerne deux genres : d’une part, l’epopee (par exemple, celle de Soundjata librement adaptee pour l’ecrit respectivement par Djibril Tamsir Niane et par Camara Laye1), d’autre part, le conte, c’est-a-dire deux genres essentiellement narratifs. Pmr? Il est bien entendu que dans un cas comme dans l’autre, l’operation dont nous parlons ne consiste pas en une traduction, fut elle enjolivee. Short Essay College Life? Il s’agit bien plutot d’une veritable creation d’auteur a partir de la connaissance de classiques que cet auteur a de sa propre culture et qu’il recompose librement d’apres son souvenir. Report Pmr? Il est interessant, a la lumiere des acquis de la narratologie des quarante dernieres annees, depuis au moins Genette et le fameux n° 8 de Communications sur l’analyse structurale du recit en 1966, de voir ce qui, au cours de ce processus de transposition, evolue dans l’appareil narratologique en termes de catalyses, de fonctions indicielles relatives au decor ou a la psychologie des personnages. 2 Compte tenu des dimensions limitees de la presente communication, nous avons choisi de ne nous interesser ici qu’au cas du conte, c’est-a-dire a un genre de recit bref a propos duquel il est plus facile de proposer une analyse en un volume reduit. Thesis? Parmi les exemples relativement nombreux qui pouvaient s’offrir a nous, nous avons choisi de retenir deux contes extraits de deux recueils tres connus et toujours disponibles en librairie : il s’agit de « Le b?uf de l’araignee » dans Le pagne noir (Presence Africaine, 1955), de l’ecrivain ivoirien Bernard Dadie et de « Les mamelles » dans Les contes d’Amadou Koumba (Presence Africaine, 1961) de l’ecrivain senegalais Birago Diop.

Nous allons confronter la version ecrite en francais de ces deux contes, connus dans la culture traditionnelle de chacun des deux auteurs, avec une de leurs versions orales, recueillie par des chercheurs et publiee chacune dans un recueil de contes d’orientation plus ethno-folkloriste (on trouvera ces versions en annexe). 3 Avant d’aborder l’analyse comparee des versions de chacun de ces deux contes, il convient de resituer la pratique de la transposition litteraire ecrite et en francais des contes oraux africains dans un certain contexte socio-litteraire. Report Format? Les deux recueils concernes datent des annees cinquante/soixante et de fait, c’est a cette epoque, c’est-a-dire en pleine periode de triomphe du mouvement de la « Negritude » que cette pratique s’epanouit. Essay? Il s’agit pour beaucoup d’ecrivains et d’intellectuels africains (J. Report Format Pmr? Malonga, J. Of Essays? Brahim Seid, Boubou Hama, etc.) de faire, par le moyen d’une langue de large diffusion, la promotion exogene de la culture orale traditionnelle en Afrique, a partir de leurs repertoires ethniques, a une epoque ou l’ignorance et l’arrogance de l’Occident pouvait encore donner a croire qu’une telle culture n’existait qu’a peine ou que de telles pratiques ne pouvaient etre qualifiees de « culturelles » que par indulgence condescendante.

Il est, de ce point de vue, assez significatif de constater que ce type de transposition litteraire des contes oraux sous forme de recueils s’est assez vite eteint et n’a guere survecu au mythe de la « Negritude ». Report Format Pmr? C’est donc sans oublier un tel contexte ideologique que nous allons examiner nos deux recueils, puis entreprendre la comparaison des deux versions des contes retenus. 4 Le recueil de Dadie s’intitule Le pagne noir , titre qui est aussi celui d’un conte du volume (le deuxieme), comme il est d’usage courant dans ce type d’ouvrage. Letter? Cela dit, le choix de ce titre pour l’ensemble du recueil est significatif. Format? Le pagne est, avec le boubou, un vetement emblematique du continent africain tel qu’il est vu par l’Occident, comme le sari peut par exemple l’etre pour l’Inde. Introduction For Grading System Thesis? Sa qualite meme d’objet textile renvoie en outre par metaphore a l’idee de texte – on report format pmr, sait qu’il s’agit de la meme etymologie – d’autant qu’il existe aussi en plusieurs cultures locales des analogies symboliques entre le deroulement de la parole et le tissage. Who Invented? Ce n’est d’ailleurs sans doute pas par hasard si de son cote Birago Diop, dans sa preface, a recours lui aussi a la metaphore textile, qu’il file justement avec dexterite : Dans la trame solide de ses contes et de ses sentences, me servant de ses lices sans bavures, j’ai voulu, tisserand malhabile, avec une navette hesitante, confectionner quelques bandes pour coudre un pagne (souligne par nous) sur lequel grand-mere si elle revenait, aurait retrouve le coton qu’elle fila la premiere ; et ou Amadou Koumba reconnaitra, beaucoup moins vifs sans doute, les coloris des belles etoffes qu’il tissa pour moi naguere. 5 Quant a l’adjectif « noir » du titre de Dadie, il renvoie implicitement a l’ensemble du continent subsaharien suggere comme etant un ensemble culturellement homogene : le monde noir. Essay Format Pmr? Il s’agit bien entendu d’un mythe, meme si le conte est un genre qui voyage beaucoup et dont on essay, retrouve souvent les types et les motifs d’une societe a une autre. Essay Pmr? Alors que precisement le repertoire de culture orale a un tres fort ancrage ethnique, celui-ci se trouve gomme dans le titre. Essay? Et, dans la mesure ou il n’y a pas de preface chez Dadie, rien n’indique quelle est la source culturelle precise de ces contes qui sont presentes au lecteur. Format Pmr? Il faut attendre la quatrieme de couverture pour induire qu’il s’agit d’un repertoire baoule : Avec evidence, ces textes manifestent la rencontre heureuse d’un ecrivain avec son monde, cette Afrique du pays Baoule (sic) recreee a travers le merveilleux de la fable […]

6 Une recherche ethnolinguistique un peu serieuse permet pourtant d’attester qu’il s’agit bien la d’un repertoire typiquement agni-baoule, mais cet aspect est en l’occurrence occulte au profit d’une pretendue universalite continentale : l’Afrique noire. 7 La mise en page de la couverture du recueil de Birago Diop est elle aussi interessante par rapport a la visee de l’ouvrage. Is Precious? Sur un dessin colorie representant des habitations villageoises africaines (toits coniques en chaume) et des animaux « anthropomorphises », le texte se presente ainsi : en haut de page, la mention « Les contes d’Amadou Koumba » sur deux lignes, le nom d’Amadou Koumba se trouvant sur la deuxieme ligne ecrit en gros caracteres et en rouge. Essay Format? En bas de page, dans la meme couleur mais en caracteres plus petits et sans majuscules, figure la mention de l’auteur du recueil : birago diop. Short College Life? Du point de vue semiotique, une telle politique n’est pas innocente. Report Essay Format? Lorsque le lecteur apprend dans la preface qu’Amadou Koumba est un « griot », c’est-a-dire un artiste de la parole, sorte de pendant symbolique de l’ecrivain dans la culture ecrite, et que c’est lui qui, apres sa grand’mere, a raconte a l’auteur les contes qui figurent dans le recueil, on of divorce, comprend mieux la relation entre les deux noms, de meme couleur qui figurent sur la couverture.

En haut, en gros caracteres et avec des majuscules, Amadou Koumba, en bas, en lettres plus petites et sans majuscules, birago diop, qui apparait ainsi comme le modeste disciple du premier. Pmr? Toujours est-il que, par ce biais, les contes ainsi presentes se trouvent marques d’une double authentification auctorale. 8 Or, tout chercheur ayant quelque peu travaille sur les litteratures orales africaines sait bien que, meme si un griot, l’artiste des grandes societes ouest-africaines, peut affectionner de dire des contes, c’est rarement sa fonction premiere et que le conte, a l’oppose de beaucoup d’autres genres de l’oralite, est par excellence un genre dont tout le monde peut s’approprier l’enonciation. Essay? C’est bien d’ailleurs ce que suggere la preface de Diop qui reconnait avoir d’abord entendu ces contes chez sa grand-mere et les avoir retrouves ensuite un peu partout, dans diverses bouches, au cours de ses peregrinations de medecin veterinaire en Afrique de l’Ouest. Essay Format Pmr? Il y a donc un tres fort parti pris dans la presentation de la realite culturelle telle qu’elle apparait sur la page de couverture d’un livre publie en francais, chez un editeur, Presence Africaine, dont la denomination met elle aussi en evidence l’Afrique comme continent culturellement homogene et dont le siege se trouve en outre a Paris. Pmr Essay? Dans l’optique de promotion culturelle que nous avons evoquee a cette epoque, une telle strategie semble viser d’abord un public occidental, de culture ecrite, pour qui une production verbale n’a de statut culturel veritablement valorise qu’a partir du moment ou on essay pmr, lui reconnait un createur identifiable.

C’est pourquoi ici les contes sont les contes d’Amadou Koumba avant d’etre ceux de Birago Diop. Short Life? Ils sont presentes comme ayant deja le label d’une sorte d’auteur reconnu dans la culture orale avant meme de passer a l’ecrit par les soins de l’ecrivain. 9 C’est dans un tel contexte qu’il convient d’analyser l’evolution subie par nos deux contes entre leur version orale originelle et leur version litteraire ecrite. Pmr? Commencons par « Le b?uf de l’araignee » de Dadie qui est a examiner en regard de la version orale de ce conte-type, recueillie en pays agni, transcrite et traduite par Marius Ano N’Guessan sous le titre « Araignee et Bosse » ( Contes agni de l’Indenie , Abidjan, Imprimerie nationale, 1976). Who Invented Tumblr? Il est evident que la structure des deux histoires est suffisamment similaire pour qu’on puisse reconnaitre sans aucun doute un meme conte-type dont on report essay, peut donner un resume sous une forme susceptible de rendre compte des deux versions dont nous disposons : 10 Dieu a un champ plein de broussailles inextricables et decide de le faire defricher.

Personne ne se presente sauf Araignee2 a qui Dieu promet un b?uf en cas de succes. Water? Araignee s’acquitte de la tache et recoit le b?uf en recompense. Essay Pmr? Il veut manger son b?uf seul, refusant de le partager meme avec une mouche. Introduction? Pour parvenir a ses fins, il s’enfonce dans la brousse et defeque regulierement jusqu’a ce que plus aucune mouche ne vienne se poser sur ses crottes. Format Pmr? C’est la qu’il abat et prepare son b?uf. Of Divorce? C’est alors qu’un hote surnaturel lui tombe du ciel et lui demande de le porter au lieu du festin. Report Format Pmr? Araignee refuse d'abord mais l’autre le rend bossu quand il cherche a fuir. Essay Life? Il l’emmene donc et se prepare ensuite a manger son b?uf mais l’autre en reclame la totalite qu’Araignee se voit contraint de lui ceder sous peine de devenir bossu.

A la suite de quoi Araignee met au point un stratageme pour eliminer son adversaire. Format? En bon decepteur, il s’arrange ensuite pour qu’un tiers (le mouton chez Dadie, le toucan dans la version orale) subisse les consequences nefastes engendrees par sa vengeance. 11 Au-dela d’un tel archetype, il y a d’importantes variantes qui sont significatives du statut culturel de chacun de ces deux recits. Water? Il serait evidemment tout a fait interessant, de ce point de vue, de s’interesser a l’evolution de la langue d’une version a l’autre mais nous ne sommes pas en mesure de le faire avec les donnees dont nous disposons. Report Format Pmr? La version originelle produite oralement est en effet deja traduite en francais et, pour fidele qu’elle soit (toutes les phrases dites dans l’enonce oral s’y trouvent), il est evident que le traducteur a adopte un style tres ecrit, assez peu conforme semble-t-il d’ailleurs a la tradition poetique du conte. Water? Le debut du recit, avec l’expression « herbes urticantes » qui releve plutot du vocabulaire medical que de celui du conte, avec l’accord de concordance aboutissant a l’imparfait du subjonctif, indice d’une langue savante ou precieuse, enfin avec l’emploi du terme « Sire », trop connote dans une culture, est tres significatif a ce propos. Report Essay Pmr? Nous laisserons donc de cote cet aspect pour nous interesser a la structure du recit. 12 On peut remarquer d’emblee que la version de Dadie est sensiblement plus longue. Essay? Cette augmentation du volume tient a l’addition d’un certain nombre de motifs mais aussi a l’expansion de la fonction descriptive, presque absente de la version orale. Pmr? La ou celle-ci disait simplement « Dieu avait un champ plein d’herbes urticantes ( i. Pmr Essay Letter? e . Report Essay Pmr? de mauvaises herbes), le texte de Dadie nous decrit ce champ sur pres de deux pages, avec une accumulation d’adjectifs expressifs et de metaphores qui temoigne d’une recherche d’ecriture selon une conception – certes assez scolaire – du beau style comme on essay, pouvait encore en avoir a l’epoque : Dieu avait un champ plein de ronces et de broussailles. Report Essay Format? Ronces et broussailles etaient si emmelees que les serpents eux-memes fuyaient le lieu. Water? […]Les epines dressees dans le ciel ressemblaient a de grosses pointes effilees.

Et ronces et broussailles, sous le soleil et la pluie croissaient sans cesse […].Dans ce champ poussait un fromager peu commun, un gros, gros fromager qui devait etre l’ancetre des fromagers, tant il etait biscornu, manchot, tordu, boudineux, epineux, massif. Pmr? Quelque chose d’effrayant, de hideux comme arbre. Of Divorce? Les oiseaux sur ce champ jamais ne se posaient. Essay? Le soleil meme glissait tandis que la brise le contournait (p. Is Precious? 51). 13 De meme, la recherche de quelqu’un qui veuille bien se charger de la tache proposee, qui tient en une phrase dans « Araignee et Bosse », s’etale sur pres d’une page (54-55) chez Dadie. Essay Pmr? Plus loin, la rencontre entre Dieu et Araignee (7 lignes dans « Araignee et Bosse », 2 pages dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee »), puis le defrichage (2 lignes contre 2 pages) sont egalement beaucoup plus developpees dans la version « litteraire » qui, en outre, multiplie les indications psychologiques et les modalites indicielles dans les comportements des personnages : chez Dadie, Kacou Ananze (l’araignee) cogne avec force et furie (p.57), l’enfant de Dieu pleure (p.58), etc. Essay? Alors que la version orale, sobre dans le decor comme dans la psychologie, ne connait essentiellement que des « noyaux », pour reprendre la terminologie de Barthes, la version litteraire multiplie, sous forme de catalyses, les digressions qui ne sont nullement indispensables a l’economie de l’intrigue comme, entre autres cette conversation entre Araignee et Dieu sur la condition humaine (p. Essay Format? 55).

14 On va retrouver exactement le meme phenomene entre « Les coepouses bossues », conte wolof recueilli par Momar Sall et publie dans Contes et mythes du Senegal (CILF/EDICEF, 1986) et « Les mamelles », texte tire des Contes d’Amadou Koumba de Birago Diop. Essay? Le conte populaire oral fait moins de deux pages la ou la version de l’ecrivain en fait dix. Report Essay Format Pmr? La non plus, pas de doute cependant qu’il s’agit bien du meme conte-type dont un resume commun peut etre fait aussi facilement que dans le cas precedent : 15 Deux coepouses sont bossues. Of Essays? L’une d’elle tombe par hasard sur des genies a la danse desquels elle s’associe, a la suite de quoi ils lui prennent sa bosse. Report Essay? La seconde, instruite par la premiere, veut faire pareil, mais loin de lui retirer sa bosse, les genies lui ajoutent celle laissee par sa coepouse la fois precedente. 16 Dans la version litteraire, les indications physiques et psychologiques notamment, presque absentes de la version orale, sont tres developpees pour caracteriser les heroines du recit ; la mauvaise : Envieuse, Khary, la premiere femme de Momar l’etait.

Elle aurait pu remplir dix calebasses de sa jalousie et les jeter dans un puits, il lui en serait reste encore dix fois dix outres au fond de son c?ur noir comme du charbon. Pmr Essay? Il est vrai que Khary n’avait peut-etre pas de grandes raisons a etre tres, tres contente de son sort. Report Essay? En effet Khary etait bossue. Water? Oh ! Une toute petite bosse de rien du tout qu’une camisole bien empesee ou un boubou ample aux larges plis pouvait aisement cacher. Report Pmr? Mais Khary croyait que tous les yeux du monde etaient fixes sur sa bosse (p. Introduction For Grading System Thesis? 33). 17 comme la bonne : Cependant Koumba etait bossue elle aussi, mais sa bosse depassait vraiment les mesures d’une honnete bosse. Format Pmr? On eut dit, lorsqu’elle tournait le dos, un canari de teinturiere qui semblait porter directement le foulard et la calebasse poses sur sa tete.

Koumba, malgre sa bosse, etait gaie, douce et aimable. Two Types Of Essays? Quand on essay pmr, se moquait de la petite Koumba-Khoughe du temps ou elle jouait, buste nu, en lui demandant de preter un instant le bebe qu’elle avait sur le dos, elle repondait en riant plus fort que les autres : « Ca m’etonnerait qu’il vienne avec toi, il ne veut meme pas descendre pour teter. Essays Tumblr? » Au contact des grandes personnes plus tard, Koumba qui les savait moins moqueuses peut-etre que les enfants, mais plus mechantes, n’avait pas change de caractere. Report Format? Dans la demeure de son epoux elle restait la meme (p. Two Types? 35). 18 Ces exemples montrent bien comment le recit proprement dit est interrompu par ces longues digressions descriptives dont nous n’avons donne qu’un abrege et qui nous font entrer avec l’imparfait dans une epaisseur temporelle qui est plus le fait de la narration romanesque que de celle du conte qui, en principe, ne sort que rarement et brievement du temps du recit. Report Format? On remarquera en outre que les personnages qui etaient anonymes dans le conte d’origine orale ont tous recu des noms dans la version de Birago Diop, trait qui lui aussi caracterise plutot un recit de type romanesque. 19 Outre ces phenomenes d’expansion indicielle, dans « Les mamelles », le recit se trouve egalement interrompu par des considerations generales, selon l’opposition desormais classique entre discours et recit, et qui, linguistiquement parlant, sont reperables par le present gnomique comme temps principal. Tumblr? Ces parentheses discursives, generalement inconnues des contes oraux, donnent au texte de Diop une sorte de dimension philosophique par la portee generale de ce qui est avance : Lorsqu’il s’agit d’epouses, deux n’est point un bon compte. Report Essay Format? Pour qui veut s’eviter souvent querelles, cris, reproches et allusions malveillantes, il faut trois femmes ou une seule et non pas deux. Pmr Essay Letter? Deux femmes dans une meme maison ont toujours avec elles une troisieme compagne qui non seulement n’est bonne a rien, mais encore se trouve etre la pire des mauvaises conseilleres. Report Essay Format Pmr? Cette compagne, c’est l’Envie a la voix aigre et acide comme du jus de tamarin (p.33 ).

20 On retrouvera de meme plus loin (p.36) de longues considerations sur les vertus et les dangers du tamarinier qui nous font sortir completement de l’histoire et qui ne trouvent leur justification que parce que, dans l’intrigue, c’est aupres d’un tamarinier que Koumba recevra d’une vieille femme-genie la revelation de ce qu’elle doit faire pour perdre sa bosse. 21 « Les mamelles » revelent aussi un autre procede qui est celui de l’enchassement du recit, en l’occurrence le conte, dans un contexte enonciatif plus vaste qui renvoie a d’autres lieux et qui justifie la convocation de ce conte particulier. For Grading System? Le premier de ces lieux est la France en hiver d’ou le narrateur est cense parler, alors qu’il est plein de nostalgie. Format? Le fait que ce soit dans un tel contexte affectif que remontent a lui les contes de son pays est une facon de mettre en evidence la puissance emotionnelle de cette culture orale et son efficacite. Introduction For Grading System? Dans cette evocation on report essay format pmr, retrouvera dans l’ecriture, avec l’abondance des adjectifs et le recours aux images, la meme recherche de « beau style » que nous avions deja notee chez Dadie, indice probable, pour l’auteur, du parler litteraire : Quand la memoire va ramasser du bois mort, elle rapporte le fagot qu’il lui plait…3 L’horizon bouche m’encercle les yeux. Of Essays? Les verts de l’ete et les roux de l’automne en alles, je cherche les vastes etendues de la savane et ne trouve que les monts depouilles, sombres comme de vieux geants abattus que la neige refuse d’ensevelir parce qu’ils furent sans doute des mecreants… Mauvais tisserand, l’hiver n’arrive pas a egrener ni a carder son coton ; il ne file et tisse qu’une pluie molle. Report Essay? Gris, le ciel est froid, pale, le soleil grelotte ; alors, pres de la cheminee, je rechauffe mes membres gourds… Le feu du bois qu’on a soi-meme abattu et debite semble plus chaud qu’aucun autre feu…Chevauchant les flammes qui scintillent, mes pensees vont une a une sur les sentiers qui bordent et envahissent les souvenirs (p. Essay Water Is Precious? 31).

22 Alors donc que, dans ce premier lieu, il regarde les flammes de la cheminee, va surgir un souvenir. Report Essay Format? Le narrateur se rappelle un voyage en bateau tandis qu’il revient au Senegal. Water? Sur ce bateau, il rencontre une Francaise qui fait la moue en apercevant les « Mamelles », deux petites montagnes de la pointe des Amaldies, ainsi baptisees parce qu’elles ressemblent a des tetons emergeant de l’eau. Report Essay? C’est ce souvenir qui appelle le conte comme le lecteur le comprendra retrospectivement. College? En effet, chez Birago Diop, ce recit a une valeur etiologique, puisqu’il est cense expliquer l’origine de ces deux minuscules montagnes : elles seraient l’emergence des deux bosses de la coepouse depitee qui s’est jetee de honte dans la mer. Pmr? Ce procede d’emboitement successif qui fut tres en vogue au XVIIIe et au XIXe siecle (voir, entre autres, Maupassant) est encore un indice typique de litterarite, totalement ignore du conte populaire et qui, en l’occurrence, permet en outre a Birago Diop de dedier son conte a cette Francaise qui devient ici en quelque sorte la metonymie de son lectorat occidental : Ma memoire, ce soir au coin du feu, attache dans le meme bout de liane mes petites montagnes, les epouses de Momar et la timide et blonde Violette pour qui je rapporte, en reponse, tardive peut-etre, a son ironique question, ceci que m’a conte Amadou Koumba (p. Of Divorce? 33). 23 Mais precisement, on report pmr, voit bien, chez Dadie comme chez Diop, que beaucoup de procedes stylistiques (syntaxe recherchee, adjectifs, metaphores…) ou rhetoriques (longues descriptions du decor, du physique et de la psychologie des personnages, alternance du recit et du discours, procedes d’emboitement) correspondent a des strategies d’ecriture consistant a habiller le conte oral africain selon des normes litteraires de la scripturalite qui le rendent plus consommable et qui le valorisent aux yeux d’un lectorat occidental cense etre habitue a certaines conventions propres a la litterature romanesque. 24 Cette evolution, impliquee par le passage de l’oral a l’ecrit litteraire ne consiste d’ailleurs pas seulement a multiplier les indices de litterarite romanesque, dans le style comme dans la morphologie narrative, mais elle modifie aussi la fonction culturelle de ces contes, changeant assez radicalement ce qu’on appelle generalement leur « morale ». Who Invented Tumblr? Si, par exemple, on essay format, revient sur le conte-type mettant en scene Araignee et Bosse, on of essays, peut s’arreter sur plusieurs differences notables qui en changent la perspective.

25 Dans la version populaire orale, Dieu n’a pas mis de condition particuliere au defrichage de son champ et Araignee ne triche pas en accomplissant sa tache. Report Essay Format? Il semble donc avoir legitimement merite le b?uf promis. Who Invented Essays? En revanche, dans la version de Dadie, Dieu met une condition a l’abattage de l’arbre monstRueux. Essay Pmr? Il ne faut pas l’abattre avec une hache ni un quelconque objet tranchant, mais avec « ca » que le lecteur, compte tenu des suggestions contextuelles appuyees, n’a aucun mal a identifier comme etant le sexe masculin. Letter? Le motif de l’arbre que le heros doit abattre avec son penis existe bien en de nombreux repertoires de contes africains, mais il est en principe associe a un autre conte-type, celui de la quete d’une epouse, et c’est une epreuve proposee par le beau-pere aux pretendants. Report Essay Pmr? On comprend d’ailleurs mieux dans ce contexte le sens d’une telle exigence puisque l’epreuve apparait alors comme un moyen de garantir la virilite du futur epoux. Who Invented? En outre, cette condition est generalement formulee de facon beaucoup plus directe et crue : le texte du conte dit tout simplement et sans ambage que le pretendant doit abattre l’arbre avec sa verge. Format? Les raffinements et les jeux euphemiques de Dadie dans le recit qu’il a lui-meme redige, indices d’un souci de bienseance, sont donc typiquement lies a l’idee qu’il se fait d’une certaine culture occidentale ou les themes galants sont a l’occasion apprecies dans la bonne litterature a condition d’etre plaisamment allusifs.

Cette formulation euphemique, dans le cadre d’une sorte de jeu subtil avec le lecteur, a peut-etre aussi pour fonction de contribuer a contredire le stereotype colonial selon lequel le negre, souvent associe a une sexualite primaire et grossiere, est incapable de telles finesses. 26 Dadie semble donc avoir amalgame ici des elements de deux contes-types pour n’en faire qu’un seul. Essay College? Il a d’ailleurs emprunte d’autres motifs classiques de contes ouest-africains comme celui du decepteur qui, pour accomplir un mefait ou une tricherie, envoie sa dupe naive puiser de l’eau dans une corbeille tressee, tache impossible qui permet de l’eloigner pour un bon moment et de donner tout son temps au decepteur pour arranger sa duperie. Format Pmr? Il n’est certes pas impossible que Dadie ait lui-meme entendu une version orale de ce conte-type qui presentait de tels elements, dans la mesure ou l’oralite est soumise a la variabilite et ou il ne faudrait pas commettre l’erreur grossiere de considerer la version orale dont nous disposons comme un modele fige. Essays? Dans toutes les cultures, le conte est un « meccano », selon l’expression de Georges Jean, et les contes-types peuvent s’accommoder de plusieurs variantes, dont il n’est pas possible de dire qu’une est plus legitime que l’autre. Report Essay Format Pmr? Cependant, celui qui connait un peu le repertoire des contes ouest-africains et en particulier agni, ne peut pas ne pas avoir le sentiment d’une tendance, dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee », a proposer un conte enrichi d’elements de plusieurs autres, afin de presenter un texte plus dense, offrant en quelque sorte une synthese culturelle. 27 En outre, cette addition d’une condition mise par Dieu au defrichage du champ modifie le sens de la mesaventure vecue ensuite par Araignee. Two Types Of Essays? Dans la version populaire orale, si Araignee a acquis son b?uf de facon legitime, sa punition ne peut venir que de son comportement posterieur a cette acquisition. Pmr? Il ne veut partager son b?uf avec quiconque, pas meme avec une mouche.

Et c’est cet egoisme foncier, symptomatique d’une ideologie individualiste contraire aux valeurs communautaires de partage et de solidarite pronees dans la societe agni-baoule comme en beaucoup de societes africaines, qui semble la cause du chatiment transcendant (Bosse tombe d’en haut) qu’il recoit, sous forme de la privation du festin tant convoite. Two Types? Et, bien sur, comme Araignee est le decepteur dans ce repertoire de contes, il se venge a son tour de celui qui l’a depouille de son b?uf et il fait subir a un autre les consequences de son mefait. 28 Une telle lecture est toujours possible dans la version de Dadie ou Ananze (Araignee) manifeste le meme comportement individualiste, toutefois elle est concurrencee par une autre interpretation qui relativise la premiere et la fait passer au second plan. Report Format Pmr? Ananze a triche pour obtenir son b?uf, puisque, au lieu de l’abattre avec son sexe comme le voulait la prescription de Dieu, il l’a tranche a la hache, mystifiant l’enfant de Dieu delegue pour le surveiller. Essay College? S’il est donc par la suite prive de sa recompense, c’est aussi a cause de la tricherie et de la tricherie a l’egard de Dieu, ce qui motive singulierement le caractere transcendant du chatiment dont le texte nous precise la encore qu’il « tomba du ciel » (p.60) et qu’il est bien interprete par le heros comme un envoi de Dieu. Report Essay? Une telle lecture est encore favorisee par le chant qu’entonne Ananze apres s’etre vu remettre le b?uf : Dieu, dieu, mais on essay life, peut le tromper. Il suffit d’avoir du cran. Format Pmr? […] (p.59). 29 La lecon du conte populaire, liee a une morale ethnique et peut-etre plus largement africaine, pronant des valeurs de solidarite communautaire et condamnant l’individualisme, s’elargit donc, dans la version litteraire en francais, a une morale plus universelle sur l’honnetete (« Bien mal acquis ne profite jamais ») et prend une coloration nettement metaphysique puisqu’il est plus precisement question de bonne foi vis a vis de la transcendance. Introduction For Grading Thesis? Le fait que, dans cette version, l’agent du chatiment soit justement la Mort (avec une majuscule) au lieu de simplement « Bosse » comme dans la variante d’origine orale, renforce evidemment cette lecture metaphysique du conte.

Le texte de Dadie voit donc s’accentuer, pour un lectorat plus vaste, sa portee philosophique generale. 30 Le conte des deux coepouses offre la meme possibilite de glissement interpretatif, avec, semble-t-il, les memes objectifs. Essay Format Pmr? Dans la version d’origine orale, il n’est pas question d’une bonne et d’une mauvaise coepouse et rien n’est dit sur leurs qualites morales respectives. Short Essay Life? Si l’une reussit sa quete implicite en perdant sa bosse et si l’autre echoue en se voyant ajouter a la sienne la bosse de la premiere, ce ne peut donc en aucun cas etre interprete comme une recompense de la bonte de la premiere et une sanction de la mechancete de la seconde. Essay Format Pmr? La seule chose qui differe entre les deux, c’est leur comportement lorsqu’elles participent a la danse des genies. Essay Of Divorce? La premiere reprend tres scrupuleusement les paroles de leur chant, qui d’ailleurs consiste essentiellement a repeter en wolof le mot de « mardi » (talaata, terme emprunte a l’arabe), jour de leur reunion, comme l’indiquent les propos de la premiere coepouse lorsqu’elle revele son secret a la seconde : « Si tu te rends la nuit du mardi du cote des toilettes, tu trouveras les djinns en train de jouer dans une vaste cour. Report Essay Pmr? ». Pmr Essay? La seconde, en revanche, prolonge a sa fantaisie le chant en enumerant les autres jours de la semaine : mercredi, jeudi, vendredi (Allarba, Alxames, Aljuma). Report Essay Pmr? Et le contexte montre de facon tres explicite que c’est cette invention personnelle de la femme qui conduit les genies a lui ajouter a sa bosse celle de sa coepouse, abandonnee a la seance precedente : Les djinns affoles s’interrogerent : « Qui a l’audace d’allonger notre chanson sans notre autorisation ? » Les autres ponctuaient : « C’est cette etrangere, c’est cette etrangere ; nous nous devons donc de lui doubler sa bosse. Essay Water Is Precious? » Ils prirent la bosse de la coepouse qu’ils collerent a la sienne en lui disant : « Deguerpis ! Tu n’as rien a ajouter a notre chanson sans notre autorisation ! » 31 On comprend que nous sommes en presence d’un conte initiatique indiquant que l’initie doit se conformer scrupuleusement aux indications de ses maitres initiateurs. Pmr? La premiere reussit son initiation parce qu’elle agit ainsi, tandis que la seconde echoue du fait qu’elle n’a pas une attitude suffisamment respectueuse ni docile. Letter? Pas de lecon ici autre qu’initiatique. 32 En faisant de ses deux coepouses une bonne et une mauvaise, Birago Diop modifie considerablement la signification du conte, d’autant que, dans la rencontre entre Koumba et la vieille femme sous le tamarinier (p.

37), le texte insiste par prolepse sur le fait que ce qui va arriver a Koumba est une recompense meritee de sa grande bonte : Koumba, reprit la vieille femme, je connais ton bon coeur et ton grand merite depuis que tu reconnais ta droite de ta gauche. Essay Format? Je veux te rendre un grand service car je t’en sais digne. Essay Of Divorce? Vendredi, a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew, les filles-genies danseront. Format Pmr? Tu iras sur la colline lorsque la terre sera froide. Essay Of Divorce? Quand le tam-tam battra son plein, quand le cercle sera bien anime, quand sans arret une danseuse remplacera une autre danseuse, tu t’approcheras et tu diras a la fille-genie qui sera a cote de toi : -Tiens, prends-moi l’enfant que j’ai sur le dos, c’est mon tour de danser. 33 Quant a Khary, la mechante coepouse, lorsqu’elle se rend a son tour a la danse des filles-genies, elle ne semble pas commettre d’erreur particuliere dans le deroulement du rite. Report Format Pmr? Par consequent, si elle se voit affublee de la deuxieme bosse, cela ne peut apparaitre que comme une punition transcendante de sa mechancete intrinseque, qui la conduit d’ailleurs finalement a la mort, de rage, episode qui ne se retrouve pas dans la version orale. Thesis? Le conte est donc passe d’une lecon essentiellement initiatique a une morale plus ou moins universelle qui veut que les bons soient recompenses et les mechants punis, ce qui gomme l’identite wolof et plus largement africaine du conte au profit de valeurs beaucoup plus familieres au lectorat occidental. 34 A propos de cet episode de la rencontre avec les genies, on pmr, notera aussi, chez Diop, le meme souci de bienseance et d’effacement du trivial au profit du poetique.

Alors que dans la version populaire elle a lieu a cote des toilettes4, dans le conte de Diop, elle se deroule « a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew (…), lorsque la terre (est) froide ». 35 En outre, dans la version wolof authentique, la presence des deux coepouses est une donnee de depart du conte : « Il y avait une fois deux coepouses bossues », precision qui ne requiert aucun besoin de justification dans la societe agni-baoule ou la polygamie est une pratique normale et courante. 36 En revanche Birago Diop se sent oblige, dans son conte ecrit directement en francais, de presenter les choses un peu differemment. Who Invented? Dans « Les mamelles », si Momar prend une seconde epouse, c’est parce qu’il est en quelque sorte contraint a le faire : sa premiere femme, Khary est absolument epouvantable et ne remplit pas son office d’epouse. Report Essay Pmr? Il a somme toute une « excuse » pour prendre une seconde femme et, en creux, le lecteur est invite a comprendre que si Khary n’avait pas ete si mauvaise, jamais il n’aurait eu l’idee de prendre Koumba : Las de travailler tout le jour et de ne prendre que le soir un repas chaud, Momar s’etait decide (souligne par nous) a prendre une deuxieme femme et il avait epouse Koumba. 37 Ce souci, dans la version litteraire, d’excuser la polygamie, en lui trouvant une justification circonstancielle, temoigne encore de la conscience de l’auteur d’avoir a s’adresser – au moins partiellement – a un lectorat qui voit dans la polygamie une pratique de « sauvage » ou en tout cas une pratique culturellement inferieure. 38 Cette breve analyse de nos deux contes aura donc montre qu’en passant de la culture orale de leur terroir a une production ecrite en francais, dans le contexte d’une certaine epoque, ils ont subi une transformation profonde qui, derriere une apparente fidelite aux grandes lignes de l’histoire, est presque une trahison de leur personnalite originelle, tant du point de vue de la morphologie du recit que de la moralite des contes. Two Types? Affirmer ainsi qu’il s’agit d’une trahison ne signifie nullement de notre part prononcer une condamnation de l’entreprise des deux ecrivains.

Notre propos n’est pas ici de nous poser en censeur ni de prendre parti pour louer ou condamner. Report Pmr? La litterature n’a pas a s’accommoder de dogme et toute l’histoire de la creation litteraire est faite, dans l’intertextualite, de trahisons parfois geniales. Essay Life? Il s’agit seulement de constater que ces contes « litteraires », s’ils sont bien des ?uvres africaines – il n’y a aucune raison de leur denier cette qualite -, sont des produits d’epoque (les annees soixante) marques par le mouvement de la negritude et le souci de promotion exogene de la culture africaine dont les intellectuels du continent voulaient montrer l’appartenance au patrimoine culturel universel. Format? Pour ce faire, les auteurs les presentaient d’abord comme partageant les memes canons et les memes valeurs que celles qui avaient cours en Occident. Essay? De telles productions, apres le traitement qu’elles ont subi, n’ont evidemment plus grand chose a voir avec les contes oraux qui en ont ete la source. CAMARA Laye (1978), Le maitre de la parole, Kouma Lafolo Kouma, Plon. DADIE Bernard (1955), Le pagne noir. KOUMBA Amadou, « Les coepouses bossues », in pmr, Contes et mythes du Senegal, CILF, Fleuve et Flamme, 1991. NGUESSAN M.A., Araignee et bosse.

NIANE Djibril Tamsir (1960) Soundjata ou l’epopee mandingue, Presence Africaine. SALL Momar, Contes et mythes du Senegal, Fleuve et Flamme, EDICEF, 1991.

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Jonah Domingo BSHRM 1B NSTP1 “MYSELF” I was born in Pasay City, Manila on 14th day of June, 1987. I am a . Report Essay Format Pmr! single mother. I still live in Tramo, in Pasay City, Manila. I am currently attending the Philippine Christian University in an effort to essay of divorce obtain my bachelors degree in essay format pmr Hotel and Restaurant Management. I live with my 5 years old son Zachary Vincent.Vincent has started his Preparatory with Arellano University. My life so far is comprised of.

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Hindi ko pa . alam kung ano ang kahulugan ng rank noon, kaya naman ako ay nagtaka kung bakit iisang kulay lang ang ribbon ng aking medalya. Tinanong ko ang aking mama “Ma, bakit green ang kulay ng medalya ko? Gusto ko kulay red, white at blue na medal” ang sabi niya sa akin “Kung gusto mo makamit yun anak, mag-aral kang mabuti”. Pmr! Ang pahayag na iyon ng aking ina ang nagsilbing inspirasyon. High school , Meaning of essay, life , United States 447 Words | 2 Pages. mong bughaw, May dilag ang tula at report essay awit sa paglayang minamahal. Of Divorce! Ang kislap ng watawat mo’y Tagumpay na nagniningning . Ang bituin at araw niya Kalian pa ma’y ‘di magdidilim.

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III. Essay Pmr! Kadila Ng Buhay IV. Who Invented Essays! Buod: Ang lahat ay may hangganan, parang ating sariling buhay. Mayroon din itong hangganan kung kailan tayo . mawawala sa mundong ito. Report Essay Format Pmr! Kaya nga parang kandilang mayroong sindi ang ating buhay, ipagpalagay na natin na ang tagal ng ilaw ng kandila ay ang panahon ng pananatili natin sa mundong ito na kapag ito ay nawala o namatay ay tayo rin ay lilisan na.

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Essay: Social networking and report essay format, recruitment. Recent research by The American Society for Training #038; Development states that Social Networking Sites (henceforward ‘SNS’) like LinkedIn, Twitter or Facebook have officially surpassed the online job boards as the preferred way of acquiring talent. It states that recruiters and companies are increasingly using SNSs to find new employees (ASTD, 2011). Another study done by Jobvite among more than 800 HR professionals concludes that almost 60% plan to is precious increase their budgets for social recruiting while only report essay 16% plan to spend more on job boards (Jobvite, 2011). Water? Nearly two-thirds of employees surveyed have successfully recruited employees through social networks, with 64% stating that they made successful hires through SNS in 2011 compared to 58% in report format pmr 2010 (Ibid.). Who Invented Essays Tumblr? According to Dan Finnigan (the CEO of essay format Jobvite) the fastest growing companies increasingly use the publicly available profiles on LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter to develop valuable talent pools for new hires (Jobvite, 2011). Furthermore, according to Shelley Gorman (director of career management at the UNC-Kenan-Flager Business School) using social media for recruiting purposes is very effective for a number of introduction for grading system reasons: it expands the applicant pool, allows employers to reach international candidates, and the technology is extremely cost-effective (Gorman, 2011). Based on report pmr these figures and of divorce, statements it seems to report essay be of utmost importance to raise one’s profile on the Internet as well as proactively manage and promote it when looking for a new position. Socrates stated around 2400 years ago: ‘the way to gain a good reputation is to endeavour to be what you desire to appear’ (Karaduman, 2013: 1).

With this he highlights the importance of a concept contemporarily called ‘personal branding’. This is the process whereby people in introduction system general are marked as brands; these personal brands are different from for essay pmr instance their reputation and impression (Karaduman, 2013; Seidman, 2012; Labrecque, 2011.). Every single person is essay of divorce unique in format pmr its own way, each with its own physical characteristics, skills, experiences and education thus every single person may use these properties to create his own unique personal brand. However, a brand is only of who invented use if it is visible to others; making the brand known through decent and proactive management and an effective promotion is therefore essential (Karaduman, 2013; Dutta, 2010.). Through its ideological and technological structure, SNSs allow people to promote themselves as brands in a relatively cheap and efficient way (Kietzman et al, 2011). Report Essay Pmr? They facilitate the creation of personal profiles containing information, including one’s professional background.

According to the literature, credibility plays a crucial role in corporate branding; this may also be the case with personal branding (Erdem #038; Swait, 2004; Baek et. al., 2010). It positively affects the purchase intention of the consumer through a higher perceived quality, a saving of information costs and a reduction of perceived risk (Erdem #038; Swait, 1998; Baek et. al., 2010). Traditionally, mainly professional knowledge workers such as publishers, editors, reviewers, news reporters and librarians have maintained the essay, credibility of information (Rieh #038; Danielson, 2007). Report Essay? Nowadays, the online web 2.0 era offers a vast amount of information assessed through a wide variety of essay of divorce systems and resources, this information has a high chance of being incomplete, out of date, inaccurate or simply poorly organized (Janes #038; Rosenfeld, 1996). With the emergence of the Internet, web credibility is becoming increasingly important (Flanagin #038; Metzger, 2000; Fog et. Report Pmr? al., 2001). Although a research field has been developed on online credibility on the corporate level, there has been very limited research on how credibility of personal online social media profiles affects the pmr essay letter, screening process in recruitment, while it is well possible that credibility plays a major role when recruiters are screening social media profiles. Thus, the challenge offered by the use of these profiles is to establish how well they provide trustworthy and valid, job-relevant information. Screening information of a potential candidate’s online personal brand is becoming an format pmr, issue for recruiters as the information displayed has a high chance of being less credible.

In this research thesis the concept of essay credibility will be researched in two principal domains: source credibility and medium credibility. The source and format pmr, medium credibility are the main factors recruiters keep in mind when reviewing candidates (Allgeier, 2009). In conclusion this thesis will focus on how recruiters screen the background of potential jobseekers through social media, considering that companies are using social media as the of essays, main source for the screening procedure to an even greater extend (Davison, 2011; Kaplan #038; Haenlein, 2010; Wright 2011). As a result the report, research aims to address the following research question: How does online personal credibility influence the screening process in recruitment and what factors contribute to this credibility? To answer the research question four sub-questions were established. Research has shown that in many situations a credible source is much more effective than a less credible source in gaining attention and enhancing recall (Sternthal et al, 1978). Thus, people and companies often spend considerable time or resources to create the most positive and is precious, powerful impact on the effectiveness of their brand message therefore the second sub-question will focus on: a) How does online source credibility influence the screening process? Furthermore, A web-users’ first task is to rate the credibility of the medium based on surface characteristics such as usability, appearance, organization of information, interface design (Wathen #038; Burkell, 2002), so the first sub question is: b) How does online medium credibility influence the screening process?

Third, all information online is not necessarily of equal value, in format pmr many cases certain information is thought to tumblr be more trustworthy or better than other information (Hilligoss #038; Rieh, 2008). The challenge that recruiters face is how to judge which information is credible and report essay, which is short life not: c) What criteria do recruiters employ to assess the credibility of recruiter’s online information? Lastly, The web has a fundamental and important influence on recruitment procedures, however it is report relatively new (Davison, 2011). For Grading? Offline procedures are definitely not out-dated (Ibid.), therefore it is important to research the differences between online and offline procedures: d) How do these criteria differ from report essay format offline criteria? The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the different aspects we need to understand in order to answer the research questions. Previous research will be used that has been implemented on: social media, screening processes in recruitment, challenges of using social networking sites in recruitment, communication and credibility, source credibility and medium credibility.

Section 3 describes the research method and participants used in two types of essays this study. In section 4, an extensive analysis of the report essay, evidence found. Water? Section 5 concludes and contains propositions. In section 6 the practical and theoretical contributions are outlined and section 7 contains any limitations of the study, which lead to further research recommendations. 2. Literature review. 2.1 Social Media. The Internet has become the most essential component in the navigation of everyday normal life (Amichai-Hamburger #038; Vinitzky, 2010). Internet influences all aspects of human behaviour from the pmr, way people interact or spend their leisure time to letter the way in which corporations operate. Format? (Hughes, 2012). Via the for grading, Internet, huge amounts of information are being disseminated to worldwide audiences in format an instant, while the web offers an arena for public and water, social interaction as well. At the ground of online information transfer and social interaction lies the most popular and fastest growing type of Internet site: Social media (Nielsen-Wire, 2010). Social media is defined as collaborative online applications and technologies that enable connectivity, participation, sharing of information, user-generated content, and collaboration amongst community of users (Henderson #038; Bowley, 2010).

These include social networking sites, wikis, blogs, podcasts, vidcasts, vlogs, mashups, folksonomies and online virtual worlds (Henderson #038; Bowley, 2010). In this research we will mainly focus on the use of social networking sites for recruitment purposes because a SNS has the premise that individuals mainly use it to strengthen existing social relationships or use it as a social networking tool either for personal or professional purposes (Ellison et al, 2007; Johnstone et al, 2008). 2.2 Social Networking Sites. SNSs can be defined as a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of essay format Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content (Kaplan #038; Haenlein, 2010). They are virtual collections of user-profiles, which may be shared with other people. The Internet provides numerous communication platforms at which people can meet and interact with each other (Malita et al, 2010). These platforms in general focus on building online communities of people who share activities and/or interests. These services consist of the two types, representation of a user, often in the form of essay a profile (ibid.) and offer various ways for users to interact over the Internet through text, photo or video messaging (Kaplan #038; Haenlein, 2010). An important note to letter make is format that users can control access to their personal information, through privacy settings. However research done by Dwyer et al (2007) shows that users are not exercising their right to privacy, with 100 % of letter participants to report essay format pmr a survey reveal their real name on Facebook online. The social networking tool refers to the possibility of connections between strangers as well as those who already have had a relationship with each other and allows SNS to be defined specifically as sites for networking and connecting with people (Beer, 2008).

With the rise of SNSs, the amount of essay personal data such as employment history, interests and education are online available for all to see. This gives recruiters a greater insight into the candidate’s skills and personality and many potential employees may find themselves being contacted proactively through SNSs for report format pmr job opportunities they were not aware of because their profile matched a recruiter’s search on a SNS (Doherty, 2010). This way SNSs are becoming an essential tool for pmr essay letter companies that try to interact with passive candidates, who are employed not actively looking for a new opportunity (ibid.). It might be the essay format pmr, case that these prospective employees do not have an introduction system thesis, updated CV because they have been working for the same company for several years, however they do have extensive information stored on SNSs that can be found and used for human resource purposes. According to the research done by Stepstone.com SNSs are used in the full recruitment process in many ways, but they are mostly used for: attracting potential applicants by creating and displaying the employer brand, finding suitable potential employees through direct search, searching for more background information on pmr prospective employees, and posting jobs in social network communities (Stepstone, 2013).

Another research stated that the most important usages of social media in the recruitment process were applicants researching organizations by two types of essays, searching their social media pages, locating job postings on SNS and the search on SNS by HR professionals to gather information about applicants (Davison, 2011). 2.3 Prospective employees and Social Media. In this study the screening process refers to pmr all existing profiles of essay of divorce job seeking candidates that have been uncovered during either online or offline searches and that fit the position to be filled with regard to experience, education, background etcetera. After all it is the recruiter’s task to screen the report format, background of the potential candidates and establish his or her fit for the position and company. During the recruitment process, organizations might request references from the job seeker (Foote #038; Robinson, 1999). However with the existence of system SNS, people’s lives and professional profiles are publicly available and report, more easily accessible.

Employers or recruiters that check applicants’ profiles gain different information than they collect from offline information like CVs (Breaugh #038; Stark, 2000). This might lead to a positive effect on the hiring decision but can also lead to rejection of the candidate (Stepstone, 2013). In 2008 it was discovered that 13% of companies used SNS for screening, 18% was planning to do so (SHRM, 2008). In 2013 a research concluded that 73% of companies were using SNS to essay water is precious check candidates (Stepstone, 2013). Report Format? A survey done by Jobvite (2012) found that for organisations engaged in the practice of using social media to water screen job applicants the most important factor for using SNS was obtaining information beyond what was stated in a cover letter or CV (70% of participants of report format survey). At the same time however, 48% of the participants were worried about not being able to verify the information obtained. Davison et al. (2011) in this context confirm that the information potential candidates choose to share on SNSs can be edited or be one-sided to make their profile more attractive.

This means that it may not be possible to verify if the information obtained is short college life accurate. Two thirds of job seekers are aware of the report essay format pmr, fact that random people are able to pmr essay letter check their profile (Stepstone, 2013). These job seekers know that the information on their profile(s) can have an impact on their hiring chances, and a third of the job seekers modify their profile to raise their chances. Whether social media profiles improve the chances to be hired of the applicants to be hired remains to be seen. The survey revealed that the information retrieved from social media profiles had a positive influence on report essay format the hiring decision in almost half of the of essays, cases (Stepstone, 2013). In a quarter of the cases the information led to a rejection of the applicant. The same survey concluded that the most positive influence of essay format social media information on the hiring decision was that the water is precious, profile supported professional qualifications. Format Pmr? The publication of inappropriate pictures was found to be the most negative influence. See figure 1 for a complete overview of the influences of social media on the hiring decision. Figure 1, influence of social media on hiring decisions (Stepstone, 2013)

Using SNS for HR decisions has become a common practice (Davison et. al., 2011). However, using SNS for the screening process of potential employees is essay water relatively new. Report? A study in 2008 revealed that 34% of organizations were using SNS to recruit or contact potential applicants and 19% were planning to use them (SHRM, 2008). In 2011 a research showed that 49% of who invented tumblr French recruiters were now using social media to essay recruit (Regionsjob, 2011). Another, more recent global study from 2012 revealed that 92% of employers were using or planning to use social media as a recruitment tool (Jobvite, 2012). Essay? Despite a fast rise, the candidate volume generated by social media is essay format lower than other channels such as job boards, agencies, print media, and internal sources (TNS, 2013).

Professional networks such as LinkedIn are said to be the type of social media most commonly used for recruitment purposes (Stepstone, 2013). In 2013, 64% of companies were using LinkedIn to short essay college find new talent, making it the most popular SNS for recruitment purposes (Stepstone, 2013; Broughton #038; Foley, 2013). 41% uses Facebook and 29% are using Twitter for finding future employees. Furthermore, 73% of hires via SNS came from LinkedIn, 20% from Facebook and essay format, 7% from Twitter. See figure 2 for who invented the application volumes per recruitment channel and the satisfaction rate. Figure 2, application volumes per format pmr recruitment channel and satisfaction rate (Stepstone, 2013) Thus, Companies are increasingly reaching out to socially connected job seekers (TNS, 2013). Social media presents an tumblr, opportunity for extra reach for both the organization as well as the job seeker. Whenever there is essay format pmr a job opening, it’s most effective to use as many channels as possible to make the most out of the recruitment campaign (Kaplan #038; Haenlein, 2010).

Adopting a multichannel approach is successful, so companies should not hesitate to use Facebook or Twitter to entice more potential employees towards online job postings next to the more traditional media like newspaper adverts (TNS, 2013). However searching online offers numerous challenges to keep in mind for a recruiter. In the next part we will go deeper into this issue. 2.4 Challenges in recruitment through social media. While there are many advantages of the concept of letter recruitment using SNSs, it is also important to consider the challenges. The recruitment specialist may want to develop and use various tools and instruments to screen different potential candidates for a vacancy. The main encounter when using these tools is the credibility of information displayed by a candidate. The relative newness of Internet with its scarcity of explicit editorial policies and its information overload may suggest that information collected through the report essay format, Internet might be dubious or difficult to appraise. Essay? We will go deeper into this issue later on in the research.

Furthermore, SNSs should not be used as a sole mean for recruitment, because despite their popularity, there are still people who do not use it (Doherty, 2010). Recruiters should therefore be careful in neglecting these people and having the format, risk of missing out on great talent. In addition, SNSs have transformed how we communicate and short essay, as these tools become regular for essay pmr professional purposes, the boundaries between private and professional information are blurred, raising moral and ethical questions (ibid.). Organizations must be very careful when using public, non-professional information to support a neglecting decision. Since the arrival of SNSs many organizations have treated them with suspicion and often made it the introduction for grading system thesis, responsibility of the human resource department to essay format police its use internally (Doherty, 2010). However organizations are now embracing SNS with open arms as a way to attract and retain employees.

As said before, this leads to a lot of organizations creating presences on LinkedIn, Twitter and essay of divorce, Facbook in report essay order to engage with candidates and give them the opportunity to essay is precious interact with them on a more informal basis. The use of SNSs in recruitment is a very active and fast-moving domain. Thus, what may be up-to-date today could have disappeared from the virtual landscape tomorrow. Therefore it is crucial for recruitment firms to create a set of guidelines that can be applied to any form of SNS in the recruitment or screening process. Currently there are maybe hundreds of different Social Media applications including new ones appearing every single day (Kaeplan #038; Haenlein, 2010). As a recruitment agency it is simply impossible to report pmr participate in all of them. Pmr Essay Letter? Choosing the right medium for the given purpose depends on the message being communicated and on the target group to be reached (Ibid). Each social media application usually might attract a certain group of people and the organizations should be active wherever their target group is active. For instance, if the main target of recruiter for a certain vacancy is a maritime specialist in Germany, it is most effective to use the pmr, SNS that offers these specialists. Another challenge in life using SNSs for recruitment purposes is relying on different applications in order to create the most complete picture of a candidate (Kapenlan #038; Haenlein, 2010). In this case it is important to ensure that the information is aligned with each other.

A recruiter might use different SNSs to create an extensive profile. This may seem as a worthwhile and profitable strategy, but the goal of recruitment is the resolution of ambiguity and reduction of uncertainty (ibid.), and contradicting messages may create confusion. 2.5 Personal branding. As stated before, although primarily designed for socialising with friends and family, Social Networking Sites are increasingly recognized as an important professional tool, particularly in report format the field of recruitment (Girard et al, 2014; Karaduman, 2013). They seem to serve two main purposes. Essays? Firstly, they function as a marketing instrument (Sivertzen et al, 2013). Essay Format Pmr? Jobseekers use these networks to market themselves to two types of essays potential employers and vice versa. Secondly, they serve as a screening mechanism for pmr employers; the essay, latter may use information available on the web to cheaply and report pmr, easily gain a more detailed image of a potential employee than is available through traditional recruitment methods (Labrecque, 2010).

In both cases personal branding is key, as it determines whether the created image is perceived as positive or negative by a recruiter. Personal branding is a new marketing concept related to pmr essay a marketing strategy that a person adopts in order to promote him or herself in a market. Personal branding has achieved huge popularity in essay format pmr the last decade due to the rising number of books, web sites, magazines, training programs and specialized literature about how exactly to brand oneself for success in the business world (Montoya, 2002; Arruda #038; Dixson, 2007). The key premise of personal branding is that anyone can be considered as a brand, and who invented essays, everyone has a personal brand regardless of its age, position or industry he or she works in (Peters, 1997). Essay Format? Shephard (2005) defines personal branding as activities undertaken by essay, individuals to make themselves known in the marketplace. Hughes (2007) simply equates people to goods or services and states that the American Marketing Association definition of a brand should simply be extended to include people. Most people are not aware of their personal brand and do not manage it strategically, consistently, and effectively (Ramparsad, 2009). However personal branding becomes a very important marketing tool for people and it has accelerated in SNSs (Shepherd, 2005).

The rise of SNS has formed a need for a deeper analysis of building personal brands not just for report essay format social but as well as for two types of essays professional purposes. The emergence of the web 2.0 with social media such as Google, Facebook, Linkedin and Twitter made it virtually impossible for anyone to keep from creating a personal brand, whether they give permission or not (Vaselou #038; Joinson, 2009; Labrecque et al, 2011). Report Essay Pmr? Individuals not aware in thesis the discipline of pmr marketing might often participate in the act of marketing (either positive or negative) without them knowing to do so. Establishing a unique personal brand by developing an active communication of one’s brand and by evaluating its impact on ones image and introduction, reputation to fulfil professional objectives is what we discuss in this research paper. This process involves three phases just like any other (corporate) brand, the first phase is to establish a brand identity, the second is to develop the report essay pmr, brand’s positioning and of essays, the third is to evaluate the brand’s image (Khedher, 2014). Personal brand identity starts with establishing an inventory of attributes, beliefs, motives, values, and experiences in terms of which people define themselves in a role (Mcnally #038; Speak, 2002). People creating personal brands should differentiate themselves to stand out from essay format a crowd while fitting expectations and needs of their target market (ibid.) this especially is a crucial part in this study as differentiating your personal brand in the employment market is crucial to introduction for grading system get hired by an employer. Personal brand positioning refers to the active marketing communications of a brand identity to report essay format pmr a specific target market.

People should use brand positioning to highlight their best attributes that are value to pmr essay letter their target audience while differentiating themselves from other people in the same marketplace (Khedher, 2014). In other words the positioning occurs through the self presentation, nonverbal cues, verbal disclosures, and actions to report essay format pmr shape the perception of others’ about introduction for grading thesis, your competence, character and ability to meet the essay, standards (Roberts, 2005). Personal brand assessment is about taking control of someone’s own image and essay of divorce, like a corporate brand it is established to achieve results. People who construct viable professional images are mostly perceived as being capable of meeting any goals. The basic objective of this assessment is to determine whether the branding efforts has achieved the branding goals and met personal or in this case professional goals. In conclusion in personal brands, might lead to financial success and report essay format pmr, economic profitability as it offers people a way to theorize and negotiate in the employment landscape (Lair et al, 2005). People are able to position themselves as brands to compete against others for similar employment opportunities.

Branded people might this way maximize their own employability and thus eventually increase their lifetime earnings (Montaya, 2002). The business world is gradually recognizing the importance of controlling personal brands and offering strategic advice about how one can project a desired brand identity through the use of different social media (Labercque et al. 2011; Safko #038; Brake 2009; Schwabel 2009). However, despite the significance of branding and the high acceptance rate of social media, very few specific, empirical studies have dealt with these issues (Karaduman, 2013). Using SNSs for screening purposes is usually not a formal aspect of the letter, recruitment process (Davison, 2011). Due to this apparent lack of literature on what factors influence the essay pmr, success rate of online personal brands in the job recruiting process, this research will consist of a qualitative exploratory research aiming to two types of essays understand what elements in general recruiters deem as most important when screening a potential candidate. At the same time however, through this literature review, one factor has been found to be an important decisive factor in the screening process and will therefore form the core of the research: ‘credibility’. The following section describes this factor and its role in this research. 2.6 Credibility and Message Communication. To explain the concept of credibility we first need to understand how messages are being created.

Traditionally, a recruitment agency or a human resource department communicates its vacancies and is responsible for finding potential employees. This communication process consists of three main concepts: the source, the message and the receiver. In this research the source is referred to as the online personal profile of a potential candidate, and the receiver is referred to as the recruiter. Shannon-Weaver (1948) illustrates this in The Model of Communication (see figure 3). Report Pmr? The source needs to deliver a message and has to encode it by means of a format (form, content and channel). When reached by a receiver, the message will be decoded and interpreted. Whether the interpreted message is the same as the message sent by tumblr, the source, depends on how the message is report essay encoded and decoded (Shannon-Weaver, 1948). Figure 3, Model of Communication (Shannon-Weaver, 1948) A medium must be chosen to who invented tumblr fit the message that is sent.

When a channel is too rich for its purpose its use will be inefficient (Daft, Lengel, 1984). According to Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) SNSs can be seen as medium rich channels in terms of the Media Richness Theory. In conclusion, it is report not needed and moreover not possible to water is precious use a rich medium for every message, but a medium should be chosen that fits the message. In this study the medium will be distinguished in offline mediums and the different online mediums. The information source in this research is the online personal brand of a potential candidate. The channel is either an online or offline medium. Report Format Pmr? And the thesis, receiver is the recruiter. We will focus on the perceived credibility of the report essay, information sent from sender to receiver and what contributes to this credibility.

In the following part credibility will be explained thoroughly. Credibility has been defined as trust, believability, reliability, accuracy, objectivity, fairness, and many other concepts (Self, 1996). It also has been defined in terms of features of persuasive sources, characteristics of the short essay life, message structure and content, and perceptions of media (Metzger et al, 2003). Despite the fact that communication researchers have been concerned with source credibility since the format pmr, 1950s, there is essay life still no clear definition of credibility. The main view across definitions is believability (Fogg et al, 2001; Hilligoss #038; Rieh, 2007).

Credible people are believable people, and credible information is believable information (Tseng #038; Fogg, 1999). Most credibility researchers agree that there are at least two key measurements of credibility: trustworthiness and expertise. A person who is trustworthy is honest, careful in choice of words and unwilling to deceive (Wilson, 1983). Information is report format trustworthy when it seems to be reliable, unbiased and fair. Expertise is of essays ‘the perceived knowledge, skill, and experience of the report essay pmr, source’ (Fogg, 2003). When people find that sources have expertise, they are likely to judge that the information is trustworthy and thus, in the case of for grading system a recruiting process, an report essay, organization is more likely to accept a potential candidate to fill a vacancy. The concept of pmr essay letter credibility has been discussed at least since Aristotle’s examination of ethos and his opinions of speakers’ relative skills to persuade listeners (Rieh, 2007). Disciplinary approaches to investigate credibility systematically developed in the last century, starting in the field of report essay pmr (offline) communication. Who Invented Essays? The influence of report various characteristics of a source on letter a recipient’s message acceptance is an important topic among the study of credibility (Hovland et al, 1953; Rimmer #038; Weaver, 1987). Communication researchers have tended to emphasize on sources and media, seeing credibility as a perceived characteristic.

Credibility has received considerable attention since the last twenty years when the pmr, Internet started providing a new information interaction environment that allowed users to seek for pmr essay letter information and communicate with others in report format pmr ways never possible before (Kiousis, 2009). There are many different studies on credibility that are field-specific within communication, psychology, IT, or marketing. Flanagin and Metzger (2003) propose credibility assessment as an iterative process involving one or more ‘credibility judgements’. As an information seeker finds information, a series of judgements are made about the credibility of the information. Is Precious? These judgements are based on various factors that are discussed in depth in the following parts. In summary, the judgements comprise the report essay, credibility assessment, which leads to the decision to accept or reject information. In this research thesis the concept of credibility will be researched in two principal domains: source credibility and medium credibility. Source credibility involves examining how different communicator features can influence the essay college, managing of a message. The communicator in essay this study is defined as the essay, individual that portrays its information in online (personal) profiles.

Medium credibility on the other hand focuses more on essay format the channel through which content is delivered rather than the of divorce, dispatcher of that content. 2.6.2 Source credibility. Marketing researchers have found out that the concept of format pmr source credibility is a very powerful facility for influencing consumers (Eisend, 2004). Whenever a consumer perceives a source as having the highest credibility compared to other sources, the consumer is much more receptive to letter messages and is more likely to be persuaded and thus has a higher chance to consume. However whereas the concept of source credibility hasn’t changed over time, consumers and consumption behaviour did change during the last decades. Report Essay Format? The trustworthiness and expertise of a source are envisaged as two central attributes of who invented essays source credibility (Kiousis, 2009). Essay Pmr? The source is typically defined as an essays tumblr, individual that communicates information to the receiver (Kiousis, 2009).

Perceived source credibility has also been defined as ‘the judgements made by the perceiver’concerning the report essay format pmr, believability of a communicator’ (O’Keefe, 1990). Introduction Thesis? Different attributes contribute to the trustworthiness of the sender. For instance expertise, authority or professionalism are indicators for an receiver to establish the credibility of the message. In addition to these communicator variables the report essay, message variables are also found to shape source credibility (Chartprasert, 1993). Complicated message or simplistic writing styles may affect opinions of the source credibility (ibid). Pmr Essay? Credibility appears to pmr be a variable that is studied within the context of the sender (or communicator), the channel or message itself. From this scarce literature on credibility in the field of Information Technology (IT) we learn that credibility primarily focuses on perceptions of the sources and channels. In this thesis we thus also would specifically like to focus on the potential candidate’s credibility (the source) as well as the online or offline channel being used (medium credibility). The receiver in this case is the recruiter. The perceived source credibility becomes a crucial variable in social media to examine the introduction thesis, information available.

This because with the report format, ever growing amount of information available through thousands of new channels, the gatekeeping function seems to shift away from away from the producers of essays tumblr content and it goes onto the consumers of the content (Haas #038; Waerden, 2003). Gatekeeping is the process through which content creators decide which information will be covered and reported; what information is shown to consumers. Essay Format Pmr? Formally the information would be screened by gatekeepers, including journalists and editors (Shoemaker #038; Vos, 2009). These gatekeepers are seen as an important part in the process of ensuring credibility and water is precious, they are likely to be doing so (Reese #038; Ballinger, 2001). However the report essay format pmr, growth of new (online) media means that information consumers are now less beholden of what passes through these gatekeepers, therefore consumers of this information must become more responsible for making decisions about the short life, credibility of the information online (Westerman, 2010). Therefore in the new media environments and thus in the field of recruitment the gates are now located not only with the information providers, in essay format pmr this research the potential candidates, but also with information consumers, in this study the two types of essays, recruiters, who in the new media environment are acting as gatekeepers (Kovach #038; Rosenstiel, 1999). This shift has forced the information receivers to keep a constant eye at the information and pass and use the information that seems relevant and useful. Essay Format Pmr? This can be seen in the environments of SNSs where information is published it is reviewed by other users of the site and pmr essay letter, may be commented or shared according to its credibility (Westerman, 2010). This is the essay, hallmark of SNSs in general.

According to Sundar (2008): ‘the lack of assurance of essay of divorce any uniformity in content quality, which necessitates a continual monitoring of report credibility on the part of users. It is crucial to keep in my mind that credibility is a perception, and thus is not a quality inherent within a channel or source itself, therefore many aspects might impact the perceived credibility of online materials (Fogg #038; Tseng, 1999). Who Invented? In this study we will thus elaborate these aspects of credibility of online personal brands and its influence on the screening process of recruiters consequently on the potential hiring decision. Part of the source credibility is the issue of Personal Credibility (Henceforward PC). PC is related to bigger, more conceptual questions around the credibility of online information, personal branding and marketing in general. Report Essay? All information recruiters gather about a certain personal profile is not necessarily of equal value.

In many cases, certain info seems to be better, or trustworthier, than other information (Rieh #038; Hilligoss 2007). Who Invented Essays? According to report Allgeier (2009) getting people’s confidence that you will do the thesis, right thing is report pmr not about creating a ‘slick’ personal brand, however it is about being believable, trustworthy and credible (Baek et al, 2010; Erdem, 2004; Balester, 2011). Pmr Essay? PC is what we do, in addition to report essay pmr how we do it, that causes people to trust, respect, and believe in us (Allgeier, 2009). Essay Of Divorce? Online personal credibility is closely related to the online credibility of corporate brands, as they are both defined as the believability of the pmr, product or personal profile information embedded in the brand, depending on the consumers’ or recruiter’s perceptions of whether the brand or profile has the ability and willingness to continuously deliver what has been promised (Erdem #038; Swait, 2008; Allgeier, 2009). Short Essay Life? Subsequently, besides the question of how job seekers can create a credible online profile, recruiters face the challenge of judging which information is report format pmr more credible. We will now go into the other aspect of credibility: the medium credibility. 2.6.3 Medium credibility. Medium credibility focuses on the medium through which the message is delivered e.g. newspaper compared to television (Golan, 2010). The reliance on a medium is water positively related to perceptions of its credibility (Stavrositu #038; Sundar, 2007).

Yet, the growing reliance on the Internet raises concerns about its credibility. Several studies suggest that Internet users are indulging in content verification behaviours and format pmr, are becoming much more vigilant and selective (Flanagin #038; Metzger, 2001). An explanation could be that the general lack of gatekeeping on information on the Internet forces frequent users to engage in constant credibility verification (Stavrositu #038; Sundar, 2007). It predicts that the reliance and of essays, use of traditional media (print and television), would predict more accurately the credibility of the Internet (Johnson, 2000). The impact or credibility of a message depends on the particular publication or channel through which it is transmitted (Hovland et al, 1953). Westley and Severin (1964) differentiated the perception of report essay credibility between the media credibility and media preference. Letter? In other words recruiters do not always see their most preferred medium (either online or offline) as the most credible one. For them it is report format pmr more on the channel through which the content is delivered rather than the sender of that content (Abel #038; Wirth, 1977; Gantz, 1981; Newhagen, 1997). In this thesis the medium Web credibility will be used in a variety of disciplines. This form of credibility needs to of essays be discussed independently from other types of credibility because the conventional methods for assessing credibility may not be feasible on the Web due to its speed, complex features and link structure it also is the main medium we use for essay format the research as the study focuses on online personal branding. Humans increasingly rely on the Internet and web-based information despite a lot of evidence that it may potentially be inaccurate and biased (Flanagin #038; Metzger, 2000).

However the Internet differs from other technologies used for information retrieval that may affect the two types of essays, credibility of an information source. The free-flow of information is taking over the Internet where anyone can be an author (ibid). This introduces an increased potential for error or exploitation (Westley #038; Severin, 2004). Report Essay? Editorial review is who invented essays tumblr much less or non-existent in Internet publication compared to printed counterparts. Media consumers, in essay format pmr this case recruiters, learn to distinguish through the various sources of online information through the experiences of using them (Flanagin #038; Metzger 2000). Over time they become familiar with different information delivery styles of who invented essays tumblr different media; they develop levels of media literacy into the norms of media usage. Recruiters might encounter issues establishing credibility of online personal brands. In this research we will try to establish the forms of credibility assessment a recruiter has when screening personal profiles. Personal characteristics have been connected to medium credibility of the report essay format pmr, reviewer. Melican and Dixon (2008) found that participants who reviewed non-traditional Internet sources as more credible than traditional (offline) sources acquired a higher racism score. The scientists argued that non-traditional Web media offer individuals the opportunity to seek out information that is in for grading thesis line with their own ideologies.

Furthermore, research shows that age affects credibility attitudes. Bucy (2003) stated that younger university students deemed online news more credible than older media consumers. And it suggested that the pmr, perceived skill of for instance a journalist is a strong indicator of credibility of the introduction system thesis, message. Other research on web credibility concentrates on the specific aspects of essay different websites. Flanagin and Metzger (2000) studied the credibility of thesis different websites. They suggest that web credibility may be related to report essay format pmr different aspects of the sites as the design: ‘It is likely that high perceived credibility would result under situations with well designed, reputable genres of sites, containing highly salient and two types, involving messages.’ They also suggest that different characteristics of a message and the audience might affect the perception of truthfulness. Furthermore they stated that news websites were considered most credible and essay format pmr, personal sites were evaluated as the least credible. In this research the two types of essays, online personal brands will be assessed according to different characteristics to find out which aspects are making a profile more or less credible according to recruitment specialists.

In summary the research distinguishes credibility in source or (online) personal credibility and report essay format pmr, medium credibility and how this perceived credibility affects the letter, screening process and thus eventually the hiring decision. In summary, the report essay, modern information technology is beginning to have a significant effect on credibility research, because it highpoints the need to re-examine what constitutes a perceived source and blurring the line between traditional concepts such as message, source, receiver and medium (Kiousis, 2009). Credibility is often attached to of divorce objects of assessment as in message credibility, media credibility and source credibility, reflecting the fact that these objects differ (Rieh, 2007). At the same time, however, credibility evaluations of report sources and messages are primarily interlinked and influence one another (Slater, Rouner, 1996). As result a theoretical framework is established; see figure 4. Figure 4, theoretical framework. 3. Research methodology. Due to a lack of existing literature on factors that measure credibility when screening personal profiles, it is impossible and essay of divorce, undesirable to ‘test’ certain hypotheses through quantitative research methods (Saunders #038; Lewis, 2012). Report Format Pmr? Instead the research aims to system be explorative so as to gain a detailed understanding of the elements that generate credibility from the perspective of recruitment agents.

Therefore, in this study a qualitative research methodology has been applied. By using a qualitative analysis method with in-depth interviews of recruitment specialists this allows the report pmr, use of a more narrow scope rather than when using a survey design research, which can reach a more broad population. For Grading System? This might be a limitation of the report essay, research, nevertheless in this study a qualitative research suits better as the factors of credibility in recruiting are relatively unknown and the factors will need to be revealed and uncovered by the insights of human resource specialists. It therefore involves face-to-face interviews with company representatives in the areas of personal branding and human resource management with a special focus on credibility perceptions. Together with backgrounds of the organisation, the findings from both the literature review and the interviews have been presented thematically. The ‘sampling frame’ consists of who invented internal and external recruitment agents.

Internal recruitment specialists usually do their candidate searches on behalf of the company that employs them, while external experts work for an independent recruitment agency that recruits people for an outside organization. The ‘sampling size’ consists of ten participants, five of which internal recruiters and report essay format, five external recruiters. Furthermore, participants have been evaluated on the base of a diverse scope of pmr essay letter fields they recruit for. Report Format Pmr? Refer to Appendix 1 for an overview of interview questions. The research conducts in-depth interviews with each of the participants. These face-to-face or Skype interviews have taken place in December 2014 and January 2015. Short? The interviews were semi-structured, meaning that a loosely framework of questions is report format pmr followed, that allows the conversation to be largely directed by the participant, while remaining within the area of the research interest. Participants have been asked about their organisation’s use of social media when screening staff with regard to the extent and types of social media, their view on effective personal branding strategies as well as their rationale for credibility of essay water is precious information on personal brands. Each of the interviews have been transcribed and format pmr, coded (see appendix 4 and 5), and the transcriptions will be analysed using ‘thematic analysis’, a common method of data analysis in qualitative research (Bryman, 2012).

The purpose of letter this method is to create a catalogue of the central themes that then helps the researcher to structure the data and extract meaningful insights on which theory is based. The selection of particular themes is format pmr done through recognising recurring categories that relate to the research focus (i.e. the research question). We have distilled themes from each of the interviews, which form the factors that constitute to Personal Credibility. Subsequently, we will compare the different interviews and extract ‘meta’ themes that will answer the short college life, research question. Report Format? Finally, based on these conclusions we have formulated propositions as to how job seekers can ‘improve’ their PC in order to be more attractive to recruiters, how recruiters can enhance their screening procedures according to credibility and how SNS’s can improve their sites in order to of divorce become more popular for both recruiters and jobseekers.

3.1 Interview procedure. The interviews were focused on report pmr the recruitment procedure of different recruiters. Over a period of 45 min to of essays an hour the topics on essay hand were thoroughly explored. While the structure of water is precious these interviews varied somewhat according to the answers the interviewee gave, generally the report essay pmr, interviews revolved around the following items and questions. First of all the participants were asked about their professional background and the current recruitment agency they are working regarding its size expressed in the number of employees. Then we would ask about their recruitment procedure from the point of a vacancy to an eventual hiring. Furthermore we would ask about the participant’s SNS usage while performing a recruitment search. Also we were interested in the important factors or characteristics they would screen in order to test the suitability of a potential candidate. In addition during the interview we would go deeper into its credibility assessment of candidates and which factors or characteristics contribute to a candidate’s perceived credibility. Lastly we would ask the participant to give advice on who invented creating a credible online personal brand. All individuals were contacted via email, and were introduced to the nature of the project and the contribution we felt the individual could make to the study.

Before the start of the interview we explained that the material collected would be considered confidential within our research team: the interviewee is only identified by his background information in this research, no personal or company names will be used. Most individuals that were approached were delighted to contribute to essay the project, many suggesting it to be an important area that needs more investigation and can be very useful for both jobseekers and recruiters. All the interviews were tape recorded and eventually transcribed for short life the analysis. The researcher produced a list of codes accordingly to the transcriptions and after representing themes identified in the textual data. A total of essay pmr ten individuals participated in the interview. See appendix 2 for a schematic overview of the background per interviewee.

In summary the participants ranged from 26 ‘ 63 years old with a minimum of three years relevant recruitment experience and one participant having 17 years of of divorce experience. 60% of participants were male with six working at a large organization (more then 51 employees), two working at a medium organization (16-50 employees) and report essay format, two working at a small organization (less then 15 employees). As said before we interviewed five internal recruiters and five external recruiters with a large diversity of levels of recruitment activities on short college behalf of various industries including NGO’s, IT, commercial, finance, marketing, logistics, industrial, and report essay pmr, fashion retail. Levels of positions recruited for pmr essay ranged from junior positions with a minimum salary of ‘24.000 per year to report pmr senior executive positions with a maximum salary of ‘220.000 per year. All participants had at least a college (HBO) degree with most of them (eight participants) having at least a bachelor at university level. The participants showed a large variety concerning their judgement of how credulous the presented information of candidates is, with females being more credulous about candidates whereas males were less trusting to the information received. In addition to the background questions, more general questions regarding SNS use were asked this is displayed in Appendix 3 in schematic form. All participants said they employ one or the of divorce, other SNS when they are screening a candidate’s profile.

Ranging from one to even ten different SNS’s per report pmr candidate. Furthermore all ten interviewees stated that they make use of LinkedIn for screening purposes. The four other most used SNS’s included: Facebook (six participants), Google (seven participants), Twitter (four participants), Monsterboard (three participants). Two Types? Several participants mentioned infrequent use of other less well-known SNS’s but these were mostly field and location specific. Several common themes emerged from the analysis of the participant’s answers concerning their expertise on recruiting and screening candidates on credibility. These themes can be differentiated between 1) source and 2) medium credibility: The themes that submerged within source credibility are: references, the verification of information and the identification of report essay format profile characteristics.

The themes that submerged within medium credibility are: Online medium features and character, medium utilization and online and offline differences. The findings are presented using quotes of the essay, participants so that their expertise may be heard as well as enabling the readers to determine transferability. See appendix 4 for the schematic overview of the codes and themes. Theme 1: References. References or recommendations are the format, testimonials of (ex-) employers or (ex-) colleagues that say something about the potential candidate. These employee or so-called customer reviews were mentioned by all participants as the essay of divorce, most important indicator of credibility of the information on either online or offline profiles: ‘The thing that I use most is the references someone can place on LinkedIn.

As you probably know you can get a certain reference or endorser on LinkedIn. For me that is rather important because that shows how a person has worked for pmr or together with another person. That is rather credible for two types me. On a CV not everyone puts the references on it, they mostly say: references upon request. But on their LinkedIn profile you can see it instantly.’ (Participant 1) These recommendations truly show the report essay, professionalism of a person and may display any skills or talents that is essay of divorce important when building a credible personal brand.

However, according to the participants in this research’, merely focusing on what is said in these references is not enough. They stated that the pmr, relationship between the candidate and referral is of high importance as well. Pmr Essay Letter? The authority the referral has or had over the employee is crucial. A ‘simple’ colleague, friend, or acquaintance does not always indicate truthful information because it could have been a friendly deed to format pmr write something kind about the person in question. Yet, a person with authority or a status creates a more credible opinion on the information: ‘Most important is the relation between the referral and is precious, the potential candidate. Did they work together and what is the authority of this other person.’ (Participant 2) Furthermore, LinkedIn provides the option to give endorsements rather than references in full text form.

These so-called endorsers are a set of skills or expertise that are automatically made based on your past experiences and education. Report Essay? Other people in your network may provide these endorsers to you just by is precious, clicking on the skills. These will then be displayed on your profile for report everyone to essay water is precious see. According to format pmr four participants these endorsements (participant 2, 4, 5, 7) do not count as heavy as the recommendations as it is short essay college much less personal and anyone can give you these skills just by essay, a mouse click without even having to know you: ‘Endorsements are not very important to me, because I get endorsed by people who I did not even speak to. So these to me are not good indicators to assess a person.’ (Participant 4) Lastly, all participants in this study stated that they usually check on references by calling a former company or school either with or without the candidate’s consent. Company policies of two of the participants demand that recruiters need an of essays, ‘OK’ from the candidate in order to contact a former employer, other participants’ policies are less demanding with the recruiters being allowed to contact whoever they want. Yet, giving negative feedback about a former employee is report essay prohibited in The Netherlands thus the information given might be of less quality. Pmr Essay? Still all participants stated they could easily find out if a candidate has something to hide about report essay format pmr, his former employment: ‘We are not allowed to find references and contact them ourselves, we need approval of the candidate. The company cannot give me negative feedback about the candidate but on letter the other side if I ask if he or she would hire the same person again and the reference says no, I know enough.’ (Participant 7) Theme 2: Verification of report information.

Apart from the two types of essays, various activities involved in the identification of report essay format jobseekers and thus attracting potential candidates, the screening of the background of a jobseeker on the different information mediums is the most important task of a recruiter. Other than education, working experiences, certain skills or expertise that need to short life match with a job-position, the credibility of the essay format pmr, information supplied is an important indicator to establish suitability of a candidate. One of the most frequent mentioned returning statements specified by the participants is the verification of a candidate’s information by asking face-to-face (or through phone) about their background valuations, rather then only examining through a (online) profile. With this approach the recruiter can immediately establish if the candidate is system thesis detailed enough about its sincerity of the information provided. In some cases candidates do not show an report essay format pmr, adequate online information picture, thus by asking the candidate it may be clarified: ‘I ask very detailed questions face-to-face where I need examples of everything a person did.’ (Participant 7) Alternative verification mechanisms were mentioned by half of the participants (Participants: 1, 7, 8, 9, 10): i.e. comparing between online and of divorce, offline information as well as checking offline information against format different other online mediums. Short Essay Life? Collecting as much as possible details about a candidate, either online or offline is the most effective mode of operation. By comparing all this information, the report essay pmr, recruiter may establish its degree of truthfulness; if certain parts do not match this may create suspicion that may lead to further checking and possibly the candidate’s rejection: ‘In my opinion the of divorce, online and offline information should be combined as thorough as possible to create a complete profile of essay format pmr a candidate.’ (Participant 1)

The online screening procedure of a candidate is introduction for grading usually initiated by typing a person’s name into report essay the Google search bar (Participants: 1, 5, 6, 9): ‘I do always type in their name into Google. Of Divorce? To see what pops up.’ (Participant 5) Theme 3: Identification of profile characteristics. The third theme that emerged from the interviews is the process of format pmr creating a synopsis of a candidate’s online profile. Relevant profile characteristics that were mentioned more than once by different participants are outlined in the next section.

Five subthemes are important for the assessment of a credible profile according to for grading system thesis the participants. Subtheme 1: Expertise of a candidate. Firstly, the report essay format pmr, candidate’s expertise is of crucial importance for establishing the suitability of a candidate for a particular position. All participants mentioned to be looking at education, past working experiences, and other skills that may enhance the candidate’s fittingness with a position. One participant (participant: 9) indicated that the pmr essay letter, more expertise a person has in a certain field, the more credible its profile is perceived: ‘In addition, candidates that are incredibly experienced in their field usually are more credible about the report format pmr, information they give; it is not worth to them to be untruthful about water is precious, certain experiences.’ (Participant 9) Subtheme 2: Physical image of a candidate. As said before, all information displayed in a profile is highly relevant to recruiters in order to get a realistic idea of whom they are dealing with.

To this purpose any source can be worthwhile, whether online or offline. In order to get a candidate’s complete overview, almost all participants (Participants: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10) stated that they value online access to physical images of candidates. However this is report essay format not necessarily an indication that presentation of a natural and sincere picture leads to a higher perceived credibility of the essay water, person. From the research we cannot conclude what recruiters consider as a ‘credible’ picture, but they did state that displaying professionalism, representativeness and friendliness are most effective in a picture: ‘The picture is important to me. For instance for one of our brands’ the report essay format pmr, image of a person is very important. Someone needs to look representative for the company. He or she needs to look well taken care of essay is precious as this is one of the job specifications in the store.’ (Participant 7) Subtheme 3: Size of a candidate’s network and connections. Several participants (Participants: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8) mentioned the relevance of the report essay pmr, amount of pmr essay letter connections and network size, this being an important characteristic to look for.

According to these participants it may reveal positive or negative traits of the candidate’s personality. Having lots of connections may imply you are dealing with a sociable person or somebody who is essay pmr highly valued in his (professional) environment. One participant stated however that having an excessive amount of connections (say, one thousand or more) might indicate untruthfulness because it is hard to who invented essays tumblr believe that someone can know so many people. Nonetheless, all participants stated they would never only base their opinion on report essay format the sole characteristic of introduction for grading system a network size or an amount of connections. Still, two participants (participants: 3, 4) did state that having a lot of connections (say, more than 500) does indicate a higher credibility of the information presented. Essay? After all, all of these relations might be accessible sources for short essay college the verification of the information posted. So, this can be a barrier for a candidate to post untruthful material: ‘What I forgot to mention before in report online profiles is the amount of connections, the more connections someone has the more credible the information displayed seems to be. Because these connections can verify the information posted online. If something is essay of divorce not right I assume someone will make a note of that.’ (Participant 5)

Subtheme 4: Candidate’s online participation of groups and report essay, associations. This item follows the findings of the foregoing subtheme: the majority of the essay, participating recruiters (Participants: 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9) stated to wanting to know what online groups the candidate is associated with. It demonstrates the interest in the specific field or industry a candidate operates in. According to two participants (Participant: 5, 7), presenting online interest in a particular field by participating and associating with a group in this field, is an important indicator of information credibility: ‘I do always have a quick look to the groups or companies a candidate likes. Because this shows how serious you take your field or industry.’ (Participant 5) Subtheme 5: Detailed and thorough profile. All participants attach great importance to the applicant presenting an immaculate, complete, correct and detailed profile whether online or offline. The participants expect dates, past positions, education, degrees, etcetera be outlined correctly and thoroughly. Any flaws, mistakes or omissions may lead to suspicion and essay, consequently to a rejection. Therefore the applicant should always make sure the information is very detailed and well taken care off to thesis avoid any mistrust: ‘Undetailed information is pmr a main indicator of less credible information. Two Types? No dates or no names can be seen as not trustworthy and I always investigate further.’ (Participant: 7)

In order to improve its chances to enter the screening process of report essay pmr a potential employer, or in for grading this study a recruiter, the applicant is to present himself as if selling its own, personal brand. A clear, immaculate, self-written summary is a characteristic the essay format, recruiter will evaluate with preference. Who Invented Essays? It expresses how the report pmr, candidate sees himself and it may indicate professionalism and essay, likeability, which will contribute to the credibility of the information posted. Several participants (participants: 5, 6, 7, 9) stated that in this respect originality is an effective tool as well. Recruitment experts review dozens of report essay format pmr profiles each day and of essays, therefore a more creative and inventive presentation may attract special attention. One participant mentioned a video pitch of someone as an example that he remembered: ‘Ideally, there is a video-style pitch and many references to contacts and links.’ (Participant 9) Furthermore, some participants (Participants: 2, 3, 4, 10) liked to see precise details of the candidate’s past working experiences. They mentioned achievements, successes or certain (e.g. Report Essay Pmr? sales) targets realised as useful information, which thus raises the chances of being selected. Such detailed information contributes to a higher perception of two types of essays credibility of the presented info as well: ‘Picture is very important, a summary of essay format themselves what they do. Of Essays? What I also really like is the job description of the previous employer in a summary and shows the things you achieved so for instance the report essay, targets and accomplishments someone made with these projects.

It gives a better insight in essay life a person.’ (Participant 4) 4.2.2 Medium credibility. Theme 1: Character of medium, personal / professional. Social Networking Sites differ in format the information displayed and serve different purposes. According to essays tumblr the participants, SNSs like LinkedIn or Monsterboard focus on more professional targets while Facebook or Twitter are seen as more personal and private mediums. Thus, the essay format, various online media differ in their goals and are used accordingly by candidates as well as recruiters.

An important issue many recruiters in this research are facing is the use of personal (or even private) information on SNSs, like Facebook. Its use might be considered to be unethical or even morally improper. LinkedIn is meant for who invented essays tumblr professional purposes, like job opportunities or widening your professional network while Facebook is more informal meant for connecting to friends and family and sharing daily-life information. With the easily accessible and ever growing (private) information available on online networks this has become a useful instrument for a recruiter to report essay pmr screen a candidate on of divorce a more private scale. This option is relatively new for report essay format pmr recruiters but does create major moral and ethical issues. Participants’ opinions on making use of private information of potential candidates were widespread. Three participants (Participants: 2, 5, 6) stated that using private information for introduction for grading system thesis creating a more complete image of a candidate is definitely not an report, honest or morally correct way of recruiting. They said that such practices should be avoided. Pmr Essay? A candidate’s private information should remain untouched: ‘Facebook is really private and stuff you put on there should not be used in pmr any recruitment company. I don’t care what people do in their private life. It is not some hint that is related to their job, the tumblr, things that you really need you can find on CV or other professional networks that are made for recruitment possibilities, Here you can read things about their professional career or their voluntary work, internships or work and travel etc.

What you see on report essay format pmr Facebook is absolutely not related to their job. And whatever is pmr essay letter not related to the job is not important.’ (Participant 2) In one case the participant (Participant: 2) pointed at the juridical aspects of using private information for the purpose of deciding the suitability of format pmr a candidate. He remarked that it is illegal to employ this kind of info, such as photographs, pictures and online private conversations: ‘You are a very bad recruiter if you do that, because it is even illegal when you are looking at this or even taking this kind of information in consideration. It’s public in introduction the sense you can look into that, but it is very unprofessional using this information for recruitment purposes. As a candidate you can go to the court and request the reasons why you are not recruited, if the company does not have sufficient reasons for rejecting a candidate it may cause problems for the company.’ (Participant 2) However, other participants (Participants: 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10) in essay format this study did indicate the great importance of using info posted on the more private social networks. In their opinion this allows them to get a more reliable overall picture of a candidate and two types of essays, therefore it contributes to the process of creating credible candidate profiles. One participant mentioned the emergence of a saturated job market causing enormous competition among jobseekers. Nowadays, you really need to stand out: one master degree does not suffice; you had better do a second or show a more than excellent track record and so on. The job market suffers from an on-going inflation of Excellences; from report essay format pmr a continuous rising of the bids.

Therefore, looking further than the traditional information given by candidates, recruitment decisions become more reliable when also based on the more personal background material: ‘It is important to who invented tumblr combine the CV with the personal background of a person in order to get the best idea of a potential employee. Hard skills are easy to find, you have them on your resume and sum them up. But it is much more important for a company to see what kind of person they are bringing in. They are interested in the personality of someone. Report Essay Pmr? These characteristics cannot be found on a CV because the resume is rather short. Everyone tries to fit everything in 1 or 2 pages because it is impossible to have like a 5 page resume.’ (Participant 1) Theme 2: Medium utilization.

Screening features or search options offered by various mediums differ a lot. All participants stated LinkedIn as the user-friendliest tool for searching and introduction, screening purposes. It offers extensive search functions and report essay format, even provides a special (paid) recruiters-account that gives recruiters the opportunity to find and contact anyone that has a profile. With the nonpaid LinkedIn profile it is who invented tumblr not possible to locate everyone; this only offers the possibility to report pmr send messages to essay people in your own network. Furthermore LinkedIn is the largest professional SNS in report essay format the world with new members emerging every minute: ‘I use LinkedIn because it has at the moment around 1 billion people using it, every couple seconds it has a new member so it’s extremely quick growing SNS. LinkedIn has groups of the different fields, positions etc. You can put up positions to such a big pole of pmr essay letter people.

You can target search with Boolean searching with extensive options. There is LinkedIn.com and LinkedIn.com/recruiter. Part of this program are the options you can choose (what kind of companies you are looking for, experience etc.) are very extensive and great for recruitment direct searching.’ (Participant 4) Other mediums like for instance internal and branch oriented recruitment databases or Monsterboard are considered to be out-dated and/or not user friendly, as mentioned by report essay pmr, several of the participants (Participants: 4, 5, 7, 8). Often, jobseekers forget about their online presence in essay is precious these less popular databases and therefore neglect to keep them updated. However, two participants (Participants: 4, 7) said these databases often do offer private contact details, like a personal phone number or email address, which of course is pmr very useful for a quick and immediate contact with a potential candidate. Of Divorce? LinkedIn usually does not offer this kind of info and therefore is a drawback if one wants a rapid response of a particulate candidate: ‘So what I do is that I search for report pmr candidates through LinkedIn and whenever I found a potential candidate I look for contact details like email or telephone number which are usually not displayed on LinkedIn profile so I would go to Monsterboard where this information is more often displayed.’ (Participant 4) One of the two types of essays, participants (participant: 1) in this study stated that in report format pmr seven years of experience in college recruitment he has come across two people that did not have a profile on LinkedIn: ‘In my case I came across twice people that did not have a LinkedIn profile and I found out that they did not want to display their information for the whole world to see.’ (Participant 1) As mentioned before, all participants stated they make use of LinkedIn. This demonstrates the great popularity of LinkedIn in report format pmr social networking for professional purposes.

In this respect, one participant considers the fact of not having an online profile a negative signal. It will diminish the jobseekers chance of being hired or it even may put his credibility in doubt because it seems the person is hiding information: ‘For that reason they did not want to be online. Is Precious? So this could be an indicator of less credibility because it can be perceived as you are hiding something.'(Participant 1) Therefore, if you are seeking a job, having online presence is of crucial importance to not only to report being found and short, contacted but also to avoid jeopardizing the quality of your personal brand or even your credibility. The popularity of the online social network strongly relates to report essay format pmr the perceived credibility on the information of candidates and job positions, according to essay college several participants. In highly popular mediums, like LinkedIn, the presented information may easier be verified by report pmr, the easily accessible connections. When something is untrue it may have been commented on. Furthermore, by posting a certain position at a company, the companies profile is water notified for its approval.

This, however does not apply to any company, only those that are registered with an report pmr, official LinkedIn profile: ‘On LinkedIn it is difficult to of essays create big lies because if I say I worked at a certain company, the company gets an email asking if its true that I worked there.’ (Participant 7) Theme 3: Online / offline information. Almost all participants (Participants: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 10) indicated the essay, existence of small, but not negligible differences between online and offline recruiting information. Offline information usually is college information that is report format not publicly available for everyone to read. This information can be gathered from an internal database, a CV sent by the candidate itself or any information the candidate gives face to face. Most participants stated they assess all information the same way, whether online or offline. Essay College Life? Yet, as said in report essay format pmr the foregoing paragraph, online information seems to be more credible because it may be verified by its connections in the network. Two participants (Participants: 3, 8) stated that the online information seems less credible due the positivism of information provided. They believe that candidates tend to present themselves advantageously and prejudiced. They feel that most people try to upgrade their personal brand to the public as much as possible, thus trying to make them appear better than they actually are: ‘I assess an online profile different because from experience I know people tend to put only the of essays, positive information online, to create a successful image to the world and people they know.’ (Participant 8) Accordingly, all participants would ideally like to essay see a combination of both offline info, such as a written CV, as well as an essay of divorce, online personal brand.

This way, in the opinion of essay pmr recruiters, one can establish the best possible overview of of essays a candidate’s background. Furthermore, combining both types of information can also be used as a credibility check; to format pmr assess if all available information corresponds across the short college life, different mediums: ‘When we approach and attract candidates we monitor behaviour and look for confirmation of the data presented in their CV, interviews and also on his social network profiles. In other words we are looking for concurrence and consistency of the essay format pmr, presented data from different sources and angles.’ (Participant 3) 5. Conclusion and Propositions. The aim of this thesis is to of divorce understand what mechanisms underlie the online recruitment process in order to give recommendations on how one might be more successful on the online job market and report, how recruiters may assemble a complete and truthful profile of a potential candidate through the use of online screening processes. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts describing the experiences of the of divorce, participants on how online personal credibility influences the screening process identified six themes, divided in format source and medium credibility. In this section, these themes will be discussed in essay of divorce regard to the literature bases concerning the themes of ‘references’, ‘verification’, ‘identification of profile characteristics’, ‘character and features of essay mediums’, ‘medium utilization” and short essay college life, ‘differences between online and offline information’ and this is report essay pmr done with regard to the new understanding that this study contributes. Furthermore a set of propositions has been made following each theme. The first theme, ‘references’, suggest that written reviews are the introduction system thesis, most important factor for establishing source credibility.

These references or recommendations can be perceived as word-of-mouth of a personal brand. A consumer’s word-of-mouth has been commonly cited as the single most important factor that determines the long-term success of experience goods (De Vany #038; Walls, 1996). Other literature also suggests the importance of product reviews as a marketing tool to improve reliability of a product or service and thus increases sales (Chevalier #038; Mayzlin, 2006; Dellarocas et al, 2007; Duan #038; Whinston, 2007). This is in line with what the participants mentioned as the most frequent code for indicating credibility. According to Pollach (2006), the examination of the authors of product reviews or in report format this case the writers of pmr essay recommendations can be examined in light of Aristotle’s classic credibility appeals of ethos this being an intrinsic value of the essay pmr, character of the speaker. These arguments seek to persuade a reader by calling to the character of the writer by displaying expertise, experience or authority. This again is in line with the findings of the research as most participants stated the relation of the two types, writer of a recommendation to the candidate is of great importance to establish the effectiveness of the recommendation. Ideally the recommender is a person that had authority over the candidate rather than ‘just’ a friend or acquaintance. Proposition 1: In order to enhance source credibility of an online personal brand it is crucial to collect as many positive references as possible from people who have or had authority over a candidate.

The second theme that emerged with regard to establishing online source credibility is the verification of the report format pmr, presented information of potential candidates. A common method used in verification is done through online screening. Essays Tumblr? Therefore it is report pmr also the preferred technique of recruiters to establish credibility of the of essays, information displayed. The outcome of such a verification process may also serve as an important indicator of the credibility of the screened info, that is whether there exists concurrence of the info from various sources, either online and offline. Such verifications are often done through e.g. job interviews either face-to-face or over format the phone and for grading, or Skype or by comparing data of report format other (online or offline) sources.

Literature on web-based credibility assesses the verification of information as being a complicated matter. As to pmr essay letter Flanagin #038; Metzger (2003), several characteristics of web-based information stimulate concerns about its credibility. Moreover, given the newness and complexity of these concerns, the essay pmr, assessment of information and verification has largely become the responsibility of the media consumer. The participants in this study make extensive use of various verification procedures. Letter? For instance, participants undertake specific measures to format pmr verify information by sourcing on different online mediums. By checking the information on one platform, the essay is precious, information on another can be verified. The online search is mostly done by Google name searches.

P2: By certifying that all presented information (online and offline) concurs, a candidate’s personal credibility is ameliorated. The third theme that has emerged from report essay pmr this study is the importance of identifying typical profile characteristics. Within this theme, five sub-themes appeared from the interviews. Sub-theme number one deals with the expertise of a candidate. As stated in essay college the foregoing literature review, research directed at report essay format the topic of credibility concludes that there are at least two key criteria for the assessment of credibility: expertise and who invented essays tumblr, trustworthiness. Expertise is ‘the perceived knowledge, skill, and pmr, experience of the source’ (Fogg, 2003). When people find that sources have expertise, they are likely to judge that the information is tumblr trustworthy and thus, in the case of report a recruiting process, an organization is more likely to letter accept a potential candidate to fill a vacancy. This is in line with the participants’ view on expertise of candidates. The second sub-theme that appeared in the interviews was the importance of the presence of a physical image in a posted candidate’s profile. Although an attractive and friendly, though professional photo, does not have a direct relation to format the credibility of the source, the participants did indicate that adding to for grading your profile a decent picture or even better a video raises the chances of being hired.

There has been no scientific research about recruitment chances and having a specific kind of essay format photo. The participants did say that the assessment of a picture for recruitment purposes could be a controversial issue due to the arbitrariness of reviewing a person based on its looks. The third subtheme mentioned was the amount of connections a candidate has within its online network. Opinions differed on whether demonstrating excessive online connections on essay water your profile are an advantageous feature or not. According to Guy et al, (2009) the most salient common characteristic of the SNSs is that it allows users to explicitly define their social network, i.e. the list of people to whom they are connected (friends, colleagues, family members, etc). SNSs are exploiting their explicit network for various features, such as LinkedIn’s recommendations. Therefore, for SNSs it is essay pmr highly important to of essays encourage its users to connect to report format pmr more people and reach a more comprehensive social network. For the participants in this study the of divorce, main opinion was that having many connections means more credible information because these connections may verify the essay format, information displayed on college the profile. However other participants stated an excessive amount of connections indicates less credibility because hardly anyone can know many hundreds of people. The fourth sub-theme that materialized from this study is how a personal brand or profile relates to the persons participation in essay groups and associations. An active participation may show engagement in essay water is precious the areas that have a special value to a potential employer.

It may indicate professionalism and authority in this particular field and thus enhances the credibility of a candidate: see also subtheme one concerning ‘expertise’. The fifth subtheme is ‘thoroughness of a profile’. Providing correct details of e.g. dates, positions, career, achievements, etcetera indicate credibility. This sub-theme is pretty straightforward and relates to the assessment of detailed information on credibility, which shows that the more thorough and complete the information is, the higher the perceived credibility (Kaplan, 1971). P3: The credibility of a candidate’s personal brand or profile is furthermore enhanced if these demonstrate several essential features or characteristics. These are: a display of expertise, participation in (professional) peer groups, extensive networking, correct and immaculate online and/or written resume, representative physical picture or video. As far as medium credibility is concerned returning themes in the interviews were: the nature and style of the SNS’s, their utilizations and essay, the differences in is precious information content between on the one hand online medium sources and on report essay the other offline mediums. The participants reported major differences between the who invented tumblr, information content of online sites with a predominantly professional character and those of a more personal nature. They stated that profiles on LinkedIn display more professional information whereas Facebook and Twitter are sites that are chiefly used to display info on a private scale. In recruitment these two SNS styles serve different purposes: see the essay format, discussion under 4.2.2, theme 1. The study shows that info derived from who invented essays tumblr different SNS’s has a crucial influence on the recruitment process and hence this also has an impact on its credibility. Because of its relatively newness there is almost no literature on the use of private information in format screening processes.

However, due to its sensitivity to base a HR decision on personal material found online it is a hot topic among the specialists interviewed and it is a crucial finding in this study. As far as this study is concerned, there were no guidelines found and it seems that it depends on the nature of the company and personal beliefs and values of the recruiter. This study shows there is a need for organizations to have a policy in place on candidate screening through social media. Also, recruitment companies and letter, HR departments should consider potential legal issues, especially those surrounding data protection and privacy. Social networking considerations should potentially be added to the standard recruitment policies in order to avoid legal issues. It might be advisable to set up best practice guidelines for the use of SNSs and align and report pmr, integrate these within the essay of divorce, organization’s existing recruitment processes. This would avoid differences in pmr candidate experience when applying for a job, no matter how they submit their application, either via email, post, company website or social media.

P4: In recruitment, the screening of social networks with a different nature contributes to essay credibility. But considering the sensitivity of handling personal data displayed on some of essay these networks this should be done with great care. The second theme that surfaced in the medium credibility category is the utilization of the medium. From the interviews one can conclude that the greater the amount of users of a particular network the higher the chance of finding credible information since a multitude of essays users may acknowledge or deny this information. This conclusion corresponds with the findings in existing literature where a general lack of report essay gatekeeping on who invented essays tumblr information on the Internet forces frequent users to engage in constant credibility verification (Stavrositu #038; Sundar, 2007). Furthermore, some SNSs, such as LinkedIn, have great credibility assessment features (e.g. a message to the company whenever a person indicates that he or she works or has worked at the company). Format Pmr? These features make LinkedIn as a much more credible medium than for instance Facebook which does not possess such a feedback feature. Lastly, the interviews revealed the importance of the different features that distinguish between online and offline mediums. . Of Essays? Data displayed on the Internet often deviate from their printed counterparts that can be collected through an offline medium. As pointed out in the literature review, media consumers – in this case recruiters – have learned to distinguish between the various sources of online information through the experiences of using them (Flanagin #038; Metzger 2000). By developing extensive experience in screening data of candidates they have become familiar with different information delivery styles of different mediums; they have developed levels of media literacy into the norms of essay format media use.

However, this study also indicates that the combination of all online and offline information available gives recruiters the two types, best possible chance of report format screening a candidate on the credibility of information supplied. Whenever recruiters access potential candidate’s social networking sites, it should be clear in mind that the information may not be accurate. This online available information might be written by someone else, or the name might not correspond with the essay of divorce, actual applicant. Therefore if employers decide to use the information on report SNSs for screening purposes it is advisable to short inform the candidates beforehand and to treat them in this respect uniformly. In the procedure of recruitment, accruing data on social networks will never be able to entirely replace face-to-face contact. Thus, verifying data displayed on pmr the Internet by asking face-to-face will continue to short life be a necessary instrument for the assessment of credibility. Combining the screening of SNSs with other, more traditional, forms of recruitment contributes to accessing the widest possible range of report format potential candidates. This will avoid any issues with not considering candidates who are less comfortable with or have a lack of access to SNSs. P5: Recruiters should always seek to verify the information on a candidate’s SNSs through other means.

The impact of social networking sites on recruitment processes has been studied many times before. However, the essay of divorce, credibility of the information a candidate has and essay, how this impacts the screening process has never been studied before. The effects of credibility seem to letter be relevant. The practical and theoretical contributions are discussed below. On a practical level the research results are of use to job seekers, recruiters and social networking sites.

The research gives recommendations as to how the essay format, first group can improve their personal credibility, thereby improving their personal brand and thus have a higher chance of pmr essay letter being considered for job opportunities. The second group, recruiters, will benefit from the research because the essay pmr, outcomes intend to give guidelines as to how one might assess credibility of essay is precious online profiles. Also, recruiters might benefit from the discussion this research initiated on report how to deal with personal data displayed on the Internet. The third group, SNSs, receive advice through this study on how to improve their features for becoming a credible social networking medium. Of Essays? With this knowledge it may expand its target group by format pmr, adding tools in order to improve credibility assessments. This research will contribute to the theoretical field of (online) credibility by applying the before-mentioned parameters of credibility to the screening process in job recruitment. It thereby tests its relevance and validity in this field, as well as expands the set of ‘credibility judgements’ through a qualitative research approach. On a theoretical level, this research intends to contribute to the field of online information credibility in general and of essays, draws some conclusions in relation to the discipline of marketing and more especially to the subject of personal branding. It contributes to the screening procedure of recruiters and shows the report format pmr, different criteria recruiters use to essay assess the hiring decision. 7. Further research and Limitations. Despite the fascinating insights in report pmr source and medium credibility in regard to pmr essay the screening process for recruiters, the results of this study should be interpreted with respect to its limitations.

These limitations result in suggestions for report essay pmr further research. The first restriction that this study is confronted with is the limited size of the number of participants. It offers support for additional research with this set of questions with a more numerous participant pool. Such further exploration would certainly contribute to essay water a further deepening of this research. The second limitation is the rather narrow scope of research methods employed. Rather than doing research in a setting of actual, live recruitment screening and verification processes, the research took place in an artificial setting of interviews and questionnaires. Essay? The data thus accrued were so to speak ‘second hand’ while, due to the ethical sensitivity when it comes to screening candidates, the letter, participants might not have been completely open about their operating methods and format pmr, decision-making processes. Future research should take this in consideration and short essay college, consider using alternative methods.

Thirdly, because the current study relies on participants of recruitment professionals with an academic background, the external generalization of the report essay format, findings could be constrained. . Essay Of Divorce? To what extent someone with a non-scientific view might deal with source and essay format pmr, medium credibility on the Internet has not been looked at. Thus, future research is needed to examine whether findings on credibility on introduction for grading system the Internet can be generalized to a wider population. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of essay format pmr coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by letter, a student in order to help you with your studies.

This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to report provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Social networking and tumblr, recruitment . Report Essay Pmr? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/business/essay-social-networking-and-recruitment/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and essay, no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - Event organisation: Merchant City festival 22-08-17 - Understanding Your Startup’s Cash Flows - NGOs – Unicef - Revenue models - Working capital - Importance of customers in an unregulated market – Parcelforce 12-08-17 - Impacts of global capitalism and internationalisation of economic activity - Strategic marketing plan – Apple - Culture in essay format pmr organisations - Impact of choice of country on starting a business. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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Flags of Our Fathers Essay Questions. Discuss the role that mothers play for the six flag raisers. Mothers are a theme that links all men in essay format pmr, battle: in his comparison of the Japanese, German, and essays tumblr American troops, Bradley points out that they are connected by their dying word, which is report pmr, invariably, Mother! In the case of the six flag raisers, mothers are also important as religious influences. After the death of thesis, her young daughter Mary Ellen, Kathryn Bradley concentrates on raising John devoutly Catholic; Mike Strank's Catholic faith is also the result of report essay, his mother's influence. Goldie Sousley and her son, Franklin, are extremely close after the who invented tumblr deaths of his brother and father. Belle Block strongly opposes Harlon's joining the football team, but her influence on him in terms of his Seventh-Day Adventist beliefs is clear. Report? Ira Hayes learned what he knew about the Bible from his mother, Nancy, who also made sure he got a good education.

Likewise, Rene Gagnon's mother is the water most important person in his life until he marries Pauline Harnois. After she divorces his father, Irene Gagnon takes Rene to work with her and showers him with attention. Belle Block's role as a mother is especially important. Format Pmr? When the 5th Division makes National Service Life Insurance policies available to the Marines, Harlon purchases a ten-thousand-dollar policy with his mother, Belle, as the life sole beneficiary. Format? Belle Block is convinced that her son, Harlon, is one of the for grading men in essay format, the famous flag-raising photograph, though everyone else thinks it is impossible to be sure. After she learns of Harlon's death on water Iwo Jima, something in her had been broken. Are the six flag raisers religious? How is religion used to characterize them?

As the flag raisers are introduced in Chapter 2, it is clear how religion influences each of the report flag raisers in their childhoods. John Bradley and Mike Strank are devout Catholics. Harlon Block is more influenced by the Seventh-Day Adventist Church than his other siblings are, though he leaves his religious school to play football at Welasco High School. Ira Hayes lived just a few steps from the church in which his mother was an important figure. Letter writing demonstrates the role religion played in college, the lives of the format pmr flag raisers. In Chapter 4, a letter from Ira Hayes to his parents mentions a sermon Alcohol versus Christianity and how it touched him. When Harlon Block enlisted with his entire football team, Belle Block pleaded with her son to introduction claim conscientious objection as a Seventh-Day Adventist to avoid battle, like his brothers had.

Bradley focuses on Harlon's religion when he points out that, after Harlon landed on Bougainville, Harlon, the Seventh-Day Adventist, was getting his first glimpse of the world's wickedness as he trudged past these remains of friends and enemy dead. After getting married, John and Betty Bradley get in the habit of praying together before bed, and Betty notices that Jack adds on, Blessed Mother, please help us so everything turns out all right, a prayer he had often said on Iwo Jima. How does James Bradley characterize Ira Hayes as both an report format pmr, innocent boy and a man? The tension between boyhood and manhood is a constant theme in this book, especially with relation to Ira. A letter from Ira Hayes to his parents from training in San Diego is used to show that his boyish innocence did not vanish overnight. When he returns home on furlough after fighting in Bougainville, the essay college slim, quiet boy had been transformed into a very formidable-looking young man. his words were typically thoughtful and gentle, but they were no longer the words of essay format pmr, a boy. A man was talking now, a man who had seen things. In Chapter 5, Ira writes home to his parents, Don't worry about me.

I'm a man now, no young guy. However, according to anecdotes from those who trained with him at this time, his behavior was erratic and he was often depressed. The theme of the tension between boyhood and manhood reappears in the opening sentence of Chapter 18: They were no longer boys now; they were postwar men. This line implies that the flag raisers now have assumed a level of responsibility for their lives that they didn't have before. Ira Hayes is two types of essays, offered help (whatever the essay format motivation) from the Chicago Sun-Times and from Elizabeth Martin, but is unable to pull his life together. In a letter home to letter his parents, he writes, So I was cured in their eyes. Report Essay Pmr? They had done their part. Now the real test is up to me. all I need is the will power. Essay? Does James Bradley believe that the six flag raisers are heroes?

At the end of the book, Bradley admits that after researching their lives, the six flag raisers seem like heroes to format him, if not for their role in introduction system, raising the flag on Mount Suribachi. However, he adheres to his father's insistence that, The heroes of Iwo Jima are the guys who didn't come back. Heroism is report, a theme that is often misunderstood or misrepresented by the media, in Bradley's opinion. One of the main reasons Jack Bradley refuses to talk about his experiences on Iwo Jima, according to James Bradley his son, is that he doesn't want to seek fame as a hero. He believes that heroes are heroes because they have risked something to help others. In contrast, the flag raising contained no action worthy of remembering, and thus doesn't make him a hero; he is made a hero by his actions in saving his fellow Marines and in attempting to save those who ended up dying on the island. What does the author think about the media's coverage of the flag raising on Iwo Jima and the following events? Give examples.

The media's influence becomes a main theme in of essays, the book, as the essay format pmr symbol of the flag raising and the flag raisers themselves are distorted and packaged by college life, the media in ways that will serve the interests of the essay format pmr government, but that are not necessarily reflective of the truth. Here, John Daly of the NBC Red declares that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor by air, and Americans are described as poring over their newspapers to learn more about Japan, their new enemy. The photos published in Life magazine in 1938 of Japanese atrocities at Nanking sowed terror not only in the American public, but also in short college, the Marines who arrived at Guadalcanal. After the devastating battle at Tarawa, Bradley recounts how newspaper editorials announced, This Must Not Happen Again! alongside pictures of dead Marines floating in essay format, the ocean around the island. The theme of the misguided media is extremely relevant as newspapers largely ignore the raging battle on Iwo Jima, since it does not adhere to their fake story of valor climbing Mount Suribachi. Bradley addresses the members of the press with a degree of disdain, sarcastically referring to them as gentlemen of the press in contrast to pmr essay letter the soldiers fighting the battle. Time magazine propagates an unverified rumor on its radio program when it broadcasts that the photograph was staged. Rosenthal demands and receives a public apology from Time, but the photograph would cause him much frustration in the future. Though the Marines continue to fight on Iwo Jima, the March 5 edition of Time magazine published the photograph of the flag raising on its front page as if the battle had been won. Jack Bradley is mistrustful of the media and refuses to give interviews to report essay format pmr the journalists who often call his home for the rest of his life. The media is also targeted as contributing to Ira Haye's destructive behavior.

Bradley claims, The more helpless and essay is precious vulnerable Ira grew, the more brazen was the press's exploitation of him. A reporter from the Chicago Sun-Times visits him in jail and takes his photograph, and essay format that newspaper posts his bail and enrolls him in a rehabilitation program. Tumblr? They promote fixing his life as their sanctimonious mission, but in the process, they put pressure on him that contributes to his demise. How does James Bradley's view of the Japanese government during World War II differ from his characterization of individual Japanese soldiers? The theme of individuals versus country is introduced with respect to Japan as Bradley describes the report atmosphere leading up to of essays World War II for report essay pmr, that country. Short Essay College Life? Throughout the 1930s, Japan, as a country led by a military regime, conquered Manchuria and China.

Though the essay format pmr Japanese army employed ruthless tactics, the citizens themselves are described as being squeezed in an iron vise, totally brainwashed and manipulated into carrying out the will of the government. In relating the letter atrocities committed by the Japanese soldiers at Nanking, the essay format pmr capital of China, Bradley distinguishes the Japanese from the Germans, the letter Americans' other enemy in World War II. The sense of restraint that dictated even the format most brutal front in Europe was absent from the war in two types of essays, the Pacific. Japanese soldiers believed they were fighting in the Way of the Warrior, or the Bushido tradition, but in fact they were being forced to operate within a twisted version of this warrior ideal; the report format pmr Japanese military in the 20th century was more of a cult of death, and its warriors were viewed as expendable. During the air raid in Chapter 9, an American on board a ship offshore of Iwo Jima reports that he could see the face of the Japanese pilot.

You could see the fear of pmr essay, death on his face. Essay Format Pmr? This type of description humanizes the Japanese kamikaze fighters as real people with real fear. Short College? Likewise, as Bradley tells of the soldiers ordered by format, Colonel Kanehiko Atsuchi to abandon Mount Suribachi, their plight is unfortunate at the hands of the Japanese navy guard, which punishes them for surrendering. How does the American public's view of the flag raising on pmr essay letter Iwo Jima differ from the view of the six flag raisers? The press is report essay pmr, responsible for the American peoples' perception of the war, and during the majority of the battle on Iwo Jima, that perception contrasted with the ideas of the letter flag raisers themselves. Essay Format? The flag raising had been turned into a symbol of success and victory, a convenient symbol of a 'happy ending.' Attention had now begun to introduction thesis shift away from Iwo Jima, even as the great bulk of the bloodletting began. The contrast between perception and reality is also clear in Bradley's relation of report format pmr, Representative Homer Angell of Oregon's oration in the House of Representatives, in which he declares the photograph to be a representation of two types of essays, 'the dauntless permanency of the American spirit.' Half a world away, the format pmr boys did not look so dauntless.

Later, as described in Chapter 14, Jack Bradley is mistrustful of the media and refuses to give interviews to the journalists who often call his home for the rest of his life. Give examples of rhetorical techniques used often by James Bradley in Flags of essays, Our Fathers. Bradley often uses short, emphatic sentences or sentence fragments, rhetorical questions, and direct address. Report Essay Format? For example, at the conclusion of Chapter 5, he writes, December 1944. The last Christmas for too many young boys. Then off for water is precious, the forty-day sail to Iwo Jima. In Chapter 6, describing the report essay pmr upcoming battle: The boys would have only essay of divorce, their buddies to depend upon, buddies who were willing to report format pmr die for one another. Essay? As soon they would. Report Format? Finally, these techniques appear in a letter in the final chapter of the two types book from format his daughter, Alison, to her deceased grandfather, John Bradley, where she asks him why he kept so silent about his war experience. Other than narrative, what tools does Bradley use to tell the stories of the six flag raisers?

In gathering evidence for this book, James Bradley relied heavily on anecdotes, interviews, and letters from introduction system thesis those who served with the six flag raisers. The letters with descriptions of the flag raisers are often used as characterization tools, demonstrating others' opinions of the men. For example, in Chapter 5, Bradley quotes a letter from essay one Joe Rodriguez, who reported to Mike Strank, to demonstrate how Mike was the quintessential Marine: He was a born leader, a natural leader, and a leader by example. He had real concern for us, he was a big brother to us. Likewise, a letter from one Kenneth Milstead characterizes Ira: Ira was always depressed. Pmr Essay? Bradley also uses the technique of direct address, especially in the last chapters. In explaining why he felt such an immediate bond with Rene Gagnon, Jr., he tells the reader, Imagine six boys from your youth.

Line them up in your mind. They are eighteen to twenty-four years old. Select them now; see them. How many marriages, how many children will intersect their lives? These rhetorical questions are used again when Bradley refutes reporter Mary Elson's analysis of his father's comment about the fact that there happened to be a flag attached to the pole he put in the ground: Odd? Irrelevant? A casual afterthought? I don't think so.

How does Bradley characterize America during World War II and immediately following? The six flag raisers are all raised in format pmr, small towns, and Bradley describes them as representative of the hard-working families that made up the core of short essay college, America at that time. He says that the Antigo Daily Journal got it right in describing his father's quiet, modest nature and philanthropic efforts as an example of the best of small-town American values. These values include support for soldiers fighting abroad, in Europe and in the Pacific, and report format are manifested by donations to the bond tours. A Treasury Department source is introduction for grading, quoted as nostalgically relating that, We were one then, implying that the country united in support of their young men in pmr, a way it would no longer do. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/flags-of-our-fathers/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Flags of Our Fathers Flags of Our Fathers Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and letter Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters 1 and 2 Chapters 3 and 4 Chapters 5, 6, and 7 Chapters 8, 9, and 10 Chapters 11 and 12 Chapters 13 and 14 Chapters 15 and 16 Chapters 17 and 18 Chapters 19 and 20 Flags of Our Fathers and Letters from Iwo Jima: The Movies Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Q A Mini-Store James Bradley Biography. Flags of Our Fathers Questions and Answers.

The Question and Answer section for Flags of report essay format pmr, Our Fathers is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and letter discuss the novel. In the report pmr nation's memory, the flagraisers' transforation from individuals to anonymous representative figures had begun. The true heroes of Iwo Jima were the ones who didn't come back. I think the answer is summed up in his belief that the true heroes of for grading system thesis, Iwo Jima were the ones who didn't come back. People follow the media. People, in a democracy, elect governments.

I would say the media is the strongest. Study Guide for Flags of Our Fathers. Flags of essay format pmr, Our Fathers study guide contains a biography of short college, James Bradley, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.