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Liquid Biofuels for Transport Prospects, risks and opportunities. 5.1 What will be the format short-term impacts on food security? 5.1.1 At the national level 5.1.2 At the household level 5.2 How could biofuel production stimulate agricultural growth and poverty reduction in the longer term? 5.3 How could biofuel production affect income distribution and womens status? 5.1.1 At the national level 5.1.2 At the household level. The source document for this Digest states:
Many factors are responsible for the recent sharp increases in agricultural commodity prices, including the growth in demand for liquid biofuels. Biofuels will continue to exert upward pressure on commodity prices, which will have implications for food security and poverty levels in developing countries. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. For the poorest households, food accounts for a major part of contract law coursework, their expenditures, and food prices directly affect their food security. As a commonly accepted de¬nition, food insecurity exists when people lack secure access to suf¬cient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active, healthy life. Dialectic Essay! Already, the recent increase in staple food prices has triggered demonstrations and riots in a number of countries. FAO estimates that some 850 million people worldwide are undernourished (FAO, 2006b). My Resolution Essay! Given the format potential scale of the biofuel market, the uncertainty relating to long-term price developments and the large number of poor households, the writing skills help question of dialectic essay format, what impact expanding biofuel production will have on the food security of the poor should be high on the political agenda. This chapter explores the implications of lopez, biofuel development for the poor and for food security. Typically, four dimensions are considered in discussions of food security.
Availability of food is determined by domestic production, import capacity, existence of food stocks and dialectic format food aid. Access to food depends on levels of poverty, purchasing power of households, prices and my resolution essay the existence of transport and market infrastructure and food distribution systems. Stability of supply and essay format access may be affected by weather, price ¬uctuations, human-induced disasters and a variety of political and economic factors. Safe and healthy food utilization depends on care and salvador lopez feeding, food safety and quality, access to clean water, health and sanitation. Although expanding demand for biofuels is only one of many factors underlying the recent price increases (see Chapter 4, page 41) the rapid growth in biofuel production will affect food security at the national and household levels mainly through its impact on dialectic essay format food prices and income. In terms of the four dimensions, the law coursework discussion focuses on dialectic format the impacts of higher food prices on contract law coursework help availability and access at the national level, as well as the household level.
At both levels, the initial focus is on short- term impacts, before moving on dialectic to address the maths coursework number grid longer-term impacts. In the medium- to-longer term, higher agricultural prices offer the dialectic essay format potential for a supply response and for strengthening and revitalizing the role of agriculture as an essay academic, engine of growth in developing countries.* * [The dynamics of the rapid rise in commodity prices are covered in greater detail in The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2008 (FAO, forthcoming, 2008c), while the impacts of soaring food prices on the poor are the subject of The State of Food Insecurity in dialectic, the World (FAO, forthcoming, 2008d).] The source document for my resolution essay this Digest states: At the country level, higher commodity prices will have negative consequences for net food-importing developing countries. Especially for the low-income food-de¬cit countries, higher import prices can severely strain their food import bills. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. Food-security impacts at format, the national level. Chapter 3 discussed the strengthened linkages between energy and reflective agricultural commodity prices resulting from the growth in demand for biofuels and Chapter 4 considered the implications for dialectic essay agricultural commodity prices. How individual countries will be affected by higher prices will depend on whether they are net agricultural commodity importers or net exporters. Some countries will bene¬t from higher prices, but the number grid least-developed countries*, which have been experiencing a widening agricultural trade de¬cit over the last two decades ( Figure 27 ), are expected to dialectic format be considerably worse off. *[Least-developed countries are classified as such on the basis of: (a) a low-income criterion (a three-year average estimate of per capita gross national income of below US$750); (b) a human-resource weakness criterion; and (c) an economic vulnerability criterion.
For more detail and a list of least-developed countries see UN-OHRLLS (2008).] Rising commodity prices have pushed up the cost of imports and food import bills have reached record highs. Writing Help! Based on FAOs latest analysis, global expenditures on imported foodstuffs. in 2007 rose by about 29 percent above the record of the previous year (FAO, 2008a) ( Table 11 ). The bulk of the increase was accounted for by rising prices of imported cereals and vegetable oils commodity groups that feature heavily in dialectic, biofuel production. More expensive feed ingredients lead to higher prices for meat and reflective essay dairy products, raising the expenditures on imports of those commodities. The rise of international freight rates to new highs also affected the import value of all commodities, placing additional pressure on the ability of countries to cover their food import bills. Although growing demand for biofuels accounts for only part of the recent sharp price increases, the table nevertheless illustrates the signi¬cant impact higher agricultural commodity prices can have, especially on the low-income food-de¬cit countries (LIFDCs). High food prices have been accompanied by rising fuel prices, which further threaten macroeconomic stability and overall growth, especially of low-income net energy-importing countries. Table 12 lists 22 countries considered especially vulnerable owing to dialectic format a combination of contract law coursework, high levels of chronic hunger (above 30 percent undernourishment), high dependency on imports of petroleum products (100 percent in most countries) and, in essay format, many cases, high dependency on imports of salvador, major cereals (rice, wheat and dialectic maize) for domestic consumption. Countries such as Botswana, Comoros, Eritrea, Haiti, Liberia and the Niger are especially vulnerable as they present a high level of all three risk factors. Chapter 6, Section food-security impacts at the national level, p.72-74. The source document for this Digest states:
In the short run, higher agricultural commodity prices will have widespread negative effects on household food security. Particularly at risk are poor urban consumers and writing help poor net food buyers in rural areas, who tend also to be the majority of the rural poor. There is a strong need for establishing appropriate safety nets to ensure access to essay food by the poor and vulnerable. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. Food-security impacts at the household level short-run effects * *[A comprehensive assessment of the food-security impacts of higher food prices can be found in FAO (2008a).] At the essay household level, a critical factor for food security is access to food. Access to food refers to dialectic format the ability of households toproduce or purchase suf¬cient food for their needs. Two key indicators can help assessthe impact of salvador essays, biofuel developments on food security: food prices and household incomes. The more income a household or individual has, the more food (and of better quality)can be purchased. The precise effects of food prices on household food security are more complex. Dialectic Format! Higher food prices are expectedto make net food-buying households in both urban and rural areas worse off, while better-endowed rural households, who are net sellers of food, stand to gain from the increased incomes resulting from the essay for scholarship higher prices.
Higher world food prices do not necessarily affect household food security: the impact will depend on the extent to which international prices pass through to domestic markets. The depreciation of the United States dollar against many currencies (for example the essay format euro and the CFA [Communaut© ¬nanci¨re africaine] franc) and government policies designed to avoid large domestic price shocks tend to reduce the transmission of my resolution, world market prices to dialectic domestic markets.* Sharma (2002), in a study of eight Asian countries in the 1990s, found that price transmission was strongest for maize, followed by wheat, and least for rice, which is the staple food for most of Asias poor. The degree of transmission is always stronger over skills help, the longer term. *[Recent work by FAO (2008a) Soaring food prices: facts, perspectives, impacts and actions required. Document HLC/08/INF/1 prepared for the High-Level Conference on World Food Security: The Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy, 35 June 2008, Rome. confirms that country-level impacts require case-by-case analysis as different countries have experienced different exchange-rate movements and employ different commodity market policies.] In many Asian countries rice is designated as a special, or sensitive, commodity for dialectic food security, and writing skills help FAO (2008f) found that transmission varies signi¬cantly from country to country, depending on the instruments, if any, that are used to dialectic essay insulate the domestic economy from price increase on international markets. For example, India and for scholarship the Philippines make use of government storage, procurement and distribution as well as restrictions on international trade. Bangladesh applies rice tariffs to stabilize domestic prices, while Viet Nam uses a range of export restrictions. On the other hand, countries such as China and Thailand have allowed most of the changes in world prices to pass through to dialectic domestic markets.
Maize is a feedgrain in Asia and my resolution for 2011 essay subject to much less price intervention. FAO (2004b) found that price transmission is generally weaker in Africa than in Asian countries. Format! Domestic price policies can help stabilize prices but they do require ¬scal resources. In the longer run they may also impede or slow down an contract help, effective supply response to higher prices. Impacts on net food buyers and net food sellers. While almost all urban dwellers are net food consumers, not all rural dwellers are net food producers. Many smallholders and dialectic agricultural labourers are net purchasers of food, as they do not own suf¬cient land to produce enough food for my resolution their families. Empirical evidence from a number of format, sub- Saharan African countries, compiled in Barrett (forthcoming) in no case ¬nds a majority of farmers or rural households (depending on the survey de¬nition) to be net food sellers. Empirical evidence prepared by FAO (2008a) con¬rms this pattern, as illustrated in Table 13, which shows the share of net staple food-selling households among urban and salvador essays rural households, respectively, for a series of dialectic, countries.
Only in two instances does the share of net selling households exceed 50 percent. Distribution of poor net buyers and sellers of food staples. Even in rural areas, where agriculture and staple food production is an important occupation for the majority of the essay poor, a vast share of the dialectic essay format poor are net food buyers ( Figure 28 ) and thus stand to lose, or at contract help, least not gain, from an increase in the price of tradable staple foods. The proportion of essay format, poor smallholders that are also net sellers never exceeds 37 percent and for four of the seven countries is 13 percent or less. The proportion of essays, poor that are net buyers ranges from 45.7 percent in Cambodia to over 87 percent in Bolivia, and for ¬ve of the seven countries the proportion is over 50 percent.
Poverty impacts of dialectic essay, higher food prices. For the poorest households, food typically accounts for half, and often more, of their total expenditure. My Resolution For 2011 Essay! It follows that food price increases can have marked effects on welfare and nutrition. As an example, Block et al. (2004) found that when rice prices increased in Indonesia in the late 1990s, mothers in poor families responded by reducing their caloric intake in order to feed their children better, leading to dialectic essay an increase in maternal wasting. Furthermore, purchases of more nutritious foods were reduced in order to afford the more expensive rice. Essay For Scholarship! This led to dialectic essay format a measurable decline in blood haemoglobin levels in young children (and in their mothers), increasing the writing skills probability of developmental damage. Farmers who are net food sellers and will bene¬t from higher prices will typically be those with more land, who will also tend to be better off than farmers with only little land. Moreover, farmers with more surplus production to sell will bene¬t from high prices more than farmers with only a small surplus to sell.
In any case, poorer farmers are unlikely to receive the bulk of the bene¬ts from higher food prices and are the most likely to be negatively affected. Average welfare gain/loss from a 10 percent increase in dialectic essay, the price of the main staple, by income (expenditure) quintile for rural and urban households. Estimates of the short-term welfare impact on rural and urban households of a 10 percent increase in price of the writing help main staple food are shown in Figure 29 for seven of the essay countries listed in contract help, Table 13 . Essay Format! These estimates do not allow for household responses in production and consumption decisions and thus they represent an lopez essays, upper bound of the likely impact. However, in the very short run, the potential for dialectic essay format adjustments in crop production is limited, and on the consumption side the essay very poor are likely to have only minimal substitution possibilities. What Figure 29 highlights is that the poorest expenditure quintiles are worst affected in essay, both urban and rural areas they experience either the largest decline or the smallest increase in welfare. Even in some of the countries where rural households gain on average, for maths coursework number grid example Pakistan and Viet Nam, the poorest quintiles in essay format, the rural areas still face a negative change in welfare as a result of the essay staple price increase.
Unsurprisingly, all urban households are expected to lose in all countries, but to dialectic essay varying degrees, with the money poorest experiencing the largest decline. FAOs analysis of the welfare impacts of staple food price increases also indicated that female-headed households in essay, most urban, rural and national samples typically fare worse than male-headed households, in that they face either greater welfare losses or smaller welfare gains. Essay For Scholarship Money! This strong result emerged even though female- headed households are not systematically overrepresented among the poor in all, or even most, of the countries. One explanatory factor is that, other things being equal, female-headed households tend to spend a greater share of their income on food. Moreover, in rural contexts, they generally have less access to dialectic land and participate less in lopez, agricultural income-generating activities and thus cannot share in the bene¬ts of food price increases (FAO, 2008a). While higher food prices will tend to have a negative impact on the purchasing power of the rural poor, there is also the potential for bene¬ts to this group as a result of increased demand for agricultural labour, which is a prime source of dialectic essay, income for the poor. Indeed, poor and landless families typically rely disproportionately on unskilled wage labour for their income (World Bank, 2007). Higher agricultural prices, by stimulating the demand for unskilled labour in rural areas, can lead to a long-run increase in rural wages, thereby bene¬ting wage-labour households as well as self- employed farmers. Ravallion (1990), using a dynamic econometric model of wage determination and data from the 1950s to the 1970s, concluded that the average poor landless household in Bangladesh loses in the short run from an increase in rice prices (because of higher consumption expenditures) but gains slightly in the longer run (after ¬ve years or more).
Indeed, in the long run, as wages adjust, the increase in household income (dominated by unskilled wage labour) becomes large enough to exceed the increase in household expenditures on rice. Essay Money! However, this study used relatively old data, compiled when rice farming was a larger sector of the economy and thus had a more profound impact on labour markets. Rashid (2002) found that rice prices in dialectic format, Bangladesh ceased to have a signi¬cant effect on my resolution for 2011 agricultural wages after the mid-1970s. If higher rice prices no longer induce higher rural wages in Bangladesh, where agriculture represents a larger share of the economy and rice dominates the agriculture sector to a greater extent than in most other Asian countries, it seems unlikely that higher cereal prices will provide a signi¬cant stimulus to the rural labour market in dialectic format, economies with a more diversi¬ed range of employment opportunities. Higher food prices may also have second- round multiplier effects, as the higher incomes of farmers create demand for other goods and coursework services, many of which will be locally produced.
However, if this additional income simply represents a transfer from the rural landless and urban poor, these new multiplier effects will be counterbalanced by negative multiplier effects generated by the reduced incomes of the poor, who will have less money to spend on non-food items as their food bills increase. The net multiplier effects will depend on the change in income distribution and the different spending patterns of the winners and losers from the new set of relative prices. On balance, at the global level, the dialectic format immediate net effect of higher food prices on food security is likely to writing skills help be negative. For example, Senauer and Sur (2001) estimated that a 20 percent increase in food prices in 2025 relative to a baseline will lead to an increase of 440 million in the number of undernourished people in the world (195 million of whom live in sub- Saharan Africa and 158 million in South and East Asia). The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) estimated that biofuel expansion based on actual national expansion plans would raise the prices of maize, oilseeds, cassava and wheat by 26, 18, 11 and 8 percent, respectively, leading to a decrease in calorie intake of between 2 and 5 percent and an increase in child malnutrition of 4 percent, on average (Msangi, 2008 Biofuels, food prices and essay food security. Presentation at the Expert Meeting on Global Fuel and Food Security, FAO, Rome, 1820 February 2008 - available at www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/foodclimate/presentations/EM56/Msangi.pdf). These, however, are global ¬gures, and the outcome will vary across countries and regions within countries. Biofuels may affect the utilization dimension of food security, but less directly than for other dimensions. Academic Year! For example, some biofuel production systems require substantial quantities of water, both for feedstock production and for conversion to biofuel.
This demand could reduce the availability of water for household use, threatening the health status and thus the food-security status of affected individuals. On the other hand, if bioenergy replaces more polluting energy sources or expands the availability of energy services to the rural poor, it could make cooking both cheaper and dialectic essay cleaner, with positive implications for health status and food utilization. Chapter 6, Section food-security impacts at the household level-short run effects, p.75-79. 5.2 How could biofuel production stimulate agricultural growth and poverty reduction in the longer term? The source document for this Digest states:
In the longer run, growing demand for biofuels and the resulting rise in agricultural commodity prices can present an opportunity for promoting agricultural growth and rural development in developing countries. Contract Help! They strengthen the case for focusing on agriculture as an engine of dialectic format, growth for poverty alleviation. This requires strong government commitment to enhancing agricultural productivity, for which public investments are crucial. Support must focus particularly on enabling poor small producers to expand their production and gain access to markets. Production of biofuelfeedstocks may offer income-generating opportunities for money farmers in developing countries.
Experience shows that cash-crop production for markets does not necessarily come at dialectic format, the expense of skills help, food crops and that it may contribute to improving food security. Dialectic! Promoting smallholder participation in biofuel crop production requires active government policies and support. Crucial areas are investment in public goods (infrastructure, research extension, etc.), rural ¬nance, market information, market institutions and writing legal systems. In many cases, private investors interested in developing biofuel feedstock production in developing countries will look to the establishment of plantations to ensure security of supply. Essay Format! However, contract farming may offer a means of ensuring smallholder participation in biofuel crop production, but its success will depend on an enabling policy and salvador essays legal environment. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85-56.
Biofuel crop production as an impetus for agricultural growth. Biofuels and agriculture as engines of growth. The discussion so far, and much of the public debate, has focused on the immediate adverse food-security impacts of higher food prices. Over the essay format medium-to-longer term, however, there could be a positive supply response not only from my resolution smallholders who are net sellers but also from those on the margin and dialectic format those who are net buyers who are able to react to the price incentives. Essay For Scholarship Money! The emergence of biofuels as a major new source of demand for essay format agricultural commodities could thus help revitalize agriculture in developing countries, with potentially positive implications for essay economic growth, poverty reduction and food security (see Box 12 ). Many of the dialectic worlds poorest countries are well placed, in agro-ecological terms, to become major producers of biomass for liquid biofuel production or to respond in writing, general to higher agricultural prices. However, they continue to face many of the same constraints that have prevented them in the past from taking advantage of opportunities for agriculture-led growth.
Their ability to take advantage of the new opportunities offered by biofuels either directly as biofuel feedstock producers or indirectly as producers of agricultural commodities for which prices have gone up will depend on how these old constraints (and a few new ones) are addressed. The expansion of biofuel production, wherever it occurs in the world, contributes to higher prices; countries are affected whether or not they grow biofuel feedstocks. Essay Format! At the same time, higher energy prices have led to higher input costs for commercial fertilizer. Increased farm productivity will be fundamental in preventing long-term increases in food prices and excessive pressure for salvador lopez essays expansion of cultivated area, together with the associated negative environmental effects (including increased greenhouse gas emissions). While, historically, on-farm innovations helped drive productivity gains in Europe and the United States of America, the considerable resources required to carry out research on dialectic essay format modern agricultural technology means that publicly funded research is essential. Law Coursework Help! Government support to technology diffusion through extension services and improved infrastructure is also indispensable. Biofuels strengthen the case for dialectic essay format considerably enhanced investments in agricultural productivity growth in salvador, developing countries. Biofuels, commercialization and agriculture-sector growth. Crops cultivated for biofuels, at least from the farmers perspective, are no different from other commercial crops and can be instrumental in essay format, transforming agriculture from semi-subsistence, low-input and low-productivity farming systems, which characterize many parts of the developing world. Experience has shown that cash-crop development by smallholders need not come at the expense of essay for scholarship money, food-crop production or food security in general (see Box 13 ), although this has occurred in some instances (Binswanger and von Braun, 1991; von Braun, 1994). Several studies on sub-Saharan African countries have concluded that commercialization schemes can help overcome credit market failures, a common feature of rural areas (von Braun and Kennedy, 1994; Govereh and Jayne, 2003).
In addition, the introduction of cash crops to a region may stimulate private investment in distribution, retail, market infrastructure and human capital, which ultimately also bene¬ts food-crop production and format other farm activities. Essay Academic! Where farmers have timely access to credit and inputs, and to extension services and equipment, they are able not only to boost their incomes, but also to essay format intensify food production on their lands. Conversely, poor agro-ecological conditions, weak input and infrastructural support and poor organization of smallholder cash-cropping schemes can lead to my resolution essay failure (Strasberg et al., 1999). In terms of the employment effects, net job creation is more likely to occur if biofuel feedstock production does not displace other agricultural activities or if the displaced activities are less labour-intensive. Dialectic Essay Format! The outcome will vary, depending on a countrys endowments in skills, land and labour, on the crop used as feedstock and on the crops that were grown previously. Even within a single country and for one individual crop, labour intensity can vary substantially; in Brazil, for example, sugar-cane production uses three times as much labour in format, the northeast as it does in contract law coursework help, the centre-south (Kojima and Johnson, 2005) Research by von Braun and Kennedy (1994) found that the employment effects of essay, commercial crops for poor households were generally signi¬cant. In Brazil, the biofuel sector accounted for about 1 million jobs in 2001 (Moreira, 2006).
These jobs were in rural areas and mostly for unskilled labour. The indirect creation of skills help, employment in manufacturing and other sectors was estimated at about another 300 000 jobs. Promoting smallholder participation in biofuel crop production. Involving smallholder farmers in biofuel feedstock production is important both for reasons of equity and for employment. Are biofuel crops more likely to be produced on dialectic essay format plantations or by small farmers? Hayami (2002) points out that smallholders have certain advantages over plantations in that they can avoid problems related to supervision and monitoring and can be more ¬exible.
Indeed, many plantation crops are also grown successfully by smallholders somewhere in the world. In Thailand, for example, where smallholders are generally prominent in my resolution essay, terms of numbers and production, they compare favourably, in ef¬ciency terms, with large- and medium- sized sugar farms in Australia, France and essay the United States of America (Larson and help Borrell, 2001). By the 1990s, Thailand was exporting more rubber and pineapples than Indonesia and the Philippines, where plantations are dominant for these crops. However, when processing and marketing become more complex and format centralized, plantations represent a solution to the need for vertical integration of skills help, production with other processes as is the case for palm oil, tea, bananas and sisal. The need for large-scale investments is another example where plantation-style farming may be advantageous.
If investors have to build supporting infrastructure such as irrigation, roads and docking, the dialectic scale of the essay operation necessary to offset the costs will be even larger. In unpopulated or sparsely populated areas, biofuel crop production is therefore more likely to develop on dialectic format the scale of plantations. This is one key reason why sugar cane in the Philippines is produced by smallholders in old settled areas of Luzon while plantations dominate in reflective academic year, areas of Negros that were settled more recently (Hayami, Quisumbing and Adriano, 1990). Smallholder productivity and pro¬tability are often held back by poorly working commodity markets, lack of dialectic, access to ¬nancial markets, poorly performing producer organizations and signi¬cant input market failures, especially for seed and fertilizer in sub-Saharan Africa. Government policy can promote smallholder farming.
Key areas for writing help policy intervention are: investment in essay format, public goods such as infrastructure, irrigation, extension and help research; the sponsoring of innovative approaches to rural ¬nance; the creation of market information systems; improvements in output and dialectic essay format input markets in rural areas so that small farms are not at a disadvantage relative to larger farms; the enforcement of contracts. Producer organizations that foster collective action can also help reduce transaction costs and achieve market power to the bene¬t of smallholder competitiveness (World Bank, 2007). Lopez Essays! The experience of the Green Revolution shows how responsive small-farmer productivity and format output supply can be to public investment in research, irrigation and input supply. At least in the early years, when biofuel crop production is gaining momentum, investors ready to inject the number necessary capital are likely to look for some security of supply. One way to achieve this is by essay establishing a plantation of the crop on which production is help based. However, smallholder participation in the form of contract farming (also referred to as outgrower schemes) is perhaps the most obvious approach to essay building the necessary market while safeguarding staple-food production and ensuring pro- poor growth.
Contract farming implies the availability of credit, timely supply of inputs, knowledge transfer, provision of extension services and access to skills a ready market. From the format contractors perspective, this type of arrangement can improve acceptability to stakeholders and overcome land constraints. In many countries, contract farming is encouraged by governments as a means for enabling rural farming households and academic communities to share in the bene¬ts of commercial agriculture while maintaining some independence (FAO, 2001). Contract/ outgrower schemes are more likely to format succeed if they are based on maths number grid proven technology and an enabling policy and dialectic essay legal environment. Writing Help! Default by dialectic contract farmers can be a major problem in the operation of such schemes. A weak legal system, weak insurance services and the associated high transaction costs lead to considerable risk for companies (Coulter et al., 1999). Innovative solutions to support smallholder farmers producing biofuel crops continue to emerge (FAO, 2008g). In Brazil, the government created the Social Fuel Stamp programme to encourage biodiesel producers to purchase feedstocks from essay small family farms in poorer regions of the country.
Companies that join the scheme bene¬t from partial or total federal tax exemption. By the end of 2007, some 400 000 small farmers had joined the programme, selling mainly palm oil, soybeans and/or castor beans to re¬ning companies. Chapter 6, Section Biofuel crop production as an impetus for agricultural growth, p.79-82. 5.3 How could biofuel production affect income distribution and womens status? The source document for this Digest states: Development of biofuelfeedstock production may present equity- and gender-related risks concerning issues such as labour conditions on plantations, access to land, constraints faced by smallholders and essay the disadvantaged position of women. Generally, these risks derive from existing institutional and political realities in the countries and academic year call for attention irrespective of developments related to biofuels. Governments need to establish clear criteria for determining productive use requirements and legal de¬nitions for what constitutes idle land. Effective application of land-tenure policies that aim to protect vulnerable communities is no less important. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.86.
Biofuel crop development: equity and gender concerns. Important risks associated with the development of biofuels relate to worsening income distribution and a deterioration of womens status. The distributional impact of developing biofuel crops will depend on initial conditions and on government policies. The consensus with regard to essay the impact of cash crops on academic inequality appears to format lean towards greater inequality (Maxwell and Fernando, 1989). However, evidence from the Green Revolution suggests that adoption was much less uneven than was ¬rst supposed. Moreover, governments can actively support small-scale farming, as discussed above. The impact on inequality will depend on writing skills help the crop and technology employed, with a scale-neutral technology favouring equal distribution of bene¬ts.
Other important factors are: the distribution of land with secure ownership or tenancy rights; the degree of access by farmers to input and essay output markets and to credit; and my resolution a level playing ¬eld in terms of policies. Expansion of biofuel production will, in many cases, lead to greater competition for land. For smallholder farmers, women farmers and/or pastoralists, who may have weak land-tenure rights, this could lead to displacement. A strong policy and legal structure is required to safeguard against the undermining of livelihoods of households and communities (see also Box 14 ). In some countries or regions, biofuel crop development may lead to the emergence of commercial real estate markets. At the same time, land rental values are likely to rise and poor farmers may not be in a position to secure land through buying or renting. Indigenous communities may be particularly vulnerable if their land rights are not guaranteed by the government. Bouis and Haddad (1994) found that the format introduction of sugar cane in the southern Bukidnon province of the Philippines led to a worsening of the land-tenure situation, with many households losing their access to land. The establishment of large sugar haciendas without a net increase in demand for labour meant that income inequality also deteriorated. On the other hand, those smallholders who were able to essay enter sugar production did well. FAO (2008h) suggests that female farmers may be at a distinct disadvantage vis- -vis male farmers in format, terms of bene¬ting from biofuel crop development.
To start with, there are often signi¬cant gender disparities with regard to writing skills help access to land, water, credit and essay format other inputs. Contract! Although women are often responsible for format carrying out much of the agricultural work, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, they typically own little of the land (UNICEF, 2007). In Cameroon, women provide three-quarters of agricultural labour but own less than 10 percent of the essay year land; in essay, Brazil, they own 11 percent of the land while in Peru they own slightly more than 13 percent. Unequal rights to land create an uneven playing ¬eld for men and women, making it more dif¬cult for women and female-headed households to bene¬t from biofuel crop production (FAO, 2008h). The emphasis on exploiting marginal lands for my resolution essay biofuel crop production may also work against female farmers. For example, in India, these marginal lands, or so-called wastelands, are frequently classi¬ed as common property resources and are often of essay, crucial importance to lopez the poor. Evidence from India shows that gathering and use of common property resources are largely womens and childrens work a division of labour that is also often found in West Africa (Beck and Nesmith, 2000). However, women are rarely involved in the management of dialectic format, these resources.
In a study by von Braun and Kennedy (1994), it was found that in my resolution essay, none of the case studies they analysed did women play a signi¬cant role as decision-makers and operators of the more commercialized crop, even when typical womens crops were promoted. Dey (1981), in her review of rice development projects in the Gambia, also highlighted the importance of incorporating information about womens role in agriculture when designing commercialization schemes so as to generate a better outcome in terms of equity, nutritional outcomes and even overall performance. As has emerged from the dialectic format discussion above, the development of biofuel production may bring to the forefront a series of equity- and gender-related issues, such as labour conditions on plantations, constraints faced by smallholders and the disadvantaged position of my resolution, female farmers. These are critical and format fundamental issues that largely derive from existing institutional and political realities in many countries and that must be addressed in parallel with the prospects for biofuel development in a speci¬c context. Writing Skills Help! In this regard, development of biofuel production could and should be used constructively to focus attention on the issues.
Chapter 6, Section Biofuel crop development: equity and gender concerns, p.83-85.
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What Constitutes A Dialectic Essay And How Do I Write A Dialectic
The internet mystery that has the world baffled. 11:00AM GMT 25 Nov 2013. One evening in January last year, Joel Eriksson, a 34-year-old computer analyst from Uppsala in Sweden, was trawling the web, looking for distraction, when he came across a message on an internet forum. The message was in stark white type, against dialectic essay format a black background. #x201c;Hello,#x201d; it said. #x201c;We are looking for my resolution essay, highly intelligent individuals. To find them, we have devised a test. There is essay format, a message hidden in this image.
Find it, and it will lead you on the road to contract finding us. We look forward to meeting the few that will make it all the dialectic way through. Good luck.#x201d; The message was signed: 3301#x201d;. A self-confessed IT security freak#x201d; and a skilled cryptographer, Eriksson#x2019;s interest was immediately piqued. This was #x2013; he knew #x2013; an example of gcse maths coursework grid digital steganography: the concealment of dialectic essay secret information within a digital file. Most often seen in writing help conjunction with image files, a recipient who can work out the code #x2013; for example, to alter the colour of every 100th pixel #x2013; can retrieve an entirely different image from the dialectic essay format randomised background noise#x201d;. It#x2019;s a technique more commonly associated with nefarious ends, such as concealing child pornography. In 2002 it was suggested that al-Qaeda operatives had planned the September 11 attacks via the auction site eBay, by number grid encrypting messages inside digital photographs . Sleepily #x2013; it was late, and he had work in the morning #x2013; Eriksson thought he#x2019;d try his luck decoding the message from 3301#x201d;. Dialectic Essay. After only a few minutes work he#x2019;d got somewhere: a reference to reflective academic year Tiberius Claudius Caesar#x201d; and a line of meaningless letters.
Joel deduced it might be an embedded Caesar cipher#x201d; #x2013; an encryption technique named after Julius Caesar, who used it in private correspondence. Essay. It replaces characters by a letter a certain number of essays positions down the alphabet. As Claudius was the fourth emperor, it suggested four#x201d; might be important #x2013; and lo, within minutes, Eriksson found another web address buried in the image#x2019;s code. Feeling satisfied, he clicked the link. It was a picture of a duck with the message: Woops! Just decoys this way. Looks like you can#x2019;t guess how to get the message out.#x201d; If something is dialectic format, too easy or too routine, I quickly lose interest,#x201d; says Eriksson.
But it seemed like the challenge was a bit harder than a Caesar cipher after all. Reflective Essay Academic. I was hooked.#x201d; Eriksson didn#x2019;t realise it then, but he was embarking on dialectic essay one of the internet#x2019;s most enduring puzzles; a scavenger hunt that has led thousands of competitors across the web, down telephone lines, out to gcse maths number several physical locations around the globe, and into essay unchartered areas of the help darknet#x201d;. So far, the hunt has required a knowledge of number theory, philosophy and classical music. An interest in both cyberpunk literature and the Victorian occult has also come in handy as has an understanding of Mayan numerology. It has also featured a poem, a tuneless guitar ditty, a femme fatale called Wind#x201d; who may, or may not, exist in real life, and a clue on a lamp post in dialectic essay format Hawaii. Only one thing is certain: as it stands, no one is reflective essay academic year, entirely sure what the challenge #x2013; known as Cicada 3301 #x2013; is dialectic format, all about essay or who is behind it. Depending on dialectic format who you listen to, it#x2019;s either a mysterious secret society, a statement by a new political think tank, or an arcane recruitment drive by some quasi-military body.
Which means, of course, everyone thinks it#x2019;s the CIA. For some, it#x2019;s just a fun game, like a more complicated Sudoku; for contract help, others, it has become an obsession. Almost two years on, Eriksson is still trying to work out what it means for him. It is, ultimately, a battle of the brains,#x201d; he says. Essay Format. And I have always had a hard time resisting a challenge.#x201d; On the night of January 5 2012, after reading the decoy#x201d; message from the reflective essay duck, Eriksson began to tinker with other variables. Taking the dialectic duck#x2019;s mockery as a literal clue, Eriksson decided to run it through a decryption program called OutGuess. Success: another hidden message, this time linking to another messageboard on the massively popular news forum Reddit . Here, encrypted lines from a book were being posted every few hours. But there were also strange symbols comprising of several lines and dots #x2013; Mayan numbers, Eriksson realised.
And duly translated, they led to contract law coursework help another cipher. Up until now, Eriksson would admit, none of the dialectic puzzles had really required any advanced skills, or suggested anything other than a single anonymous riddle-poser having some fun. Essay. But then it all changed,#x201d; says Eriksson. And things started getting interesting.#x201d; Suddenly, the encryption techniques jumped up a gear. And the dialectic format puzzles themselves mutated in several different directions: hexadecimal characters, reverse-engineering, prime numbers. Pictures of the cicada insect #x2013; reminiscent of the moth imagery in Thomas Harris#x2019;s The Silence of the Lambs #x2013; became a common motif. I knew cicadas only emerge every prime number of years #x2013; 13, or 17 #x2013; to avoid synchronising with the life cycles of essay for scholarship money their predators,#x201d; says Eriksson.
It was all starting to fit together.#x201d; The references became more arcane too. Essay. The book, for example, turned out to be The Lady of the reflective academic year Fountain#x201d;, a poem about King Arthur taken from The Mabinogion , a collection of pre-Christian medieval Welsh manuscripts. Later, the puzzle would lead him to the cyberpunk writer William Gibson #x2013; specifically his 1992 poem Agrippa#x201d; (a book of the dead), infamous for the fact that it was only published on a 3.5in floppy disk, and was programmed to erase itself after being read once . But as word spread across the web, thousands of amateur codebreakers joined the essay hunt for clues. Armies of users of 4chan , the anarchic internet forum where the first Cicada message is thought to have appeared, pooled their collective intelligence #x2013; and my resolution essay endless free time #x2013; to crack the puzzles. Within hours they#x2019;d decoded The Lady of the Fountain#x201d;. The new message, however, was another surprise: Call us,#x201d; it read, at telephone number 214-390-9608#x201d;. Essay Format. By this point, only a few days after the lopez essays original image was posted, Eriksson had taken time off work to join the pursuit full time. This was definitely an unexpected turn,#x201d; he recalls. And the first hint that this might not just be the work of a random internet troll.#x201d; Although now disconnected, the phone line was based in Texas, and led to an answering machine. Dialectic. There, a robotic voice told them to find the prime numbers in the original image.
By multiplying them together, the solvers found a new prime and a new website: 845145127.com. A countdown clock and a huge picture of help a cicada confirmed they were on the right path. It was thrilling, breathtaking by now,#x201d; says Eriksson. This shared feeling of discovery was immense. Essay Format. But the plot was about to thicken even more.#x201d; Once the countdown reached zero, at 5pm GMT on salvador essays January 9, it showed 14 GPS coordinates around the world: locations in Warsaw, Paris, Seattle, Seoul, Arizona, California, New Orleans, Miami, Hawaii and Sydney. Sat in Sweden, Eriksson waited as, around the essay format globe, amateur solvers left their apartments to investigate. And, one by one reported what they#x2019;d found: a poster, attached to essay a lamp post, bearing the cicada image and a QR code (the black-and-white bar code often seen on adverts these days and designed to take you to a website via your smartphone). It was exhilarating,#x201d; said Eriksson.
I was suddenly aware of dialectic how much effort they must have been putting into contract law coursework help creating this kind of challenge.#x201d; For the growing Cicada community, it was explosive #x2013; proof this wasn#x2019;t merely some clever neckbeard in a basement winding people up, but actually a global organisation of talented people. Essay Format. But who? Speculation had been rife since the image first appeared. Some thought Cicada might merely be a PR stunt; a particularly labyrinthine Alternate Reality Game (ARG) built by for 2011 a corporation to dialectic format ultimately #x2013; and disappointingly #x2013; promote a new movie or car. Microsoft, for example, had enjoyed huge success with their critically acclaimed I Love Bees#x201d; ARG campaign. Designed to for scholarship money promote the Xbox game Halo 2 in 2004, it used random payphones worldwide to dialectic essay broadcast a War of the grid Worlds-style radio drama that players would have to solve.
But there were complicating factors to Cicada. Dialectic. For one, the organisers were actively working against the participants. One solver#x201d;, a female known only skills help, as Wind from Michigan, contributed to the quest on several messageboards before the community spotted she was deliberately disseminating false clues. Dialectic. Other interference was more pointed. One long, cautionary diatribe, left anonymously on essay the website Pastebin, claimed to be from an essay, ex-Cicada member #x2013; a non-English military officer recruited to the organisation by a superior#x201d;. Cicada, he said, was a Left-Hand Path religion disguised as a progressive scientific organisation#x201d; #x2013; comprising of grid military officers, diplomats, and academics who were dissatisfied with the format direction of the essay money world#x201d;.
Their plan, the writer claimed, was to transform humanity into the Nietzschen Ubermensch. This is a dangerous organisation,#x201d; he concluded, their ways are nefarious.#x201d; With no other clues, it was also asssumed by many to be a recruitment drive by the CIA, MI6 or America#x2019;s National Security Agency (NSA), as part of a search for highly talented cryptologists. It wouldn#x2019;t have been the first time such tactics had been used. Back in 2010, for example, Air Force Cyber Command #x2013; the United States#x2019; hacking defence force, based at Fort Meade in essay Maryland #x2013; secretly embedded a complex hexadecimal code in their new logo. Cybercom head Lt Gen Keith Alexander then challenged the world#x2019;s amateur analysts to crack it ( it took them three hours ). And in September this year, GCHQ launched the Can You Find It?#x201d; initiative #x2013; a series of cryptic codes designed to root out the help best British cryptographers. As GCHQ#x2019;s head of resourcing Jane Jones said at the time, It#x2019;s a puzzle but it#x2019;s also a serious test #x2013; the jobs on dialectic offer here are vital to protecting national security.#x201d; GCHQ's 'Can You Find It?' puzzle. Dr Jim Gillogly, former president of the American Cryptogram Association, has been cracking similar codes for years and says it#x2019;s a tried and tested recruitment tactic. During the Second World War, the top-secret Government Code and gcse grid Cypher School used crossword puzzles printed in The Daily Telegraph to identify good candidates for Bletchley Park,#x201d; he says.
But I#x2019;m not sure the CIA or NSA is behind Cicada. Both are careful with security, the recent Snowden case notwithstanding. And starting the puzzle on [the anarchic internet forum] 4chan might attract people with less respect for dialectic essay, authority than they would want working inside.#x201d; But that doesn#x2019;t rule out other organisations. For Scholarship. Computer and data security is dialectic, more important than ever today,#x201d; says Dr Gillogly.
The proliferation of wireless devices, mobile telephones, e-commerce websites like Amazon and chip-and-pin machines, means the demand for cryptologists has never been higher. (Something the UK government acknowledged last year when it announced it was setting up 11 academic centres of excellence#x201d; in gcse coursework grid cyber security research .) One of the essay more important components of security systems is the efficacy of the cryptography being used,#x201d; says Dr Gillogly. Year. Which means cryptanalysts are in higher demand than ever before - no longer just with the intelligence services. It could just as easily be a bank or software company [behind Cicada].#x201d; Eriksson himself agrees. As a regular speaker at Black Hat Briefings #x2013; the secretive computer security conferences where government agencies and corporations get advice from hackers #x2013; he knows certain organisations occasionally go fishing#x201d; for new recruits like this. But to him the dialectic signs point to for scholarship money a recruitment drive by a hacker group like Anonymous. I can#x2019;t help but notice,#x201d; he says, that the locations in question are all places with some of the most talented hackers and IT security researchers in the world.#x201d; Either way, their identity would prove irrelevant. When the dialectic format QR codes left on the lamp posts were decoded, a hidden message pointed the maths coursework grid solvers towards a TOR address. TOR, short for The Onion Router, is an obscure routing network that allows anonymous access to dialectic the darknet#x201d; #x2013; the vast, murky portion of the internet that cannot be indexed by standard search engines. Estimated to be 5,000 times larger that the surface web, it#x2019;s in these recesses where you#x2019;ll find human-trafficking rings, black market drug markets and terrorist networks.
And it#x2019;s here where the Cicada path ended. After a designated number of solvers visited the address, the website shut down with a terse message: We want the best, not the followers. The chosen few received personal emails #x2013; detailing what, none have said, although one solver heard they were now being asked to solve puzzles in private. Eriksson, however, was not among them. Salvador Lopez. It was my biggest anticlimax #x2013; when I was too late to dialectic essay register my email at the TOR hidden service, he says. If my sleep-wake cycle had been different, I believe I would have been among the first. Contract Help. Regardless, a few weeks later, a new message from format, Cicada was posted on gcse Reddit. It read: Hello. Format. We have now found the individuals we sought. My Resolution For 2011 Essay. Thus our month-long journey ends. Format. For now.
All too abruptly for thousands of intrigued solvers, it had gone quiet. Except no. On January 4 this year, something new. A fresh image, with a new message in writing skills the same white text: Hello again. Our search for dialectic format, intelligent individuals now continues. Essay. Analysis of the dialectic essay image would reveal another poem #x2013; this time from the book Liber Al Vel Legis , a religious doctrine by reflective year the English occultist and essay magician Aleister Crowley. From there, the solvers downloaded a 130Mb file containing thousands of prime numbers. And also an writing help, MP3 file: a song called The Instar Emergence by the artist 3301, which begins with the sound of #x2013; guess what #x2013; cicadas. Analysis of that has since led to a Twitter account pumping out dialectic format, random numbers, which in turn produced a gematria: an ancient Hebrew code table, but this time based on Anglo-Saxon runes. This pointed the solvers back into the darknet, where they found seven new physical locations, from Dallas to for scholarship money Moscow to Okinawa, and more clues.
But that#x2019;s where, once again, the essay trail has gone cold. Another select group of first solvers have been accepted into a new private puzzle #x2013; this time, say reports, a kind of Myers-Briggs multiple-choice personality test. But still, we are no closer to knowing the source, or fundamental purpose, of Cicada 3301. Salvador Essays. That#x2019;s the beauty of it though, says Eriksson. It is impossible to know for sure until you have solved it all. That is why for him, and dialectic essay format thousands of other hooked enthusiasts, January 4 2014 is so important: that#x2019;s when the gcse coursework next set of riddles is due to begin again. Maybe all will be revealed then, he grins. But somehow, I doubt it. Meet Amelia: the computer that's after your job. How hackers took over my computer.
'Computers are getting smarter. We're not' Read more from Telegraph Technology. Ambitious Chinese inventors take on crazy do-it-yourself projects. The biggest companies in the world in 2015.
The Fortune Global 500 has been released the annual ranking of the largest companies in the world by revenues. Here is a list of the 20 biggest corporate money-makers. The Big Short hits UK cinemas: these are the essay format best films about coursework grid business. The Big Short, the film adaptation of Michael Lewis' book of the same name about the causes of the financial crisis, opens in UK cinemas this weekend. How will the story stack up against the greatest films about business? The mobile industry may be locked in dialectic essay format a bitter battle between Samsung and Apple, but history tells a very different story. Most important inventions of the 21st Century. From the Apple iPod to contract law coursework Google driverless cars, we run down the technologies that have transformed our world since the start of the 21st century. Apple's new spaceship HQ in Cupertino.
The futuristic building in California should be completed in 2016. The most famous photoshopped images of all time. As an extraordinary photo showing the dialectic essay solar eclipse from space is revealed as fake, a look back at famous photoshopped images. The most popular Instagram accounts. As Instagram announces that it now has more than more than 400 million monthly active users, Sophie Curtis takes us through the ten most followed accounts on the Facebook-owned site. Apple's iPhone: a history in pictures. Ahead of the launch of the new iPhone 5 SE, the Telegraph Tech team take a look at how the handset has changed the mobile phone industry since it was launched in salvador lopez 2007. Obsolete technologies that will baffle modern children. Many children have never seen or used a video tape, camcorder or floppy disc. Dialectic Essay. Take a look at the gadgets which will puzzle younger people. Rise of a tech giant: the history of law coursework Google.
Skype invent robot that delivers groceries. Forget standing desks: This office workstation lets you work lying down. Instagram launches gif-like app Boomerang. Now your iPhone will even weigh fruit. More from the web. More from the format web.
iPhone 6s and 6s Plus rumours: all you need to know. Seven tips to secure your iPhone from money, hackers. How hackers took over my computer. More from the web. The latest news, opinion and analysis.
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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Dialectic Essay Format! Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for salvador essays entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the dialectic format, information, instead of coursework grid, struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to dialectic format use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates. Gcse Maths Coursework Grid! Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of format, Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the authority on coursework number, business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and format, a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning.
Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to salvador lopez base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and essay format, new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in essay PDF, PowerPoint and essay, Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. The site includes a template for a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of number grid, a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to dialectic essay add their logos and business information. If you need a guide to writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for that. This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and details specific to your business in their templates.
Once the template is complete, you can download and gcse maths number, print. The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and essay format, makes your business plan concise and help, comprehensive. Dialectic! MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is part of Santa Clara University#39;s Center for my resolution Innovation and Entrepreneurship. They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document. All download are compatible with current and older versions of Word (2003 and earlier). MOBI also covers topics associated with startups, but also provides information on how to run a business, including employee management, how to handle problems, and e-commerce. Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for retailers, manufacturers and service providers. Essay Format! The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible.
Excel business plan financials are also available for lopez manufacturers and service providers, while the retailer business plan template is complete with forecasting and financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. Catering to businesses owned by dialectic essay women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by anyone who wants to start a business. Salvador Lopez! The PDF templates come filled in with example information for small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for any business venture. The template has space for information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans. When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is legally sound. The template is dialectic essay format questionnaire-style and asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc.
Rocket Lawyer not only writing, aims at helping you create a blueprint for dialectic your business, but also for writing skills investors. Dialectic Essay Format! Your completed document is available for download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at essay no charge. The document is $10 on its own without a subscription. SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to help entrepreneurs launch and dialectic format, grow small business across the United States. Their collection of business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for startups and established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to salvador lopez determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and loss projections, and financial statements. Essay Format! You can then use these business templates to meet with a Score mentor for expert business planning advice.
The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and essay academic, guide to help you build your business plan, step by step. Once you create an account, you complete the cover page by filling in your company name, owner name and contact information, and dialectic essay format, then upload your logo. There are six business plan sections to choose from (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and Sales, Financial Projections), and you can save and work on your file anytime you want. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Looking for a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to the point? The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the law coursework, One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to dialectic essay get up and running.
This free business plan template covers everything from help your business overview to finances, marketing, goals and challenges. Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and dialectic format, more. Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and Marci Martin. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with business plan services, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for free. Coursework Grid! Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily.
When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for dialectic essay format the 700th time.
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Attitudes to Sponsored and essay, Branded Content (Native Advertising) Traditional display advertising on the web is in trouble. Fewer people are clicking on banners, yields for publishers are static or falling, and many users shut off ads completely. YouGovs research for this report shows that in both the US and UK between a third and a half of online news users use software that blocks the most popular forms of display advertising. Against this background it is not surprising that content providers, brands, and platforms are looking for new and reflective academic, better ways to reach and engage audiences. Budgets are switching to so-called native advertising where brand messages look more like regular content sitting in the same templates and using the same formats that might be used for a standard piece of format, journalism or a user-generated post on social media. This essay looks at what people think about these new and my resolution for 2011 essay, sometimes controversial forms of advertising.
Using survey evidence and focus group interviews in the UK and US we explore consumer attitudes towards this form of sponsored content and the issues of labelling and trust that surround it. Sponsored or branded content is not a totally new phenomenon. Essay Format! Newspapers have been producing advertorials and special supplements paid for by advertisers for decades but somehow the separation seems clearer in a physical product. In social media, sponsored posts now sit cheek by jowl with regular updates and content posts. Law Coursework Help! Formats and functionality are identical, labelling is understated and brands are learning fast how to adapt their messaging to be part of a conversation not a broadcast. Facebook and Twitter are building billion dollar businesses on enabling this approach.
New media platforms like Buzzfeed and Vice have also turned their back on display and already make the majority of their money from native advertising formats. They have set up digital commercial teams to develop viral moments for brands articles, lists, infographics, videos, or full-blown web documentaries. In the example here a Buzzfeed list is repurposed to make a fun item for young people around different ways to use tequila in cooking. The item was paid for by Sauza ® tequila. Venture capitalists are investing millions of dollars in companies like Buzzfeed because they have learned to use technology to develop and perfect formats like listicles and quizzes that resonate with internet users of a particular demographic. Effectively, theyve built world-class systems for content creation, analytics, and advertising. Over the past year, traditional publishers have been trying to learn from this approach and essay format, have set up their own digital studios to do something similar. The New York Times (T Brand Studio), the Guardian (Guardian Labs 1 ), and the Wall Street Journal have invested heavily in money, a tacit endorsement of the emerging practice.
In one of the most successful examples to date, the essay format New York Times published a 1500 word native ad 2 for the Netflix series Orange is the writing skills help New Black , using video, charts, and dialectic essay, audio to supplement text about female incarceration in the US. For Scholarship! It was one of the first pieces of sponsored content generated by dialectic essay, a new T Brand Studio, a nine-person team dedicated to the task. The Guardian is also creating paid post formats as well as pursuing more traditional approaches where journalists create content independently but still paid for by an contract law coursework advertiser. Unilever paid over ?1m for a range of content to be produced on dialectic format the subject of sustainable living. The section and the articles were clearly marked Sponsored by Unilever, but in maths number, other respects the content melded into the overall Guardian experience. Definitions and approaches to sponsored and branded content are varied and still emerging. There is no standard approach to labelling and dialectic essay, a number of publishers have been caught out, such as when The Atlantic admitted to gcse number misjudgements over a Church of Scientology sponsored post. 3 While the IAB has announced some plans in the UK to start rolling out regulations for native advertising and sponsored content, its still early days and consumers think more work is needed. As part of the Digital News Report 2015 , we included questions relating to native advertising in dialectic essay, the survey for both USA and UK. We followed this up with online focus groups in the same markets to help explore attitudes in dialectic essay format, further detail. In the UK, all respondents were members of our YouGov Pulse panel, our passive web tracking tool.
We used web browsing data to select respondents who had engaged with native advertising content, and compared stated attitudes and academic, perceptions alongside actual behaviours of consuming native content. Many consumers are losing patience with traditional forms of online advertising and there seems to be a close relationship between the amount of interruption caused and the vitriol consumers feel towards it. Around three in ten respondents in both the essay format USA (29%) and UK (31%) say they find traditional banner advertising distracting and will actively avoid sites where they interfere with the content too much. Static banner advertising is reflective essay year more tolerable for readers than video advertising, with pop-up advertising being seen as the worst offender of dialectic essay format, all. There is also a perception that video advertising impacts on law coursework the speed of browsing, which is also particularly frustrating for dialectic format, readers. Self-playing videos are the devils [sic] creation. Youre browsing the news late at night and suddenly an ad for laxatives is lopez blasting out from your laptop at essay format full volume! The most intrusive advertising I encounter is on the website for my local paper. Huge pop up videos before you can access content. If they werent auto playing they wouldnt be so annoying.
Pop ups irritate me the most. I dont like video adverts, but I can live with them because I never willingly listen to contract law coursework help them. Banner advertising doesnt really bother me because I just ignore it. Pop ups are most annoying, particularly if you are browsing on a phone as sometimes they can be really hard to close down. Consumers annoyance with advertising and dialectic essay, the interruption it causes to their reading experience has led large numbers of them to install ad-blocking software to minimise its impact.
In the gcse UK, 39% have installed ad-blocking software on their PC, mobile, or tablet, whereas in the US this rises to dialectic essay format 47%. The figures are even higher for help, 1824s (56% and 55% respectively). Attitudes to traditional banner advertising. QSpons1. Which of the essay following statements best sums up your view of traditional banner advertising on salvador news websites? Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295. Attitudes to ad blocking software. QSpons2. Do you regularly use Ad Blocking software (software you have installed on your device specifically to remove advertisements from news or other websites)? Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295.
Many consumers agree that advertising is a necessary part of continuing to get free news. However, the increasing use of essay format, ad-blocking software means that advertisers need to find new ways of reaching their audiences, and native content has the potential to reach audiences, particularly younger consumers. After respondents in the quantitative survey were shown a number of native advertising articles, a relatively high proportion reported having come across this type of content before. In the reflective essay year US, over one in dialectic format, three (35%) said they frequently or often see sponsored content, compared to around a fifth (21%) in the UK. QSpons3. Gcse Maths Coursework Number Grid! How often do you see this kind of sponsored content in online news sites these days?
Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295. There is however much confusion over dialectic format, the language around sponsored content and native advertising. For example, one member of our focus group in the US confidently and spontaneously talked about seeing more native advertising. Gcse Coursework Number Grid! However, once we delved further into it, we found they were actually describing retargeted advertising, based on their browsing history. There is a perception that readers are disappointed or feel deceived if they later find out dialectic format, content was sponsored by a brand or company. Writing! In the UK, a third (33%) have felt disappointed or deceived, a level that rises to more than four in ten (43%) in the US. The higher figure in the US could be down to the fact that native advertising is more prevalent there. I have felt disappointed or deceived after reading an essay article which I only salvador, discovered later was sponsored by a brand/company.
QSpons5. In general terms, to what extent do you agree or disagree with the dialectic essay following statements? (Please select one option on each row.) Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295. There are stark differences by age, with younger respondents considerably less likely to feel they are being deceived by native content. Essay For Scholarship! This is likely to be down to a number of factors. Format! First, they have grown up in a commercial world, with brands firmly ingrained in their lives. Secondly, they are more likely to visit sites such as Buzzfeed, which are considered to salvador lopez be more about fun news and therefore a more natural environment for sponsored content.
Native advertising is more established and more prevalent on these sorts of sites. We also found a great deal of dialectic essay format, inconsistency in the labelling of sponsored content across different news sites, to the extent that frequently readers arent aware of what they are looking at before they start reading an article. Contract Law Coursework Help! Paid for, Sponsored by, Promoted are words used to dialectic essay signpost native advertising content, with some meaning one thing on some sites and another on a different site. The Guardian website has a page that outlines clearly the definitions of each of the terms it uses, however this is a bit like the terms and for 2011, conditions pages which are rarely read. In order to reduce levels of perceived deception, the industry needs to essay adopt consistent and my resolution for 2011, clear signposting across different sites if all consumers are to have faith in what they are reading. The type of content influencing perceptions.
With this trust comes a responsibility to ensure that readers are not misled. Many in our focus groups felt that there are some content areas such as home and world news, politics, and financial news that should be considered sacred and free from native advertising. These hard lines in the eyes of the consumer are well-illustrated by these responses: News, politics, finance, for sure [are a no-no for native advertising]. Those are the topics you dont want people messing with for profit. Helena, 36, UK, spent around 1.30 minutes reading Netflix/New York Times native advertising. The news press are there also to dialectic hold politicians, business and other interest groups to account. Essays! If any of them are seen to be influenced by them then they will suffer i.e.
HSBC. Alan, 31, UK, has visited the Guardian Cities site three times over the last year, and spent around 9 minutes on the site. If the news brand wants to essay format be seen as independent and trusted then news, politics, business should not be influenced by commerce. Emily, 27, UK, spent 3 minutes reading Netflix/New York Times native advertising. I dont want to see coverage of human rights in Papua brought to me by the companies who make soap out of reflective essay year, palm oil. Respondents tell us that, should the brands start introducing native advertising to the more serious news content areas, it would have a damaging impact on their perceptions of the news organisation.
On the other hand, less serious areas of news, such as entertainment, lifestyle, fashion, travel, and motoring, are deemed to be more suitable environments for dialectic essay format, native advertising. This could be due to contract help the fact that brands are already an important part of the landscape in these areas and therefore respondents are more open to hearing from them on dialectic these subjects. They also feel that their decisions in these areas may have little long-term impact. Lying or deceiving me about these topics will have no lasting effects on my life. I think the rule of thumb should be if the industry is already reliant on advertising (movies, lifestyle, sports, etc.) then its OK. But not news and politics. Thats not commercial or it shouldnt be.
I wouldnt care who wrote it if it was informative and interesting. I would only law coursework help, be annoyed if I read a story and realised it was advertising half way through. Eleanor, 32, UK, spent time reading Daily Mail/Now TVs The Warrior Plan: 8 ways to get a body like a Game of Thrones hotty Does it hurt news brands or advertisers? In general, the majority of news audiences say that sponsored content has neither a positive nor negative impact on either the brand in question or the news organisation that carries the content. Dialectic Essay Format! Around a fifth (22% in US and 21% in UK) say that they have a less positive view of the brand paying for an advert. However, the help impact on format the news organisation that carries the ad is more negative, with 28% of UK and US respondents having a less positive view of the news brand.
Impact on brand and news organisation. Scroll data area to see more. Base: All who saw this kind of sponsored content in online news sites UK = 1374, US = 1761. Younger consumers are more open to salvador lopez essays native advertising on news brands. Dialectic Essay Format! Almost a fifth (19%) of help, 1824 year olds and 15% of 2534 year olds in the US say they feel more positive towards the dialectic essay brand. In the law coursework help UK, 13% of 1824 year olds say they feel more positive towards the brand, a figure that falls to 11% amongst 2534 year olds. The proportion saying they feel more positive towards the news organisation is slightly lower, but again younger respondents are more positive than older ones. When talking to respondents in more detail about dialectic essay format specific examples, there were significant differences between the UK and the USA.
In the US, the reaction to salvador essays a Buzzfeed article sponsored by Sauza tequila (12 Holiday Treats to Spike with Tequila) was very positive. Dialectic Essay! The respondents thought that the writing article contained some interesting tips and they werent put off at all by a brand sponsoring it. However, in dialectic format, the UK we showed an article sponsored by my resolution, Renault and the content was perceived to be not really engaging enough to dialectic format positively impact respondents perceptions of the brand. Furthermore, Buzzfeed wasnt perceived to be a serious news site by these respondents. However, it was a different story when we showed respondents a New York Times article sponsored by Netflix (Women Inmates: Why the contract help Male Model Doesnt Work). The reaction from the UK audience was significantly more positive than both their response to the Buzzfeed case study and also the feedback from consumers in the US. I think this is dialectic essay a very slick looking article.
Relevant to the product being advertised but seems to be informative and in-depth. Alan, 31, spent around a minute reading the Guardian Witness page, powered by grid, EE. The problem is if I see this in the NYT, I assume an editor vetted the article and read it and edited it. Who vouches for essay, the author? Among UK consumers, the New York Times content was perceived to be informative and interesting, while the sponsorship was perceived to essay money be relevant and a good fit. In the US the response was a little more mixed. Essay Format! Some found the content interesting, whilst others felt perturbed that it was advertising dressed up as news the Buzzfeed example to them wasnt pretending to be news. Salvador! In the US, some respondents were surprised to see such content on the New York Times site as to them it is a respected and trusted brand.
One notable example that failed to engage with UK consumers was a content partnership between Unilever and the Guardian . Readers immediately picked up that it had a different tone to the content they would normally expect to see in dialectic essay, the Guardian and described the content as bland. This example highlights the need for content to reflect a sites editorial style and tone in order for readers to find the content engaging and credible. It feels a little measured, un-noteworthy. It doesnt feel especially like the essay for scholarship Guardian so I suspect someone from essay Unilevers ad agency [produced the content]. Gavin, 34, visited the Telegraph Mens Lifestyle Guide sponsored by Braun. This flags up an interesting paradox. Readers appear to be more engaged with content that replicates the essays style and tone of the news brand, but as a result, are more likely to dialectic essay format feel misled and deceived by the news brand.
While news brands have much to gain from this new form of online advertising, the danger of further blurring of the line between advertising and editorial could harm the credibility of news brands, with little lasting impact on advertisers. Skills! Consumer attitudes show that, when it comes to native advertising, the stakes are far higher for news brands than for advertisers. Is the dialectic format content itself interesting? Relatively few people say that sponsored content is an my resolution interesting way to hear about topics and subjects that are relevant to them. In the UK just 14% like getting information in this way, a figure that increases to essay format over one in reflective academic, five (22%) in the US.
It is younger consumers who are more likely to find native advertising content more interesting, although, as mentioned earlier, older respondents are less likely to visit the sites where sponsored content is more prevalent, such as Buzzfeed. Sponsored or branded content is an dialectic essay interesting way to hear about a topic or subject that is relevant to me. QSpons5. In general terms, to what extent do you agree or disagree with the writing skills help following statements? (Please select one option on each row.) Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295.
Traditional forms of format, online advertising are struggling to have an impact. The more it interrupts the reading experience, the more negative consumers views are towards it. Therefore brands need to essay money find new ways to communicate with audiences, and dialectic essay format, sponsored content has the potential to do this; however, the type of content needs to essay for scholarship be a natural fit to both the site and readers perceptions of the site. Broadly speaking, there are two types of sponsored content that we found to be of dialectic format, interest to respondents. Salvador! The first is something practical and/or useful, but potentially more fun (such as the dialectic format type of content found on Buzzfeed).
The second is something that is more serious in nature, is my resolution for 2011 informative, and where there is essay a clear link between the content and the brand (for example, the essays types of thing you might find in an online version of a broadsheet newspaper). However, for dialectic format, broadsheets, native advertising is more of maths number, a minefield than it is for entertainment sites. Current affairs, business, finance, and politics sections are generally considered to be sacred by consumers and readers feel that these areas should be free of commercial influence and retain an independent view. Dialectic! Consumers are open to reading sponsored content in areas such as entertainment, travel, fashion, and lifestyle as these are considered to be more appropriate environments for sponsored content. It is clear that consumers want to see clear labelling and signposting of paid-for content.
Readers dont like to maths coursework feel they are being deceived; however, if they know up-front that a brand may have influenced the format content, consumers are more accepting. To help maintain levels of gcse, trust, the dialectic language used should be standardised across news sites as much as possible. Sponsored content has great potential for brands to reach audiences, particularly younger consumers. But whoever brands are trying to reach, the academic year content has to be of value to the audience to have an dialectic format impact. The content also needs to be a natural fit for the publication anything that jars with a consumers perception of what should be on a site may be dismissed by readers. If these principles can be followed, then sponsored content has a chance of being embraced by online audiences, allowing brands to writing skills help overcome some of the issues that readers currently have with online advertising. Juliet Tate contributed additional research to dialectic essay format this essay.
NEW (October 23): Supplementary report. Data and analysis from six additional countries: Austria, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Turkey. 2017 Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.
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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the dialectic essay format, alternative to reflective essay year coursework paper that is worth 27.5% of dialectic essay format, your final IGCSE grade. Reflective Essay! The coursework paper tests your understanding of how coursework is carried out. The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and dialectic essay divided into two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on lopez the examination paper, most questions are short in length, between 1 and 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and essay format skills.
The questions usually focus on coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to carry out coursework on many aspects of the course. Salvador Lopez! Possible topics and essay areas of skills help, study may include: Changes in dialectic river velocity from salvador source to mouth Changes in load (shape and dialectic format size) from source to mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from reflective source to dialectic mouth Changes in discharge from source to mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from source to mouth Changes in valley size and contract gradient from source to mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for dialectic essay, this) Changes in vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in reflective essay academic beach profile and dialectic essay format sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in land use Changes in defences (compare to land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of tourists Changes in the quality of the contract, environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in cost of products Comparison to Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of settlements or services.
Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in essay rainfall Changes in gcse maths coursework number humidity Changes in hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in essay wind speed and wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in a suitable study location. For example it is no use trying to do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about reflective essay year how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out format, a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by essay money, doing the following: Protection from the dialectic format, weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the my resolution, sea without an essay, adult or teacher and without them checking that it is maths safe Carry out dialectic essay format, coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe. Number Grid! For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to dialectic essay crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight. Specification: Formulating aims and hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. A CBD has the highest concentration of essay, comparison shops. Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these.
The width of dialectic format, a river will increase as you move from the source to the mouth The amount of traffic will increase as you move from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results. The opposite to be objective is being subjective. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is up to date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. what technique It only includes data that is salvador lopez essays relevant to your coursework It only dialectic covers your study area It is collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to travel to places to collect data It is hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area.
It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in essays the wrong format e.g. in dialectic a graph and not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is very easy to present and money analyse. Even though it is easy to dialectic format present it can be very general and exclude some data.
Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an salvador, area or sample group. Even though you pick the technique, once it is picked, there is no bias in who gets selected. It is very simple to understand and carry out. Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e.g. Dialectic Essay Format! you ask every 10th person to fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to essay academic be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is quick and simple. Because it is dialectic totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. when randomly selecting names out of hat to ask questionnaires too, you only pick females.
Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out reflective year, environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. However, if you know the average income of those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to format 12 and reflective essay academic then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to do the questions orally or give them in written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. Essay Format! They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to for 2011 essay your research Respondents may not understand the essay, question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables.
All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and contract help tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an other box meaning you don't know what the respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation Examples of essay format, using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in for scholarship an urban area or observations of river or coastal features. Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations. It is important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. You can annotate and label them.
People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. Dialectic Format! a photo of their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. People often only photograph the nice things e.g. For Scholarship Money! pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. Dialectic! area of essay, pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive. Specification: Counts Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Dialectic Essay! Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the layout of recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the count (i.e. time, date, location and name of recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Below are photos and descriptions of my resolution essay, some of the dialectic essay format, most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is basically a line a long which you take measurements.
You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and copy of data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of writing, how the forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of dialectic format, equipment and my resolution for 2011 an explanation of its use. Instead of writing a methodology in your exam, you may be asked to write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out.
For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for dialectic, doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the essay for scholarship money, road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for counting because this is easy and quick At the essay, end of 10 minutes count up the totals for writing skills help, each type of format, vehicle. You may also be asked about writing help how your data collection could be improved. Improvements may be made in some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the illustrative techniques to dialectic essay format present data across the topics for Paper 4 is required. This should include, various types of coursework number grid, graphs, maps and dialectic essay format diagrams for example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and reflective essay academic radial graphs. If you are asked to format complete a graph or table, all the data will be there for you so read the data carefully and complete the graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. dot map Shows variations between regions and countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and law coursework anomallies.
Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to dialectic format see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to describe the patterns in reflective academic year data presented in graphs and tables of essay, results. Reference to writing skills relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is often required in the interpretation of the data. Dialectic! Practice of this skill will improve success in gcse grid Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and correlations (if there is dialectic essay format not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to gcse maths trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and figures from graph or table. Dialectic Essay! Try and explain trends (refer back to theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies. Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is also required of the reliability of the collected data and a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from essay year your investigation.
Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. If you are asked to dialectic essay write an evaluation, think about the following: What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. Reflective Essay Academic! secondary data from dialectic format government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in the future. Portions not contributed by visitors are Copyright 2017 Tangient LLC.