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Thijs cornelissen thesis

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1118 words sample essay on thijs cornelissen thesis Decision Making. The ability to decide and choose wisely and rightly is often a matter of how the problem was posed. Term Papers? Though we try to be as logical as possible in taking a decision, sometimes we end up making illogical choices. So, it is important to understand how people decide things to avoid bad judgments. The sad truth is that people, even at the highest level, simply do not like to make good choices as every decision involves a certain amount of risk. Thijs Cornelissen? It would be pertinent to keep in mind that a decision-making process means repeatedly proving your ability. So, have a clear understanding of your individual decision-making style.

Keep in mind, when it comes to decisions, the best one can do is hope to make more good decisions than bad ones. Critical Essay Halicarnassus? And it is equally true that nobody is very good in taking all types of decisions. Cornelissen? The manner in which an individual takes or arrives at a decision depends to an extent on his or her inherent nature. The eagerness of a person with an impatient nature would often lead him to jump into quick decision. Similarly, a person with high degree of evaluation appraisal method emotions tends to decide quickly on whatever feels good. People who care for others and thijs thesis, do not want to hurt or disturb them would take a long time to decide. Geography? Also, there are people who would like to have all kinds of information before they come to a conclusion. After assessing your decision making style, find someone with an opposite style with whom you can establish a system of checks and balances. Also, do not forget to thijs analyze the impact of your decision before hand, something which people fail to do. One needs to assess the impact not only on the basis of money and resources, but also what happens if that particular decision is not taken. In doing so it would be important to maintain your objectivity.

While gathering and evaluating information people fail to realize how biased they are. To make better decisions, it needs to be understood fully how biases may be tampering with logic. How Bingeing The New College Sport Essay? If you are under a high level of stress, it may cause you to search randomly, rather than systematically to support your choices. During stress, you are more likely to have a bias towards the first idea you hear about, without carefully exploring others. Thijs? In the process you may overlook or minimize the possible problems and you may end up making a decision you will regret. Similarly, a heavy emotional leaning, though not a sign of poor judgment, is a signal that you should at least be cautious. In your emotional excitement, you may be simply overlooking finer points of the other alternative available. Of course, you must listen to gestalt papers your emotions. But be aware as they may also lead you astray or away from a logical choice. Fear, anger, envy and thijs, elation are other aspects which can cause you to lose your better judgment and lead to counterproductive decisions. The self-deception of wishful thinking can also cause erroneous judgments.

It is appraisal method because you want something to be true and hence you distort the evidence in its favour. Also, decisions based on automatic assumptions tend to be poor ones. The reasoning behind your choices has to be checked carefully in such instances. Another suggestion for decision-makers is do not opt for a decision that will solve am immediate problem at the expense of a bigger one. While taking a decision, do not tend to think only of decisions that serve a single goal and in the process, forgetting about other goals and thijs cornelissen, the fact that you may be subverting them. Try to analyze and frequently predict how long -will it take for a certain work to be completed. It will enable you to books factor more realistic time predictions into the decision-making process in thesis, the future. In your enthusiasm of presenting yourself as swift person, never shave days, weeks, or months off an accurate prediction. Lastly sometimes, it would be better to uc berkeley thesis run the pros and cons past several trustworthy persons who are familiar with your concerns and personality, before you even think of making a decision.

Some people rely heavily on intuition while taking a decision and even ignore the reasoned advice. Thijs? Such intuitive judgments are often good source of decisions than is logical analysis, but can also be much less reliable. It has to thesis archive be kept in thijs thesis, mind that your intuition would not always hit the nail on became the new college its head, but logical analysis can always do it. So, it would be best to combine the two. Establishing guidelines for your intuitions would help in this regard. Next, examine if there is any hidden factor behind your motivation or intuition that you would not like to cornelissen admit. Misinformation, misperceptions, and loeb, biases on the part of the decision-maker are among the cornelissen causes of bad. decisions. So, fight the urge to ignore the facts. If you find yourself not even wanting to be bothered by all of the facts before arriving at a decision, probably you are jumping into regrettable decisions at the expense of reasoning. It would be always advisable to spend some time asking for facts and examining them before deciding. Find out who are the people who will suffer consequences in books, case the decision turns out to be bad.

If it is others, then it is thijs good enough reason to rethink your intuition based decision. Gestalt Term? Another important reason that causes people to make bad decisions is cornelissen a lack of confidence in geography books, themselves and in their decision-making ability. It is natural that an ambivalent or cognitive conflict arises when we start to decide about something. Thijs? Hence, it would be advisable to check the effectiveness of your decisions. One way of doing it is by pretending that you are giving advice to someone else who is making the decision. Since every decision involves a risk, it is necessary to appraisal minimize it by trying to make sure the information on which you are basing it on thijs is good informatics n. Make sure whatever specific information you have makes sense. Do not take anything for granted or think it to essay evaluation method be accurate without checking it out yourself.

While explaining your decision to a patient listener, if you experience a lot of thesis discomfort, probably you are less sure of your decision. Feeling fairly comfortable about your decision is an thesis indicator of thijs cornelissen thesis your faith in the decision. Everyone makes mistakes. Thesis Archive? In fact, to err is human. So, do not be afraid to thijs cornelissen make mistakes. They teach you much more than success does.

What is important, however, is to learn from the mistakes of the past and not to mindlessly repeat them. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of statement articles published and preserved by users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and thijs thesis, allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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The Origins of World War I: Assessing the thijs cornelissen Historiography. Spurred by modern warfare’s advanced technology, World War I proved to be an unprecedented display of death and devastation. From the rubble and smoky haze of the war’s aftermath emerged the equally unprecedented practice of how bingeing the new sport seeking out and cornelissen punishing those deemed responsible. Confused and traumatized by the horrors of the Great War, Europeans demanded an explanation, triggering—for the first time in history—a large-scale campaign waged by governments, politicians, journalists, novelists and scholars to books, ascribe blame to the guiltiest nation. Thijs Cornelissen Thesis? This debate, debuting at the war’s start and ever intensifying with no end in sight, has resulted in coursework books what historian Christopher Clark describes as “an historical literature of unparalleled size, sophistication, and moral intensity.” [1] The pervasive and enduring discussion of entangling alliances and fierce international competition provides modern leaders with a case study in cornelissen thesis decision making. John F. How Bingeing Became The New College Sport Essay? Kennedy, for example, requested that his cabinet read Barbara Tuchman’s famous analysis of cornelissen WWI, The Guns of essay appraisal August, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, while President Jimmy Carter has written about the cornelissen thesis value of considering the war’s origins when confronting today’s international crises. [2] In the past century, a variety of hypotheses regarding responsibility has been presented and certain schools have fallen in and out of uc berkeley archive esteem. The debate—originally centered on Germany’s alleged war-guilt—eventually drifted towards notions of collective culpability, giving rise in the1930s to the conviction that no single nation was to blame, only armaments, alliances, failed diplomacy and imperialistic capitalism. Thijs Thesis? [3] But this school has its inherent problems. The position relies on critical essay the examination of broad forces and trends (like imperialism) at the expense of the actions of individuals. Its followers fail to thesis, take into account the unique nature of each of the great powers and archive the distinct ways in which nations pursued the very types of policies they criticize. The debate gradually subsided throughout the thesis 1940s and 50s.

That is, until West German historian Fritz Fischer’s explosive work in the 1960s inspired new scholarship, portraying WWI as a conscious German design for coursework books, either power or distraction from its growing social unrest. [4] Like other schools, these polemics have their merits, but they fail to fully answer the war-guilt question. Fischer and his followers give the Second Reich too much credit for its ability to be efficient and organized. Thijs? In fact, the Kaiserreich was particularly disorganized. Germany’s rootless policy and ill-defined ambitions would have been significant obstacles to any strategic planning and execution of war. More recent scholarship tends to examine individual countries. The British, French, and how bingeing Russians have all been indicted, to cornelissen thesis, varying degrees, for their isolation of Germany. Austria-Hungary has been blamed countless times for its methods in dealing with Serbia. If the vast historiography has reached any consensus, it is that no country can be completely absolved of guilt. The tendency of the German nation, however, after 1890, to act with negligence and a lack of focus in its misguided efforts to grapple with domestic turmoil and became the new college sport navigate the thijs European system, resulted in a dangerously unpredictable, alienating policy, setting the stage for general conflagration in 1914. The encyclopedic discussion and dissection of the war, and Germany’s role in particular, exposes a certain ambivalence in the Second Reich’s politics.

Germany is regularly found at the root of many of the causes of conflict that are examined in WWI literature and the war’s extensive historiography—a historiography with as compelling a story as the war’s origins itself. According to historian Dennis Showalter, “The understanding of the First World War is connected more than that of any other modern conflict with the war’s historiography” because its written history developed as soon as fighting did. Intro And Thesis? At the thijs onset of war in August 1914, “color books,” named for each country’s uniquely hued cover, were written for “domestic and international consumption” in an attempt to rally support at home and sympathy abroad. [5] The Belgian Grey Book , the geography coursework books Austrian Red Book , the French Yellow Book , the Russian Black Book and the German White Book were edited collections of highly selective and dubious (half of the Deutsches Weissbuch ’s thirty documents are believed to be forgeries) political papers released by the state in thijs cornelissen thesis order to prove the defensive, and therefore justifiable, nature of the respective government’s decision to fight. [6] Efforts continued in September as a German government-sponsored committee wrote a defense of its country entitled Truth about how bingeing became college sport essay Germany: Facts about the thijs cornelissen War . In England, six Oxford historians were charged with a similar task, producing Why We Are at War: Great Britain’s Case, a highly critical account of the Second Reich’s alleged militarism and expansionist aims. Term? [7] In May 1919, Germany published a second White Book, Deutschland Shuldig? ( Germany Guilty? ), as a means of preempting the coming Treaty of Versailles. [8] The Treaty, signed June 28, 1919, dispensed harsh punishment to the war’s losers, forcing Germany to thijs cornelissen thesis, reduce its military, cede significant territory and pay reparations. The conditions of the essay evaluation agreement were justified by a clause, Article 231, which expressly blamed Germany for the twentieth century’s great disaster. Horrified by the financial and moral implications of this “war-guilt clause” (a French idea), Germany worked with alacrity to disprove the charges, granting unprecedented access to sources and archives to patriotic, nationalistic—and often government-funded—historians, encouraging pro-German work and investigations into the “war-guilt lie.” [9] In 1921, the thesis Weimar Republic created the War Guilt Section. Term? This government body consisted of one branch dedicated to disseminating literature to trade unions and various clubs and another concerned with scholarly research in Germany’s defense. [10] By 1930, this mass propaganda distribution center had 1,700 to 2,000 organizations working to undermine the legitimacy of the treaty as well as its own academic journal, Die Kriegsschuldfrage . [11] Historians Albrecht Menolelssohn-Bartholdy, Johannes Lepsius and Friedrich Thimme were asked to create a definitive defense and collection of German documents, leading to thijs cornelissen, the controversial, forty-volume Die Grosse Politik der Europaischen Kabinette , published over the course of 1922 to 1927. As German government official and industrialist Walter Ratheneau told the Reichstag on June 13, 1922, the book was intended to absolve Germany morally, once and for all. Classical Critical Dionysius Library? [12]

Fearing the prospect of a WWI historiography dictated by cornelissen thesis, Germany, Europe responded. Britain, France and the newly-formed Soviet Union were quick to geography coursework, counter with their own edited accounts of the war, strategically placing blame where they saw fit. [13] London released British Documents on the Origins of the War 1898-1914 , an cornelissen, official collection ordered by Foreign Secretary Ramsay MacDonald, in installments from 1926 to 1938 as an and thesis, answer to Die Grosse Politik. In France, Raymond Poincare, president during the war, originally resisted any publications for fear they might undermine the presumption of German war guilt. Nonetheless, he eventually begged the high-ranking diplomat, Maurice Paleologue (who preferred a posthumous publication) to release documents, recognizing that the debate would carry on with or without France. The Ministry of Public Instruction, the government body responsible for thijs cornelissen, historical inquiry into the war, created the journal, Revue d’histoire de la guerre mondiale , and published its own definitive collection, Documents diplomatiques francais 1871-1914 , in 1936. [14] Russian WWI historiography has a unique origin. The Bolshevik Party came to power in November 1917 with an ostensible commitment to abolishing secret diplomacy. Dionysius Halicarnassus? [15] In keeping with that promise, the Soviet government vowed to cornelissen thesis, release war-relevant documents, which were ultimately published through scattered sources and in an unfinished three-volume work. [16] The Soviets were also equally dedicated to, as historian Niall Ferguson says, portraying the war as “an imperialist self-immolation scene,” thus incriminating the tsarist regime. [17] A brainchild of the state, the journal Krasnyi Arkhiv , which published 106 issues from 1922 to 1941, focused on exposing the previous capitalistic, imperialistic government. [18] In an attempt to classical essay halicarnassus, legitimize the thesis revolution, the Soviet Union, unlike other nations, strategically selected documents in hopes of implicating its own country in the war’s origins. The harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles sparked non-state sponsored debate as well. A school of thought emerged in the 1920s that questioned the extreme notion of Germany’s sole responsibility and statement hoped to eradicate the war-guilt clause and massive reparations. These “revisionists” sought to find a more moderate truth, while some even proposed the thijs cornelissen idea of Triple Entente, specifically British, French and essay appraisal method Russian, culpability.

Naturally, these ideas took the strongest hold in Germany. A pioneer in revisionism, German historian Max Montgelas came to the defense of his country in The Case for thijs thesis, the Central Powers , making claims that Germany and Austria-Hungary had only intended to maintain the status quo. Instead, he argues, it was the Franco-Russian alliance that harbored belligerent goals, specifically the reclaiming of Alsace-Lorraine and the Straights that connected the Black and Mediterranean Sea. [19] Writing in 1927 at Leipzig University, historian Erich Brandenburg admitted his country’s possible “short-sightedness,” but insisted vehemently that Germany had never intended to incite a war. [20] Outside of essay evaluation appraisal method Germany there were very few European scholars calling for the revision of Article 231, though British historians G. P. Gooch and Edmund D. Morel and French historian George Demartial did argue against their profession’s complacency and advocated for truth over patriotism. [21] It was in fact the United States that became the biggest target for war-guilt propaganda. The German Foreign Ministry corresponded with American Senator Robert L. Owen, requesting a review of the war-guilt clause. This partnership engendered overseas discussion, prompting a speech before the U.S. Senate on December 18, 1923 in which Senator Owen made appeals on Germany’s behalf. Thijs? [22]

Many American scholars, like Harry Elmer Barnes, came to accept the became college essay revisionist philosophy. His work, The Genesis of the World War: An Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt is an angry critique of the historiographical status quo and a fierce condemnation of the Versailles Treaty. Thijs Thesis? In his 1926 treatise, he contends that Germany had every right to assemble a navy or expand its empire in the twentieth century just as all European powers had. In fact, Poincare and Russian diplomat Alexander Izvolsky were incendiary figures from the start, looking to convert Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Sazonov to their “war party.” [23] Another respected American historian, Sidney Bradshaw Fay, published Origins of the World War in 1928, which, while not an outright indictment of the Entente, supports much of what Barnes argues. [24] The German government went to great lengths to encourage this kind of American revisionism, regularly inviting Fay to intro and thesis statement, contribute to its historical journal, and purchasing 250 copies of his book to be issued to diplomats. The War Guilt Section provided Barnes with research material, propagated his writings, funded visits to Berlin, Munich and thesis Vienna and translated his book into German and French to be distributed overseas. [25] The revisionists inevitably spawned the anti-revisionists, a group whose work was highly censored in the Weimar Republic. The scholarship of coursework Bernadotte Schmitt, a professor of modern history at the University of thijs thesis Chicago, was never translated into German. [26] His study, The Origins of the First World War , upheld traditional views depicting Austria-Hungary as the instigator of war and thesis archive Germany as its all-important ally and supporter. [27] Prominent French scholar, Pierre Renouvin, a professor of contemporary history at the Sorbonne, published The Immediate Origins of the War in 1927 and was one of the first historians to cornelissen, directly respond to and criticize the gestalt revisionists. [28] Also from the Sorbonne, Professor Camille Bloch wrote in defense of the Versailles verdict in 1935 in The Causes of the World War, claiming that the German Kaiser and Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg had intended violent conflict in hopes of capitalizing on France’s and Russia’s unpreparedness. [29] The debate’s extreme, polarizing nature waned as the thijs thesis end of the 1920s and gestalt papers beginning of the 1930s gave rise to a new, more palatable view.

A belief in shared culpability and a sort of fortuitous stumbling into conflict gained in popularity as nations tried to put the tensions of the First World War behind them. The rise of cornelissen Marxism and a general criticism of the post-industrialized society worked in concert with a more liberal Europe’s attempt to heal itself after the war, leading to the creation of a new school of thought based on halicarnassus library a collective responsibility. Thijs Cornelissen? WWI was deemed by many a “war that no one wanted”—a “failure of systems rather than a product of decisions.” [30] Failed diplomacy, the arms race and the entangling alliances that dominated the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were seen as chief causes for evaluation appraisal method, fighting’s outbreak. Cornelissen? [31] The release of many famous wartime memoirs reinforced this idea. Bethmann-Hollweg’s and British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey’s accounts, published between 1919 and 1921, and in uc berkeley archive 1925, respectively, are descriptions of the impossible positions in which politicians found themselves in thijs thesis July 1914. First Lord of the Admiralty at intro statement the start of the cornelissen thesis war, Winston Churchill’s The World Crisis , published between 1923 and method 1931, as well as the thijs cornelissen memoirs of Prime Minister David Lloyd George (1933), depict the classical critical dionysius essay world struggle as an thesis, inevitable phenomenon beyond anyone’s control. [32] This change in historiography offered a chance to improve international relations—a development even more desirable after World War II. With the international community of scholars moving towards a consensus of collective accountability, French and German historians met in 1951 in Paris and Mainz to eliminate one-sided textbooks and critical halicarnassus create an cornelissen thesis, agreed-upon, uniform, historical curriculum. [33] The conclusions of the archive French, led by cornelissen, Renouvin, and intro and thesis statement the Germans, under the leadership of historian Gerhard Ritter, marked a shift toward moderation on thesis both sides: the uc berkeley portions of the thijs thesis report regarding WWI describe the Franco-Russian pact as merely a natural product of the alliance system and any German aggression as the manifestation of very legitimate fears of encirclement. [34] Even those who preserved the creed of German guilt in intro statement the post-WWII era did so in a much more moderate way. Cornelissen? Italian historian Luigi Albertini’s three-volume treatise, Le origini della guerra del 1914, published in and thesis statement Milan between 1942 and 1943, asserts that Germany urged Austria-Hungary to cornelissen thesis, strike against Serbia in 1914, but not with the intent to ignite a general conflict. Archive? While Albertini’s work ascribes most of the thijs blame to the Central Powers, namely Austria-Hungary and Germany, it appealed to books, readers on both sides of the thijs debate, as his scholarship is also highly critical of Poincare, Grey and Sazonov. [35] In 1954, historian Raymond Aron published The Century of Total War . Although the work builds on the belief of Renouvin that the statesmen of Berlin and Vienna wrongfully risked war, it illustrates the complexities of the conflict that Aron contends cannot be reduced to the guilty and the guiltless. [36] The idea that war was accidental or simply a product of the flawed European system continued to appear in geography books WWI literature.

One of the most legendary and popular portrayals of this stumbling into war was The Guns of August , published by historian Barbara Tuchman in 1962. Tuchman claims that as July 1914 came to thesis, a close and war looked more and more probable, “governments struggled and gestalt term twisted to thijs, fend it off,” but “it was no use.” [37] In a famous investigation into the power of army schedules released in geography 1969, British historian A. J. P. Taylor asserts that the extreme focus on speedy and thijs thesis efficient military timetables forced countries to become increasingly unwilling to turn to diplomacy, for fear of becoming weeks, days, or even precious hours behind in their plans. [38] Taylor lays most of the papers responsibility on the Central Powers, yet he fits partially into the collective culpability school, believing the war was in no way “deliberate,” but actually “produced by cornelissen, muddle.” [39] Historian David Stevenson suggests in “The Politics of the archive Two Alliances” that while alliances were not solely to blame for war, it is impossible to explain the decisions made by the major powers during July 1914 without considering the hostile, two-bloc European system. [40] Equally concerned with international relations, historian John Keegan’s corpus describes a world that was turning away from diplomacy and towards military action. Keegan concedes that A. Thijs Cornelissen Thesis? J. P. Taylor was too extreme in his conclusion that military timetables had caused war, but asserts that Prussia’s success with timetables in 1870 prompted Europe to become increasingly concerned with mobilization dates and evaluation appraisal method further entrenched in secret alliances and inflexible war plans. “Secret plans,” Keegan claims, “determined that any crisis not settled by sensible diplomacy would, in the circumstances prevailing in Europe in 1914, lead to general war.” [41] Historian Paul Kennedy similarly cites the European environment, plagued by the effects of modernization, industrialization and urbanization, as a cause of war.

In The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , Kennedy focuses on the growing suspicion and rivalries in Europe, coupled with the creation of agreements and military pacts. This coalition mentality, Kennedy argues, encouraged countries to act in haste during crises like that of July 1914. [42] Modris Eksteins, a historian also concerned with the thijs thesis active underlying forces of European society, goes so far as to depict WWI as a sort of social conflict. He argues that a more progressive, avant-garde Germany was forced to assert itself to gestalt term, the conservative, old-fashioned Anglo-French. [43] There are fundamental problems with any school of thinking that holds all, or none, accountable. In her book, The War that Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 , historian Margaret MacMillan even describes it as “dangerous thinking” to thesis, accept WWI as an inevitability. Of course there were underlying factors—trends and circumstances—that helped to create an environment conducive to essay appraisal, war, but there were also individuals responsible for thesis, their countries’ policies and decision-making. [44] Leading up to the conflict, Europe was a web of provocative alliances. Stevenson makes a valid point that general war was much more likely after “industrialization…transformed the power to produce and destroy” and gestalt because “central military antagonism polarized the thesis two big blocs.” [45] This arms race and sense of rivalry, however, is essay evaluation not evidence in itself that all nations were equally culpable.

More important is how the thijs cornelissen powers responded to this environment, and that one nation, above all, still felt powerful enough to compete on classical dionysius essay halicarnassus library loeb the world stage, but that its position was becoming increasingly precarious. Germany, in other words, felt as though the window of thijs cornelissen thesis opportunity to prove itself in this type of tense, competitive Europe was quickly closing. [46] There is no significant evidence that any nation hoped for or designed a world war, but the Second Reich, with its fatalistic mentality, maintained a unique willingness to resort to statement, violence. By 1912, most German military commanders painted a very bleak picture for their civilian government. They were convinced that the international geopolitical situation was turning against their country and that Europe’s other armies were poised only to become more potent and better equipped as time went on. [47] As early as December 8, 1912 at thijs thesis the now infamous “war council” held at the Royal Palace in Berlin, German government officials were already discussing the importance of British neutrality, the production of U-boats and efforts to how bingeing became college sport, popularize war. Cornelissen? [48] At the geography meeting, Germany’s leaders expressed confidence in the likelihood of a victory for their nation as long as fighting were to take place before Russian armament increases in cornelissen thesis 1916; as Helmuth von Moltke, the German chief of staff put it: “War the sooner the better.” [49] Although this conference did not result in, as some historians would argue, a design for war (the specific naval expansion and propaganda campaign proposed by the Kaiser never came to evaluation, fruition), it showed, as Christopher Clark says, that Berlin was “strikingly untroubled by the prospect of such an thijs, outcome.” [50] More important, it exhibits the way in which the German generals doubted there being any chance to break their country’s encirclement through peaceful measures. [51] In the years leading up to war, the Second Reich’s leaders did not want to fight, but felt increasingly like they might not have a choice. As conflict seemed more and essay method more inevitable, historian Michael Howard argues, “war avoidance” became a low priority. [52] In their clumsiness, the Germans even exposed their frighteningly cavalier attitude towards combat to the international community when, in November 1913, King Albert of Belgium met with Wilhelm in Berlin. The Belgian military attache reported that the thijs cornelissen Kaiser talked of marching on Paris while Moltke spewed similar bellicosities about the likelihood of an impending war with France. [53] Even in the first half of 1914, a peaceful time when conflict seemed less likely than it had in classical essay library the past, men like Moltke and Generals Alfred von Waldersee and Alfred von Schlieffen still insisted war would prove unavoidable. [54] Moltke and Bethmann-Hollweg believed that if fighting must break out, it was imperative that it be before French and Russian military expansion in one or two years’ time. [55] Waldersee even wrote in his personal journals that though Germany had no reason to thijs cornelissen, fear any imminent attacks, they had equally little reason to uc berkeley thesis, avoid war, as their success seemed probable. [56]

Some historians have nonetheless chosen to cornelissen thesis, focus on systems, rather than these types of statements from individuals. The shift in historiographical thinking in the 1930s, coupled with the rise of Marxism, also led to a more literal Marxist interpretation of the Great War—a view in which gluttonous capitalism and competitive imperialism were to blame for hostilities. The New Essay? [57] This school had early origins with Lenin’s pamphlet “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism” in 1916. Lenin states that “under capitalism the home market is inevitably bound up with the foreign market” and because the cornelissen thesis capitalistic countries of the world had already seized and classical critical essay library divided up all unoccupied territory by the turn of the twentieth century, only redistribution, and therefore conflict, was possible. He also expresses his own perspective on cornelissen thesis the nascent historiography extant at the time of his work’s publication: “bourgeois scholars,” writes Lenin, were defending imperialism “in veiled forms” as they fumbled with “partial and secondary details,” ignoring the became the new college essay real crux of the issue. [58] Lenin laid the groundwork for a less widely-accepted way of thinking, but one that continued to appear periodically in thijs cornelissen thesis WWI historiography. Some researchers investigating the origins of the First World War went so far as to say that the private sector—businessmen and manufacturing companies—encouraged governments to thesis, declare war, hoping to profit from the lucrative armaments market.

One German historian, Willibald Gutsche, rationalizes WWI as the work of thijs greedy steel and mining companies, large banks, engineers and shipping firms. [59] Left-wing British politician, Konni Zilliacus, makes the claim in his Mirror of the Past: A History of how bingeing became the new sport Secret Diplomacy (1946) that the plutocracy financed organizations like Navy, Air and Empire Leagues, Colonial Societies, and cornelissen British capitalist parties, which lobbied successfully for imperialism, protectionism and armaments. Zilliacus also asserts that each country was “defending its imperial interests” and, in a sense, fought a preventative war, attempting to preemptively restrain other powers from achieving economic dominance on the continent. [60] Similarly focused on college sport essay imperialism, historian Eric Hobsbawm’s Age of Empire , published in 1987, scrutinizes the pre-war fixation with competition and thesis formal conquest. He concedes that the Marxist interpretation is not a complete explanation, but believes that “the development of capitalism inevitably pushed the world in the direction of statement state rivalry, imperialistic expansion, conflict, and war” and hurried along the “uncontrolled slide” into catastrophe. Cornelissen? [61] Although, as historian Roland Stromberg observes, the idea that capitalism was at the root of WWI is “as old as the war itself,” this thesis is far from an answer to the war-guilt question. [62] The biggest problem with this rationale is that Anglo-German trade had seen dramatic increases between 1904 and 1914. During this time, Great Britain was Germany’s best customer, and Germany was Great Britain’s second largest export market. [63] The overwhelming belief in London in classical critical loeb the twentieth century was that war would induce economic chaos, not prosperity, and possibly even political dissent from the left. A motion put before the House of Commons in April 1897 had called attention to thijs, inadequate food production in England, leaving the nation’s leaders wary of the essay fiscal implications of fighting or blockade up until and throughout the war. Cornelissen Thesis? [64] Furthermore, the most outspoken German advocates of war, like the statement Pan-German League and Parti Colonial were comprised of mostly teachers and intellectuals who had virtually no connection to big business. Thesis? [65] Capitalism did have its effect on world events in evaluation that the imperialism it helped, in thijs cornelissen thesis part, to inspire was a major source of tension and uc berkeley one of the cornelissen thesis chief catalysts in triggering confrontation. Essay Appraisal Method? Countries like China, Morocco and Egypt became highly sought-after prizes and cornelissen diplomatic battlegrounds as each country pursued its own goals of books economic expansion and worldwide prestige. Thesis? As colonies and foreign markets were divided up among the powers, conflict naturally ensued and classical critical essay halicarnassus loeb the world changed: according to thesis, historian Joachim Remak, had it not been for pressures and disagreements in Africa and Asia, British Foreign Secretary Lord Lansdowne would not have considered abandoning non-alignment when he came to power in 1900 or felt it necessary to dionysius essay halicarnassus library, negotiate a defensive agreement with the French—the Entente Cordiale—In 1904 . [66] It was German imperialism, though, and thijs cornelissen German foreign policy that did the became the new essay most irreversible damage.

Not unified until 1871, Germany had to organize and industrialize rapidly to stay on thijs par with the rest of the top nations of the world. It did not acquire many useful colonies—Germany had come late to the imperialistic party—and always felt left behind and term papers inadequate as a world power. [67] When the cornelissen country was ready to embrace overseas expansion, most of the world’s valuable possessions had already been claimed. Ironically, as historian Zara Steiner states: “It was the British example which provided both the impulse and the obstacle to German expansion.” [68] The Second Reich’s leaders in 1890 did not heed the how bingeing essay words of their former Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, that Germany was in fact a territorially satiated nation. [69] Instead, they adopted a bizarre foreign policy and embarked on ever-changing, ambiguous goals of arbitrary imperialism. Great Britain was never against legitimate German efforts to thesis, expand. Grey was only concerned about British possessions, not, for instance, German efforts to secure ports and coaling stations, penetration of Sweden, Denmark and Holland, or work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railroad. [70] Writing in a memorandum, British diplomat Sir Eyre Crowe acknowledges that his nation should not deter peaceful and legitimate German expansion. In the same document, however, Crowe describes Teutonic expansion as vague and unpredictable, instilling in him a genuine fear that Germany may be more forceful in further attempts to assert itself to the rest of Europe. [71] It was not the idea of German imperialism per how bingeing essay se that led to a hostile Europe, but rather the way in which its policies were carried out. Thesis? Great Britain was left constantly guessing at the Germans’ actual aims, leading the British to misconstrue their motives. As Remak states, with an expanding industry, Germany had the right to seek out markets and natural resources, but so often its foreign policy defied “rational explanation” and was just “action for action’s sake.” [72]

Historian Richard Hamilton characterizes Wilhelmine imperialism along the lines of “bullying tactics.” In 1894 alone, Germany instigated arguments over Samoa, the essay appraisal Congo, the Sudan, Morocco, Turkey, and Portugal’s African colonies. “The tactics,” Hamilton says, “were unpleasant and the apparent lack of motive confused and annoyed the British without producing any serious gain for Germany.” [73] The effects of this alienating, alarming and seemingly random foreign policy became most apparent during the Moroccan Crises, as indiscriminate attempts to thijs thesis, weaken Anglo-French relations only resulted in further German isolation. Critical Dionysius Loeb? [74] In March 1905, the Kaiser landed in Tangier, Morocco and publicly announced his support for its independence. He then asked for an international conference to vote for an open door policy and prohibit the French’s exclusive influence in the northwest African country. Despite France’s willingness to compromise (the influential anti-German diplomat, Theophile Delcasee, was dismissed and a part of Morocco was offered to Germany), the cornelissen Wilhelmine government insisted on staging the conference, which convened in Algeciras in 1906. Remak describes the British as “disturbed” by the “German bullying” and when a vote was finally taken, only Austria-Hungary sided with Germany. [75] The incident at Tangier not only gestalt term, intensified the growing British suspicions of the thijs thesis Second Reich, but the initial capitulation of the French exposed Paris’s weakness, and London’s need to protect its fellow Entente member. The Anglo-French relationship became stronger than ever before. [76] While no binding agreements were reached, the Moroccan Crisis sparked informal military discussions between the French and the British about theoretical army sizes and coordinated strategies. [77] In 1911, there was a native revolt in Morocco, which warranted French military intervention.

The Germans, in a theatrical attempt to remind the essay evaluation appraisal method French that Morocco was still nominally independent, yet ostensibly to protect German citizens in South Morocco (in true clandestine and unintelligible German fashion, the foreign ministry only used this excuse well after the thijs event), sent a gunboat, the Panther , to Agadir during the crisis. [78] Germany had no real designs in Morocco. There were no hopes for intro and thesis statement, gaining territory or any need to thijs, defend its commercial interests there. The Germans were simply motivated by misguided efforts to cultivate prestige and weaken British and French relations. [79] In fact, although Germany intended to force France into negotiations, the Germans were in Morocco for intro and thesis statement, an entire month before they decided what it was that they were demanding. Thijs Cornelissen? Eventually, 100,000 square miles of territory in Central Africa was given to critical halicarnassus library, Germany in exchange for thijs, its recognition of a French protectorate over Morocco. [80] For such little actual gain, the Germans suffered significant diplomatic losses in the Agadir Crisis: the Anglo-French Entente grew stronger once again due to the growing mistrust in their mutual enemy and European leaders felt increasingly certain that they would never be able to understand or predict Germany’s opaque foreign policy. [81] Yet in the 1930s, WWI historiography’s early years of dissecting imperialism, many believed that colonization in general, not one country’s actions, generated enough conflict and competition to precipitate war. As shared responsibility remained the consensus among the scholarly community continuing into the 1940s, and essay evaluation method Europe was distracted by the plunge into another world war, the once loud and heated debate fell nearly silent. Overshadowed by the horrors of WWII and thesis with a sense that the intro and thesis question had been answered, the war-guilt discussion lay dormant for thijs cornelissen thesis, many years. Nowhere in the world was there more unanimity about the war’s origins than in Germany.

The Weimar Republic’s innocence campaign had been so successful and so pervasive that German historians followed suit, becoming increasingly entrenched in their views and unapologetic in uc berkeley thesis archive their defense of the Second Reich. Moreover, in the time of the Third Reich, those who voiced their support of the Versailles verdict risked losing their jobs. Hitler put a stop to all WWI inquiry, fearing his regime might be undermined or eclipsed by memories of the Kaiserreich . In the 1940s and 1950s, Germans continued to believe that their country held no–or at worst–secondary blame for WWI. [82] It was in this environment that historian Fritz Fischer published Griff nach der Weltmacht in West Germany in thijs thesis 1961. His book, eventually translated into English as Germany’s Aims in intro statement the First World War , though claiming to thijs cornelissen thesis, be “neither an indictment nor a defense,” implicated the Germans as being chiefly responsible for the war’s outbreak. Fischer describes Germany as unrelenting in essay appraisal method its quest for world power, a navy comparable to England’s, a central European customs union and an opportunity to overturn the colonial status quo.

The controversial historian argues that the Second Reich’s war-time goals and campaigns for dominance and annexation as laid out by thijs thesis, Bethmann-Hollweg’s Septemberprogramme— German plans created in the first few weeks of WWI — were not a matter of coursework opportunity, but a continuation of fully-formed ambitions discussed well before fighting began. As early as 1912, he contends, Rathenau had completed plans for a Central European customs union, approved by Bethmann-Hollweg. Cornelissen? Before the war, the German chancellor was concerned about gestalt Russia’s abundant natural resources and cornelissen manpower and believed France to be a chief obstacle that needed to be eliminated. Germany, Fischer maintains, encouraged Austria-Hungary to confront Serbia in 1914. The Second Reich did so with “eyes wide open,” knowing that Russia would never let the dual monarchy “act in the Balkans unopposed” and that a general war was not only gestalt term papers, possible, but likely. [83]

The book sparked a furious backlash. In the introduction to a later, translated version, historian James Joll describes the work as being at “the centre of one of the most violent academic controversies,” reigniting the debate over thijs cornelissen, a question thought to be long answered in West Germany. [84] Internationally, Fischer did not present an entirely new view on the issue (his work agreed, in essay halicarnassus loeb large part, with the thesis popular and gestalt term papers widely accepted scholarship of Albertini and Taylor), but domestically, it was a scandal. Cornelissen Thesis? In an almost blasphemous betrayal of the patriotic self-censorship that had evolved as German tradition, Fischer became the term first major West German historian to denounce his country as the principal instigator of WWI. These findings had serious implications. As Joll states: “One can understand why those Germans who are willing to accept Hitler’s responsibility for the Second World War and even, to some extent, Germany’s responsibility for Hitler, find it hard to thijs thesis, reopen the whole question of essay method war guilt in thijs cornelissen thesis the First World War.” [85] If Prussian militarism was responsible for the entire twentieth century, Hitler was not the anomaly. As a result, Fischer and his “Hamburg School” of uc berkeley archive followers suffered personal attacks. Fischer was impugned by some as being supported by thesis, East Germany, a government striving to discredit its predecessors. [86] West German historian Wolfgang J. Mommsen wrote “The Debate on German War Aims” in direct response to Fischer, criticizing him for exaggerating evidence and ignoring context and the circumstances in which decisions were made. [87] Gerhard Ritter, known at the time as the “dean of German historians,” called Fischer an “old Nazi” and accused him in 1964 at the Congress of the German Historical Association in West Berlin of fabricating sources.

In that same year, the West German government cancelled funding for Fischer’s U.S. Thesis Archive? tour. Cornelissen Thesis? [88] Ritter continued to be Fischer’s fiercest critic. In his work, he accuses Fischer of taking politicians’ words out of context and confusing nationalist, patriotic rhetoric for actual political intentions. Essay Evaluation Method? [89] He criticizes Germany’s Aims as being too exaggerated in its depiction of a unique German preoccupation with world power and thijs makes the case that other nations harbored expansionist strategies too. [90] Ritter believes that only the Second Reich’s generals pushed for annexation. He stands firm with the West German status quo that had developed up until the archive time of Fischer’s scholarship, depicting the army and the civilian government as having very different agendas, defending the chancellor and ascribing all notions of aggression to the armed forces. [91] Fischer’s disciples include historians like Dirk Stegmann, Barbara Vogel and Peter Christian Witt who went on to expand his theory. [92] The most outspoken defender of thijs cornelissen Fischer’s thesis was his student, Imanuel Geiss, a professor of intro and thesis statement modern history at thijs cornelissen the University of Breman. In his work, Geiss disputes what he sees as the illusion of geography books encirclement, describing the thijs thesis two bloc alliances as springing mostly from German militarism and bad policy in their quest for power. [93] He believes that, in the time leading up to the events of essay evaluation 1914, the German empire constituted the biggest threat to peace. Germany’s world policy, he maintains, “made war inevitable,” while its pact with Austria-Hungary and Italy was quickly transformed from a defensive agreement to thesis, a “basis for German ambitions as a fledgling world power.” [94] As the Fischerite point of view gained more traction around the world and its stigma in West Germany began to erode, the position inspired further theories of a German preemptive strike or an especially aggressive Second Reich bent on world domination—ideas that have occasionally appeared in WWI historiography ever since.

Historian John C. G. Rohl believes that Germans were in fact trying to establish hegemony on the continent and that the essay evaluation Kaiser and his staff saw the cornelissen controversy in July 1914 as a “golden opportunity” to fight the Franco-Russians. [95] In the legacy of evaluation appraisal method Fischer, historian Jerzy Marczewski argues that Wilhelmine policy was nothing short of “maximum expansion,” while historian David Fromkin believes that Moltke and thesis German General Erich von Falkenhayn seized control from the Austro-Hungarians during the Serbian crisis and crafted the preventative war they had always wanted. [96] Fischer’s treatise reignited an essay evaluation method, important dialogue and appropriately refocused scrutiny on the most deserving country, but did so through an over-extended, problematic philosophy. Germany was chiefly responsible for WWI; it was the most seemingly aggressive nation in the years leading up to war. The Germans should be held responsible, though, not for their assertive, defined goals, but their lack thereof. After Bismarck’s dismissal in thijs 1890, German foreign policy and government decision-making took a dangerous turn.

His less cautious and less able successors abandoned his complex, well-structured plans for a poorly executed, haphazard pursuit of status and prestige. Thesis? [97] While Germany’s policies were without a doubt the most alarming and troublesome of that of all the powers, they were not the foundation of a bid for world domination, but were, rather, a result of the government’s unclear aims and inability to navigate the European system. After 1890, Margaret MacMillan asserts, there was a degree of “indifference” in German foreign policy as leaders allowed their country to “drift” further into dependency upon the Triple Alliance. [98] Even within that relationship, Germany caused tension and confusion. Vienna was fearful of Germany’s inconsistent policies and their overtly aggressive propaganda and naval armaments. [99] Austria-Hungary was not even sure whether it could regularly count on the support of its much stronger ally. In November 1912, at his hunting lodge, the Kaiser personally promised Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand outright support in thijs the First Balkan War (1912-1913), but as conflict broke out, Berlin eventually worked to restrain Vienna and evaluation cooperated with Britain in maintaining peace and undermining its partner. [100] Germany never had concrete plans to exploit tensions between the two blocs of powers and, in fact, even confused and thesis alienated its own ally. The Second Reich maintained bizarre relationships with the other powers as well. The post-Bismarck era was marked by increasing British and classical dionysius essay loeb French uncertainty of their Teutonic neighbors and cornelissen thesis their aims, which, as Paul Kennedy notes, “looked ambitious and dangerous” because they were so often unclear. [101] In 1898, the Germans rejected British statesman Joseph Chamberlain’s offer for a defensive alliance with the British, fearing that an agreement of that kind would dash the hopes for good relations with the uc berkeley Russians. [102] Just a few years later, however, in 1901, Germany changed its strategy, aspiring to thijs cornelissen, ally itself with Great Britain and, accordingly, was hesitant to commit to supporting the French in Morocco. Nevertheless, in their usual desultory fashion, the Germans never reached out to the British to initiate any cooperation over the course of the six months following their rejection of the French. In the meantime, France, apprehensive from the failure to come to an agreement with Germany, began looking to the British for support. [103] It was Germany’s wandering policy, not a well-designed scheme that set the country on the path towards isolation. The Kaiser’s personal attempts to cultivate alliances or control foreign policy often exacerbated the situation for books, the Germans. In 1905, while cruising together on the Baltic, Wilhelm convinced the Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, to sign an impromptu defensive treaty, effectively neutralizing Russia’s treaty with France. Afterwards, both governments were outraged at the actions of their respective heads of state and cornelissen thesis the agreement was immediately annulled, but the close call did have lasting effects for Germany.

Great Britain, which was already intrigued by the Franco-Russian alliance, grew suspicious of the inscrutable, underhanded game Germany seemed to be playing and reevaluated its relationship with Russia, concluding that it may need further security in the face of the Teutonic menace. Once again, it was mere German clumsiness that repelled other nations. During his rule, the Kaiser often alienated the international community. His erratic and unstable personality was worrisome to other nations; Europe’s leaders were unsure whether or not to take him at his word in essay his calls for German dominance and belligerence. Wilhelm’s bellicose speeches, bold correspondences and angry marginalia became infamous, as historian Max Hastings sardonically suggests, “the exclamation mark was his favoured instrument of policy-making.” [104] The German emperor’s intentions were often ridiculous and ephemeral (for a brief period he wanted to create a South American “New Germany” and encourage colonization in and migration to Brazil), but had little effect on actual policy. [105] While the country and the Kaiser’s ostensible aggression had a direct role in both bringing the Triple Entente closer together and creating tension between the two opposing blocs, Wilhelm was not the thijs cornelissen mastermind behind a designed crusade for how bingeing college essay, hegemony.

Even the aggressive rhetoric recklessly thrown around by thijs thesis, the Kaiser and his government was just that—rhetoric—and not an expression of tangible objectives. The principle of Weltpolitik , or world policy, perpetuated by Bulow and became college sport other leaders, included vague notions of thijs thesis German expansionism and critical dionysius essay halicarnassus a dedication to finding its imperial “place in the sun.” This was inherently problematic—most land was either taken or, as in China, highly contentious. Thesis? [106] As the Second Reich promoted propaganda and commissioned endless speeches constructed around Weltpolitik and the German call for ascendancy, neighboring powers naturally grew concerned. Great Britain in particular knew that its empire was the greatest obstacle to German expansion and feared that a more autocratic state like Germany could transform grandiloquence into action overnight. Essay Appraisal Method? [107] While Weltpolitik was a major contributor to the formation of a hostile Europe, it was not the basis of a German attempt at thijs cornelissen world domination. The policy, first of all, was impossible to define. Bulow never publicly expressed any of its actual aims. [108] Even within the government there was confusion. Waldersee wrote in his journal: “We are supposed to pursue Weltpolitik. If I only thesis, knew what that was supposed to be.” [109] MacMillan describes the oscillating foreign policy of Germany between 1890 and 1897 as “incoherent.” In 1894 Leo von Caprivi, chancellor at cornelissen thesis the time, told the German ambassador to papers, London that the Solomon Islands were a crucially important imperialistic target, yet within two months, Berlin lost all interest there. [110] The German world policy never resulted in many actual gains.

Its practical achievements after 1897 included only the modest acquisition of the cornelissen Caroline Island and a segment of Samoa. [111] With its forceful rhetoric, aggressive speeches, and Weltpolitik, the appraisal method German government postured itself as a threat to peace, seriously alarming the cornelissen thesis major powers and method isolating the Second Reich. This heavy-handed approach had a direct effect on Europe at large, and set the stage for war in 1914. German stratagem remained at its core, however, illogical, indefinable, and without conscious design. Among the scholars involved in thijs cornelissen thesis the historiographical debate, many came to term, see this point of view, questioning the extremism of Fischer’s thesis, while some still took a strong stance in thijs cornelissen his defense. Others were inspired by became college sport, his work to thijs cornelissen, explore new ways of thinking about WWI. Loeb? One particular offshoot, the “domestic crisis school,” argues that local, not global politics, was at the center of the war’s outbreak. Thijs? [112] The work of West German historian Eckart Kehr (a contemporary of Fischer whose ideas were actually published before Germany’s Aims ) became increasingly popular in uc berkeley thesis the midst of the Fischer controversy, and his theory of thijs cornelissen der primat der innenpolitik , or the primacy of domestic politics, offered a new perspective. Kehr contends that solely considering diplomacy is not a thorough enough investigation. He argues that the Second Reich was chiefly responsible in starting the First World War, but only in intro statement that the state’s foreign policy was “a means to their domestic ends.” Essentially, much of Germany’s pre-war decisions were conservatives’ attempts to quell the cornelissen thesis social conflicts that arose in the 1890s and geography coursework books preserve patriarchal, agrarian capitalism. Kehr notes that the German agrarian elites originally rejected the building of a naval fleet in 1890, but came to embrace the idea at the turn of the century in the spirit of Anglo opposition because the cornelissen thesis British—an industrialized power—victory over the Boers—an agrarian society—represented a blow to their traditional position of power. [113] Arno Mayer, a historian from Princeton University, takes the argument even further, claiming that because of internal turmoil, German policymakers were especially willing to engage in violence in uc berkeley thesis archive 1914; their fear of revolution trumped their fear of combat. [114] In essence, the Second Reich fought a counter-revolutionary, diversionary war. [115] Historian Michael Gordon, writing in thesis 2014, agrees that a sole focus on gestalt term foreign policy is insufficient in understanding the First World War.

He describes the elites of the Wilhelmine era as living in an “anxiety-ridden condition,” disturbed by the societal vicissitudes that accompanied Germany’s budding modernism and thijs cornelissen remarkably quick industrialization. Inevitably, Gordon believes, this uneasiness informed subsequent government decision-making. [116] While the fear of social upheaval in pre-war Germany may have been very real, any organized attempts to combat the issue or divert attention from it were not. The labor strikes that occurred in Germany and elites’ trepidation over a new, more progressive lower class were not unique problems, but ones that the Second Reich was especially ill equipped to manage. Their unreliable political system included a federal parliament, the Reichstag , which maintained the power to approve the national budget and term a federal council, the Bundesrat , which oversaw foreign affairs and the army and navy. The council never amassed much power. In Bismarck’s time, he designated himself not only Chancellor, but Prussian Minister-President and cornelissen Foreign Minister, running foreign affairs out of the Prussian Foreign Ministry. With such broad control, when Bismarck was gone, it became unclear where responsibility and final authority lay. Uc Berkeley Thesis Archive? In this atmosphere, the cornelissen Reichstag often tried to establish some sort of control and geography books influence government policy by withholding approval of thijs budgets, resulting in devastating political paralysis in times of crisis. [117] Social uproar shed light on the inefficiency of the German system, but did not inspire notions of using war as a distraction. In fact, Bethmann-Hollweg believed that this environment made war even riskier—defeat could open the papers door to thijs, revolution. Coursework Books? [118]

The internal distress of the Second Reich was more of an indirect cause of WWI. Dissent led Germany to thijs cornelissen, adopt certain policies that helped to create an environment hospitable to war in 1914. Intro And Thesis? Just as Volker Berghahn, a historian who wrote on Germany’s domestic situation, argues, internal and external factors are interdependent. [119] In the late nineteenth century Bulow, the Kaiser and conservative advisors adopted a policy of Sammlungspolitik —a program dedicated to galvanizing nationalist support and undermining socialism through, in part, an active foreign policy. Bulow once revealed that the Germans had taken Samoa, knowing it to be of no use, solely in hopes of inspiring pride and patriotic fervor at home. Thijs Cornelissen? [120] Sammlungspolitik also involved state-sponsored propaganda. There were films, pamphlets, battleship launches and public ceremonies celebrating the fortitude of uc berkeley archive Germany.

Even naval armament, to some extent, had its origins in the quest to quell social unrest. Thijs? Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and how bingeing sport essay other officials believed the expansion of the navy could inspire German prestige and develop as a project for citizens to rally behind. Thijs Cornelissen Thesis? [121] However, this ostentatious bellicosity used as means of uniting Germans only papers, worked to instill fear in the rest of the world. [122] Throughout the historiography of the war, the cornelissen thesis tense relationship between Great Britain and Germany—one exacerbated by the naval race—has been examined endlessly, yielding various hypotheses about gestalt term how competition between the two nations was allowed to escalate into armed conflict. A viable, but less popular view, defended wholeheartedly by Ferguson in 1999 in The Pity of thijs cornelissen thesis War , contends that London, not Berlin, was at gestalt term papers the center of the thijs cornelissen thesis sour relations. The author claims that any chance at Anglo-German cooperation broke down, not due to Germany’s strength or aggression, but as a byproduct, in geography coursework fact, of its weakness: Britain felt it needed to appeal to cornelissen, stronger allies like Russia, France, or the and thesis United States, even if it meant marginalizing others. There is no doubt that Germany was outpacing Britain and France economically and industrially, Ferguson admits, but it was not beating them financially. By 1913, Britain had accumulated 3.9 billion pounds of foreign assets, while France had about thesis half as much, and Germany only a quarter. [123] The historian also argues that Grey and his government were constantly overestimating the and thesis belligerence of the Second Reich, wrongly accusing them of Napoleonic schemes.

The threat posed by thijs cornelissen thesis, the German navy, for example, was exaggerated. In 1912, Germany had nine dreadnoughts to the British’s fifteen; at coursework the start of war, the thijs Entente had forty-three warships, while the Central Powers had only twenty. As other historians and defenders of the Second Reich often point out, Tirpitz’s plan for naval armaments were never connected to intro and thesis, any specific offensive campaigns. Cornelissen? [124] Although Germany never formulated explicit plans for the navy, the program remained the most incendiary element of Anglo-German relations. Even a historian like Keegan, who tends to lay blame on abstract concepts, like diplomacy and gestalt rivalry, admits that the worst rivalry of all was the one actively provoked by the Germans when they decided to embark on thijs cornelissen building a fleet comparable to the best in the world—the British navy. [125] Although the British always maintained their naval supremacy, the German fleet was still a direct threat to geography, Britain, a country whose defense and security was based on the water. Cornelissen? It was also a country that relied heavily on imports: Britain imported seven-eighths of uc berkeley its raw materials (excluding coal) and cornelissen thesis half of its food supply. [126] An enemy blockade would be devastating. In addition, an agreement between Grey and French diplomat Paul Cambon specified that the French fleet protect all Entente interests in the Mediterranean while the British fleet protect the Channel. Therefore, Germany’s more realistic goal of building a navy as strong as France’s had huge implications for the British as well. [127] Germany already maintained the biggest army of the twentieth century. Naval expansion, then, was an essay appraisal, especially antagonistic, alarming practice as Britain and the other major countries worried that too much power would be concentrated in the hands of one nation. [128] Like much of Germany’s inexplicable policy, naval development was also seemingly unnecessary.

Tirpitz and Bulow made claims that a fleet would benefit the cornelissen Germans’ colonial exploits, and yet there was very little economic significance to their colonies after 1897. [129] As Geiss writes: some politicians in Britain were “disturbed and the new college sport essay even frightened by thijs cornelissen, the menace of the German fleet, of uc berkeley Germany’s vague, ill-defined demands, her pretensions and the ostentatious display of thijs thesis her military and essay halicarnassus library naval power.” [130] Unable to discern the actual motivations behind the fleet, Great Britain and the rest of Europe often assumed the worst. The British were effectively alienated once again as a result of another German diplomatic blunder in January 1896. The incident—known today as the Kruger Telegram—involved a congratulatory message from the Kaiser to Paul Kruger, the thijs cornelissen thesis president of the South African Republic, commending his work in repelling British invasion. Regarding Great Britain’s efforts in South Africa, most powers were in fact privately in support of Kruger, but were prudent enough to remain publicly neutral. [131] As Remak states: “the Germans did not even possess enough good sense to avoid policies that were bound to create friction…with Great Britain.” [132] Limited by their own tunnel vision, Germans remained seemingly blind to the realities of the world and unwittingly agitated the British with their unnecessary and essay appraisal method unwise policies. Beyond the historical investigation of cornelissen thesis prewar Britain, much of the literature on uc berkeley thesis the Great War’s origins also seeks to explain the nature of Franco-Russian tension with Germany. Thijs Cornelissen? In the tradition of revisionists like Barnes, some recent scholarship still maintains Russia and France were motivated in going to war, or at least in entering into their surprising and provocative alliance, because of their respective hopes of claiming the highly sought-after Straights and to recover the lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. [133] In other words, the partnership was based on expansion and revenge. In his 2011 book, The Russian Origins of the First World War , historian Sean McMeekin argues in this same vein, claiming that much of classical essay Russia’s foreign policy was centered on finding a warm water port and thijs cornelissen thesis a fear that an became the new college sport essay, improving Turkish army would make that objective difficult. He argues that the historiography focuses more on Germany’s war aims only because its army’s early success provided the opportunity for leaders to thijs cornelissen, consider expansion and more aggressive ambitions. If a battle like Tannenberg had had a different outcome, more historians would be debating Russia’s bellicosity. [134]

There is very little evidence that either France or Russia designed a war for expansion. French revanche has been dispelled by recent scholarship as a myth, and though a thorn in intro and thesis statement the side of France, lost territory was far from cornelissen thesis, a reason to risk world war. In fact, Alsace-Lorraine was a profitable center for the nations on either side as it served as the nexus between the very successful Franco-German banks and uc berkeley thesis archive industry. [135] In 1914, the Tsar and the Russian government had even less reason to provoke conflict, knowing that their country would be much better prepared in two years time upon the completion of their military plans and armaments production. [136] The Franco-Russians cannot be considered blameless—their decision alone to ally with one another was antagonizing, turning German fears of encirclement into a reality. Their partnership, however, did not inspire, but rather was a result of a mutual distrust of Berlin and its strange policies and disturbing rhetoric. [137] In fact, it was the same strange German policy that directly led to its enemies’ union.

As historian George F. Kennan writes in thijs thesis The Fateful Alliance , “the decline of the special Russo-German relationship was the prerequisite for geography books, the establishment of any significant political and military intimacy between Russia and France.” [138] When in 1890 the Tsar made an offer to the Kaiser to renew the Reinsurance Treaty (an agreement designed by thijs cornelissen thesis, Bismarck three years earlier in which both nations consented to gestalt term papers, remain neutral if the other were to end up at cornelissen thesis war), the Germans rejected the critical halicarnassus library Russian proposal, worried it may contradict their arrangement with Austria-Hungary. None of cornelissen Bismarck’s successors had his propensity for judiciously maintaining foreign relations and skillfully fitting the country’s agreements and treaties neatly together. Geography Books? As a result, the Russians, fearing isolation, turned to the French, while the thijs cornelissen thesis Germans became intrinsically more reliant on gestalt term their only viable ally—Austria-Hungary. [139] More often than the Franco-Russians, the Austro-Hungarians have been cited as the principal instigator of WWI due to their provocative ultimatum to Serbia on July 23, 1914. Landlocked Serbs wanted to expand, access more markets, and encourage subversion in thijs cornelissen the multi-cultural Austria-Hungary. [140] Their country, due to the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, increased in gestalt term papers size by 80 percent, while the dual monarchy was left in a very precarious position as a world power. [141] It was no secret then that Austria-Hungary was looking to absorb its chief rival and biggest threat, Serbia, and that its chief of staff of the armed forces, Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf, was a zealous hawk who had been agitating for action against the Serbs since 1906. [142] Historian Max Hastings is thijs among many who reserve harsh judgment for the Austro-Hungarians, criticizing their desperation to intro, become a more formidable world power and cornelissen thesis the speed with which their military leader’s impulse turned violent. Between January 1, 1913 and June 1, 1914, Hastings notes in his book Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to uc berkeley archive, War, Conrad asked his government for war a total of twenty-six times. [143] Austria-Hungary should bear secondary blame for the war. Cornelissen Thesis? Its failure to act swiftly and decisively following the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand on June 28, 1914 opened a window of opportunity for intro statement, controversy and allowed events to escalate into chaos. The international community was initially sympathetic to the nation whose heir to the throne had just been murdered and had always considered Serbia an inherently violent and backward place.

If the dual monarchy had taken immediate, punitive action, there likely would have been no opposition. Cornelissen Thesis? It was Austria-Hungary’s decision to wait nearly a month (which incited fears that the Central Powers were planning a much larger war) and geography coursework books include its more powerful allies in a situation unrelated to them that led to the outbreak of general conflict. [144] If Austria-Hungary should be held accountable for thijs, mishandling the events of July, the essay appraisal method Germans should be afforded as much blame in the blind support of their inept ally. After the assassination, the Second Reich acted according to its typical reflexive and thesis impetuous behavior. On July 5, 1914, Austria-Hungary’s foreign minister, Count Leopold Berchtold, sent Alexander Hoyos, his chief of staff, to Berlin to arrange a meeting between the Austro-Hungarian ambassador to Germany, Laszlo Szogyeny, and how bingeing college Wilhelm II to see what role the cornelissen Germans were willing to play in the dual monarchy’s plans for action. Despite confessing the need for final confirmation from his chancellor, the Kaiser ultimately offered his nation’s support. Essay Appraisal Method? By July 6, Bethmann-Hollweg had also sent the cornelissen allies word of his agreeing to whatever aid the country requested in its strike against Serbia. This unwavering promise of support came to be known by historians as the “blank check.” The blank check, issued casually and without much consideration of the devastating alliance mechanism it could initiate, was vital in geography coursework books Austria-Hungary’s decision to take action. The question of German support had been on every leader’s mind since the commencement of discussions of revenge. [145] The Austro-Hungarians, militarily and economically relatively weak, and certainly isolated without the help of cornelissen thesis Germany, would have been far less likely to classical critical library, engage in conflict without the help of their ally. In fact, their monarch, Franz Joseph, refused to sign off on war until he was assured of German support. [146]

This blind faith—a pledge of support without hesitancy or reflection—was typical of the Second Reich, always plunging into the tides of conflict without sticking a toe in the water first. The issuing of the thijs blank check was only the grand finale in a series of German indiscretions and careless decision-making. Became College Sport? The famous Prussian efficiency of the army never carried over into the civilian government in thijs cornelissen thesis the forms of diplomacy or foreign policy, as German leaders, with vague dreams of critical dionysius halicarnassus loeb success, always seemed to have their hand in twice as many matters as the rest of the thijs world, but with only half the results. The Germans’ reassurance to Austria-Hungary, a country which holds secondary responsibility for its direct role in precipitating conflict, was the method tipping point in a world disposed toward war—a world created, in large part, inadvertently by thijs thesis, Germany. The Triple Entente is statement not blameless in the events leading up to WWI. The British, the French and the Russians all participated in the same arms race and secret diplomacy that made Europe such a powder keg in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Thijs Cornelissen? They were quick to geography books, grow suspicious and often acted on fears grounded in an overestimation of German belligerence. At the cornelissen thesis root of many of the Entente nations’ decisions, however, was German recklessness. Statement? Nevertheless, the Second Reich never forged concrete plans to spark a world war. Like so many of its gestures, the call to thesis, fight or desire to classical dionysius essay loeb, prove themselves was mostly rhetoric, uttered without thinking and without intention. Even the clearest expression of belligerence communicated by the men in Berlin on thesis December 8, 1912, though alarming and how bingeing the new essay proof of a unique German perspective, never resulted in thesis the actual war preparations that were discussed.

It was Germany’s clumsy attempts to how bingeing became the new college essay, flourish, not devious, calculated plans that led to war. Encumbered with domestic turmoil, and thijs suffering a sense of inadequacy on the continent, Germany’s policies unraveled in confusion and isolation after Bismarck’s dismissal in 1890. Patriotic, truculent propaganda and the insistence on developing a world-class navy were intended to serve the German people in their time of essay library disunion, but only managed to inflame the international community. The Kaiser, prone to his fits of rage and his perpetually changing plans; Weltpolitik with its menacing bombast; and Germany’s seemingly arbitrary, antagonistic foreign policy (including the Moroccan Crises and the rejection of the Reinsurance Treaty), culminated in an anxiety-ridden Europe and an estranged two-bloc system. This Europe, crafted unskillfully by Teutonic leaders, was poised perfectly for war in July 1914.

With one bullet, one pledge of thijs cornelissen thesis support, and one ultimatum, the world that Germany had unintentionally created, spiraled into an unprecedented catastrophe. Like other nations, the Second Reich was fearful of war, but less so. Leaders and politicians, like Wilhelm and Bethmann-Hollweg, and military men, like Schlieffen and Waldersee, often expressed belief in the war’s inevitability. Moltke’s insistence on “war the sooner the better” has now become infamous and cited innumerable times throughout the voluminous historiography of classical critical dionysius halicarnassus WWI. In the literature of the past century, historians have focused on quotes like these and tried to make sense of the devastation and failure to compromise in 1914. The majority place responsibility on thesis Germany, to varying degrees, but countless other creative and cogent theories have been promulgated. The New College Sport Essay? Nonetheless, the blame game is less about condemning those from our past and more about ensuring the brightness of our future. As the investigation continues, without a conclusion in sight, historians provide the world with an in depth dissection of rivalry and conflict—knowledge that may give the thijs thesis world a better chance at fending off the demons of division, competition and violence that plagued Europe in 1914. [1] Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 (New York: Harper, 2013), xxiii. [2] Holger Afflerbach and David Stevenson, eds ., An Improbable War? The Outbreak of gestalt papers World War I and European Political Culture before 1914 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), x-xii.

[3] Annika Mombauer, The Origins of the First World War: Controversies and thijs thesis Consensus (London: Pearson Education Limited, 2002), 106. [4] Frederick Hale, “Fritz Fischer and the Historiography of World War One,” [6] Niall Ferguson, The Pity of and thesis War: Explaining World War I (New York: Basic Books, 2009), xxxiii; Holger Herwig, “Of Men and Myths: The Use and thijs Abuse of History and essay evaluation the Great War,” in The Great War and the Twentieth Century , ed. Cornelissen Thesis? Jay Winter, Geoffry Parker and Mary R. Habeck (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 301. [9] John W. Langdon, July 1914: The Long Debate, 1918-1990 ( Oxford: Berg Publishers Inc., 1991), 2. [12] Keith Wilson, ed., Forging the Collective Memory: Government and International Historians through Two World Wars (Providence, RI: Berghahn Books, 1996), 11-12. [14] Jay Winter and Antoine Prost, The Great War in History: Debates and Controversies 1914 to the Present (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 9. [19] Max Montgelas, “The Case for the Central Powers,” in The Outbreak of the First World War: Who Was Responsible?, ed. Dwight E. Lee (Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1963), 5. [20] Erich Brandenburg, “From Bismarck to the World War,” in how bingeing became the new essay Lee, 8. [22] Herman Wittgens, “Senator Owen, the Schuldreferat, and thijs thesis the Debate over War Guilt in the 1920s,” in evaluation Wilson, 128-129. [23] Harry Elmer Barnes, The Genesis of the World War: An Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt (New York: Howard Fertig, 1970), 46-48, 138. [24] Sidney Bradshaw Fay, “Origins of the World War,” in Lee, 16, 19. [25] Holger Herwig, “Clio Deceived: Patriotic Self-Censorship in Germany after the Great War , ” in Wilson, 105. [27] Bernadotte E. Schmitt, “The Origins of the First World War,” in Lee, 74-75.

[29] Camille Bloch, “The Causes of the World War, in thijs cornelissen thesis Lee, 22, 25. [34] Franco-German Textbook Commission, Franco-German Agreement on Controversial Issues in European History , in Lee, 64. [36] Raymond Aron, “The Century of Total War,” in Lee, 68. [37] Barabara Tuchman, The Guns of August (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964), 72. [38] A. J. Intro? P. Taylor, War by thijs thesis, Timetable: How the First World War Began (New York: American Heritage, 1969), 15, 18. [39] A. J. P. Taylor, “Fritz Fischer and His School,” The Journal of Modern History 47, no.

1 (March 1975): 121, accessed August 26, 2014, [40] David Stevenson, “The Politics of the Two Alliances,” in Winter, Parker and Habeck, 78. [41] John Keegan, The First World War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999), 26-28, 48. [42] Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (New York: Random House Inc., 1987), 199, 249, 252-254. [43] Modris Eksteins, Rites of essay evaluation appraisal Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the thijs Modern Age (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989), 82-83. [44] Margaret MacMillan, The War that Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 ( New York: Random House, 2013), xxvi, xxxv. [45] David Stevenson, Armaments and the Coming of War: Europe 1904-1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 9, 15. [48] Clark, 329; Max Hastings, Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to War (New York: Random House LLC, 2013), 30.

[52] Michael Howard, “The First World War Reconsidered,” in Winter, Parker and Habeck, 22-23. [54] Holger Afflerbach, “The Topos of Improbable War in Europe before 1914,” in Afflerbach and term Stevenson, 162-163, 167. [58] V. J. Lenin, “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of cornelissen thesis Capitalism,” (New York: International Publishers, 1982), 68, 76, 109. [60] K. Zilliacus, “Mirror of the Past: A History of Secret Diplomacy, ” in appraisal Lee, 46. [61] Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of cornelissen thesis Empire: 1875-1914 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987), 56, 315. [62] Roland Stromberg, “ On Chercher Le Financier : Comments on the Economic Interpretations of World War I,” The History Teacher 10, no. 3 (May, 1977): 435-436, accessed July 24, 2014, [63] Zara Steiner, Britain and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Became? Martin’s Press, 1977), 62.

[64] David French, “The Edwardian Crisis and thijs cornelissen thesis the Origins of the First World War,” The International History Review 4, no. 2 (May 1982): 208, 210, 216, accessed August 19, 2014, [66] Joachim, Remak, The Origins of World War I: 1871-1914 (New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1967), 37. [67] Volker Rolf Berghahn, Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1973), 19-20; H.W. Koch ed., Origins of the First World War: Great Power Rivalry and German War Aims (New York: Palgrave Taplinger Publishing Co., 1972), 2. [71] Imanuel Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” in Koch, 50. [73] Richard F. Hamilton, “The European Wars: 1815-1914,” in The Origins of World War I , ed.

Richard F. Hamilton and Holger Herwig (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 83. [74] Michael Ekstein, “Sir Edward Grey and Imperial Germany in 1914,” Journal of evaluation method Contemporary History 6, no. 3 (1971): 123, accessed July 14, 2014, [79] David E. Kaiser, “Germany and the Origins of the First World War,” The Journal of Modern History 55, no. 3 (September 1983): 452, accessed June 22, 2014, [83] Fritz Fischer, Germany’s Aims in the First World War (New York: W. W. Norton Company Inc., 1967), 8, 10-11, 28-29, 34-35, 52, 63. [84] James Joll, introduction to Fischer, xviii. [87] Wolfgang J. Mommsen, “The Debate on German War Aims,” in 1914: The Coming of the First World War , ed. Walter Laqueur and George L. Thijs Cornelissen Thesis? Mosse (New York: Harper Row Publishers Inc., 1966), 54-55. [90] Klaus Epstein, “Gerhard Ritter and uc berkeley thesis archive the First World War,” in Laqueur and Mosse, 188, 192. [93] Imanuel Geiss, “The Outbreak of the First World War and German War Aims,” in thijs cornelissen thesis Laqueur and Mosse, 76-77.

[94] Imanuel Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” 36-37, 45. [95] Holger H. Herwig, “Germany,” in Hamilton and Herwig, 150; John C. G. Thesis? Rohl, “The Curious Case of the Kaiser’s Disappearing War Guilt: Wilhelm II in thijs thesis July 1914,” in Afflerbach and Stevenson, 78-79. [96] Jerzy Marczewski, “German Historiography and archive the Problem of Germany’s Responsibility for World War I,” Polish Western Affairs 12, no. 2 (1977): 289, accessed August 26, 2014,;AuthType=ip#038;db=30h#038;AN=46400273#038;site=ehost-live#038;scope=site; David Fromkin, Europe’s Last Summer: Who Started the Great War in 1914? (New York: Alfred A. Cornelissen Thesis? Knopf, 2004), 290-291. [97] Michael Epkenhans, “Was a Peaceful Outcome Thinkable?: The Naval Race before 1914,” in Afflerbach and Stevenson, 116. [99] Samuel R. Gestalt Term? Williamson Jr., Austria-Hungary and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St.

Martin’s Press, 1991), 86-87, 143. [103] John F. V. Keiger, France and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983), 18, 21. [113] Eckart Kehr, Economic Interest, Militarism, and Foreign Policy: Essays on German History , ed. Gordon A. Craig, trans. Grete Heinz (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), 23-24, 27. [115] Michael. R Gordon, “Domestic Conflict and the Origins of the First World War: The British and the German Cases,” The Journal of thijs cornelissen thesis Modern History 46, no. 2 (June 1974): 193, accessed August 1, 2014,, 193. [127] Sean McMeekin, July 1914: Countdown to War (New York: Basic Books, 2013), 72-73.

[130] Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” 48. [134] Sean McMeekin, The Russian Origins of the First World War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011), 30-31, 77. [137] D. C. B. Lieven, Russia and critical dionysius essay halicarnassus library loeb the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983), 27. [138] George F. Kennan, The Fateful Alliance: France, Russia, and the Coming of the First World War ( New York: Pantheon Books, 1984), xii.

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How to Find Resumes on the Internet with Google. Want to learn how to find resumes on the Internet using Google? You’ve come to the right place! Whether you are new to searching the Internet for cornelissen thesis, resumes or you are a veteran Interent sourcer, I’ve included some tips, tricks, and observations for the novice and method expert alike. When using Google to cornelissen thesis, search specifically for resumes, it’s a good idea to begin by searching for the word “resume” in the title and/or the url of web pages. For example: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) Here is essay evaluation a sample result to thesis, illustrate how this works – we can see the word “Resume” in uc berkeley archive, the blue TITLE line, as well as in cornelissen thesis, the green URL line. The first line of any search result is the title of the essay appraisal webpage, and the url is the specific web page’s address.

Targeting the word “resume” in the title and/or url is very handy, because for cornelissen thesis, many people, it’s simply common sense/instinct to either title the essay appraisal web page containing their resume with the word “resume,” and/or save their resume using the word “resume” in the name of the file. Eliminating False Positive Results. A “false positive” result is cornelissen a search result that contains your search terms, but does not match the “essence” of geography coursework, what you are actually trying to find. Thijs Cornelissen Thesis? For example – if you’re searching for resumes, there are many sites that will be returned in coursework books, your search results that are in fact not resumes, such as sites advertising resume samples and thijs thesis job postings that mention phrases such as, “submit resumes to…” In order to remove most non-resume false positive results, you can use Google’s version of the Boolean NOT operator, which is the statement minus sign, to thijs thesis, prevent your search from returning results with words such as sample, job, etc. (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples. Other ideas of terms you can try to eliminate that may return false positive results:

-eoe -submit -free -”resume service” -template -”resume service” -“resume writers” -“resume writing” Some people who decide to make their resume available on the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. Essay Evaluation Appraisal? To find these folks, you can try and include local area codes in your search in attempt to find them. Here is an example of a search using area codes to target people who live in Northern VA: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -“resume service” (703 OR 571) What you’ll notice, however, is that searching for area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in the screenshot below – which are the thijs first 4 results from the search. Result #3 and #4 mention the number 571, but it’s not referenced as an area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of resumes of people who live in VA, you can add the state and state abbreviation to the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and geography coursework books phrases: While there are still a good number of thijs cornelissen, non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didn’t even search for dionysius essay library, any keywords/skills.

Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in false positives. Another way to search for thijs, local resumes is to target a zip code radius. While Google doesn’t support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the fact that Google supports searching for numbers within a range, otherwise known as “numrange” search. Papers? You can perform a numrange search on any sequential (low to high) set of numbers by typing two periods between the numbers without any spaces. This is especially helpful because we can exploit this search functionality and thijs cornelissen adapt it to performing a zip code radius search.

For example, take your target zip code and use this handy zip code radius lookup application, which you can use to how bingeing became essay, search for zip codes in a radius and sort the zip codes within the radius from thijs cornelissen, low to high. Using a central zip code of 75201 in Dallas, TX and targeting a 20 mile radius, we can use that zip code radius application to get a range of zip codes from a low zip code of 75001 to a high zip code of 76155. Using Google’s numrange search syntax, here is an example of a search string targeting people within a 20-mile radius of 75201 in TX: Sample results: you can see the zip code search worked beautifully: Here are a couple of things to keep in mind when searching for local resumes: Not everyone will publish a phone number on their resume If they do publish a phone number on their resume, it could be a cell phone with a non-local area code if they relocated from another area – this is why is uc berkeley thesis archive can be helpful to search for zip codes as well as area codes If they don’t publish a phone number at all, they should at least mention a city and/or state. Targeting Resumes That Are Not Titled As “Resume”

Although plenty of people do title their resume or the web page containing their resume with the word “resume,” there are some people who don’t. After searching for all of the results that DO contain the word “resume” in the URL or title of the web page, you need to thijs thesis, try to essay library, eliminate them from future search results using Google’s NOT operator, the minus sign, to specifically target the results that don’t mention resume in the title or URL. For example: Don’t be tempted to try and write that as -(inurl:resume OR intitle:resume), because Google will not read that search string in thijs cornelissen thesis, the manner in which you intend. Instead of eliminating results with the word “resume” in either the URL or the title, Google will in fact will do the exact opposite. Click here to see the thesis sad reality. Sorry Google. Next, you’ll have to think about words that are commonly found on resumes, such as “objective,” “summary,” “experience,” “employment,” “skills,” “history,” “education,” etc. Then you’ll have to try and reduce false positive results of job postings, resume sample sites and such, and also target local results. Putting it all together, your search string could look like this: First page results:

We can see that the first result is essentially of a resume, yet the person saved their work history as “biodata.” See? Some people don’t use the word resume. :-) Looking at the second result, we can see that the word “resume” is thijs thesis actually highlighted in the url of the second result – which technically should not happen, as we coupled Google’s NOT/- operator with inurl:resume. Yet more proof that Boolean search does not = Internet search. The New Sport? That’s 2 strikes, Google. The third result is definitely not a resume – it is a LinkedIn directory by name, within which is at least one positive hit on our search terms. While there are no doubt resumes on cornelissen, the Internet that do not mention the word “resume,” anywhere within them, I have found that when you stray from targeting the how bingeing college sport word “resume” in web page titles and URLs, you can quickly find yourself swimming in a sea of false positive results, which is cornelissen thesis a huge time drain.

I believe the 80/20 Pareto principle solidly applies here: You will get 80% of your viable results from targeted resume searches and the other 20% from searching without targeting the word “resume.” Likewise, you can easily waste 80% of geography books, your time trying to thijs cornelissen thesis, sort through the sea of false positives in order to uc berkeley, dig up the cornelissen thesis 20% of resumes that do not mention the term. I’ve provided you with a quick overview of how to effectively utilize Google to search for resumes on books, the Internet. Be aware though – all is not perfect in when hunting for resumes in thesis, Google land – if you have not already, please read these 2 posts: The Internet has Free Resumes – So What?and Boolean search does not = Internet search. For those of you who read this post and asked why I: didn’t talk about coursework, searching for CV’s didn’t suggest using the tilde. operator in thijs cornelissen, conjuntion with the word “resume” didn’t use - job when trying to eliminate false positive results didn’t talk about statement, targeting filetypes didn’t talk about just searching for the word “resume” without using it in conjunction with inurl: or intitle: didn’t mention Google CSE’s.

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Thanks Glen! This really was a value addition to my efforts! I have tried the search as ‘ Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume (objective OR summary) (experience OR history) education -job -jobs -sample -samples’ which you have mentioned. But I didn’t get any result from linkedin site. If I modify the search keyword as ‘ Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume -job -jobs’ then I got result from linkedin site but it displays events also along with candidates. I found this article very interesting and appealing as I have been trying to learn ways to do sourcing for resumes on gestalt, the internet. Thesis? I am trying to learn ways to form such a string on either google or any other tool/site. I am new to this and can hardly understand all the requirements.Could you be kind enough to post an became the new sport, article for the same? I have already subscribed on cornelissen, this site. Thanks a lot for thesis, your article, i have heard about resume search in google but i dont know how to do it. After reading your article i have got an thijs, idea to how bingeing the new sport, do it.. Thijs? i will try.

please post me the articles related to this search and job search in US. i do appriciate your help… Thank you so much. Hey, thanks a lot for all the information you are sharing with. Its real cool. How ever I would like to know more about essay evaluation appraisal, sourcing the cornelissen thesis resume.

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I am searching Google for Android engineers and have used the following string: android engineer OR Mobile Programmer resume filetype:pdf -guide -events -hire -amazon -job -jobs -manual. I have returned ok results… Here is my question, how do I eliminate European countries and Canada from thijs, my results? I look forward to your reply. Thanks again. Internet Resume Search 2.0 does all the internet search work for you using the major search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing at: Thank you so much for this article. Can you send me few tips with example to coursework, my personal gmail id Great article! Thank you for sharing this knowledge. It’s going to thijs cornelissen thesis, be very useful for my searches.

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It is by far the most useful and easy to understand introduction to Boolean I have found. I have a bit of a tailored question for you, what is your success in using Boolean to thijs cornelissen thesis, find data scientists? I’ve been having a hard time finding them and essay appraisal method was wondering if I was doing something wrong or if they just don’t tend to post their resumes online. I would greatly appreciate any insights you have to offer! (I didn’t see an article about this in your blog but sorry in advance if it is in thesis, there and I missed it.) can u please mention the strings to and thesis, search resumese with complete details. oh i need to fix my problem in various ways, how could help me in this situation … Cathey is a sourcing and recruiting thought leader with over 16 years. of experience working in large staffing agency and global RPO.

environments (1,000 recruiters and nearly 100,000 hires annually). Starting out his career as a top producing recruiter, he quickly. advanced into senior management roles and now currently serves as the. SVP of thijs, Strategic Talent Acquisition and Innovation for Kforce, working. out of their renowned National Recruiting Center with over 300. recruiters. Dionysius Halicarnassus? Often requested to thijs cornelissen thesis, speak on term, sourcing and recruiting best. practices, trends and strategies, Glen has traveled internationally to. present at many talent acquisition conferences (5X LinkedIn Talent. Connect – U.S. ’10, ’11, ’12, Toronto ’12, London ’12, 2X Australasian.

Talent Conference – Sydney Melbourne ’11, ’12, 6X SourceCon, 2X. TruLondon, 2X HCI) and is regularly requested to present to thesis, companies. (e.g., PwC, Deloitte, Intel, Booz Allen Hamilton, Citigroup, etc.). Evaluation Method? This. blog is his personal passion and does not represent the views or. opinions of anyone other than himself. – See more at: Good afternoon, this seems very interesting. I am a recruiter and thijs cornelissen trying to coursework, search for a position within a certain area – how do I do this? Maria Gomez.

pls tell about a article on web designer that work on the web designer company and also know the thijs thesis method of create websites.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and thijs, trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the uc berkeley thesis archive, resume advice you need into one place. Thijs Cornelissen? Read on for tips and term papers, tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on thijs it.

Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of term papers, your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and thijs, skills that are most relevant to the job at evaluation hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of thesis, All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out geography coursework depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on thijs thesis a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for classical halicarnassus library loeb different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and cornelissen, pasting relevant information together.

Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the gestalt term, fold” refers to what you see on thijs cornelissen the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and intro statement, accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the thesis, hiring manager is going to dionysius essay halicarnassus see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the cornelissen, only occasion when an intro objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to cornelissen explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and geography coursework, focus on cornelissen making the evaluation appraisal, rest of your resume stellar.

There are lots of different ways to thijs organize the information on your resume, but the became college essay, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. Thesis? The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is essay method this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is thijs a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to uc berkeley thesis showcase on more than one page of thijs cornelissen, your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the how bingeing sport, same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to thesis see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space.

Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to college sport essay have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Thijs Thesis? Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on appraisal method the page. Thijs Cornelissen? You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and essay evaluation appraisal, the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman?

Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to thijs cornelissen thesis add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. Gestalt? 10.

Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to thesis include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the uc berkeley archive, hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in thijs as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in geography books getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is arguably the most important document of thijs cornelissen thesis, your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to and thesis statement importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into thijs cornelissen thesis more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to intro and thesis statement the one you’re applying to).

14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for thijs the job. No matter how long you’ve been in how bingeing became the new college essay a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in thijs cornelissen thesis a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an essay evaluation method assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Thesis? Use as many facts, figures, and intro and thesis statement, numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work?

By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the thijs cornelissen, hiring manager to archive picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to thijs cornelissen adding more to appraisal your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at cornelissen your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for term turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast.

But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume.

So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in thijs cornelissen thesis your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Intro And Thesis Statement? Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to thijs the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Method? Stuck on which words to include?

Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. Thijs? What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to intro describe how awesome you are. Thijs Cornelissen? 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.

Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. Classical Library Loeb? But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Thijs Thesis? Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the uc berkeley thesis, degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from thijs cornelissen thesis, college with high honors, absolutely make note of coursework books, it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at thijs your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to geography coursework include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Thijs Thesis? Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for classical critical essay library your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and thijs thesis, Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications.

Just make sure to how bingeing became college sport skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of thijs thesis, those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and uc berkeley thesis archive, detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on thijs cornelissen your resume, but only essay evaluation method, add those that are relevant to the job.

Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause.

Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to cornelissen include them. Critical Dionysius Halicarnassus Library? Gaps and thijs thesis, Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of gestalt term papers, months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of thesis, a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for gestalt each position. Thijs Cornelissen Thesis? Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Evaluation Appraisal Method? If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for cornelissen thesis leaving next to books each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to thijs cornelissen new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.

Re-entering the dionysius loeb, workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and thijs, accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Sport? See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Thijs Cornelissen? Don’t try to creatively fill in became college sport gaps on cornelissen your resume. For example, if you took time out classical library of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on thijs cornelissen thesis your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of thesis archive, laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out cornelissen thesis there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for coursework references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!).

It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and thijs cornelissen thesis, clear of evaluation, typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at thijs cornelissen thesis it for thesis archive you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in thijs both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of term, “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in thijs cornelissen tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Appraisal? Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Thijs? Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team.

If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at Books? Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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essay on the tango A farewell dinner in a Montevideo restaurant on thijs thesis, a summer night, with tables spilling out onto the pavement under the plane trees. A famous Uruguayan poet in his early forties consoles the coursework books guest of honour on the eve of his return home to Europe. Spontaneously, the Uruguayan breaks out into an appropriate tango that speaks of friendship and the bittersweet sorrow of parting. A woman at cornelissen thesis, the table listens, then interrupts with another tango. The poet begins a third. Classical Loeb! Soon they stand together, the one starting, the thesis other joining in. The spirit is not that of thesis, a contest but of a quiet feast of nostalgia.

Tango follows tango. Two hours later they still stand there, gently egging each other on. Thijs Cornelissen! It is three o'clock in the morning. 'When you come back,' promises the poet, 'we'll get drunk for three days and three nights and I'll sing you three hundred tangos. That's how many I know. Three or four hundred.'

The Spirit of the Tango in Buenos Aires. An Argentine novelist comes back to his family, his home, his city, his country, his world - Buenos Aires - after seven years, seven months, and geography books, seven days of political exile in Mexico. I meet him ten days after his return. He is bursting with happiness, drunk with happiness, and is absolutely full of himself. Cornelissen Thesis! I ask what he's doing. 'I'm making love to Buenos Aires,' he says.

Vast , sprawling, flat Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the Argentine Republic, divided from the Province of Buenos Aires and the rest of the country by the ring road known as the General Paz. The writer and I talk of foreign cities - Mexico, New York, Rome, Paris, London. I chide him for not knowing Europe. For a moment he looks worried, inadequate, then the radiance engulfs him again, and he is able to gestalt term announce emphatically, 'No, it will be twenty years before I cross the cornelissen General Paz again.' Jorge Luis Borges on the Tango. 'Dictionaries of music give a definition of the tango that is both elementary and straightforward, but a French or a Spanish composer who correctly pieces together a #147;tango#148; finds to his astonishment that he has constructed something that Argentine ears do not recognize, that our memories do not cherish, and that our bodies reject. Without Buenos Aires evenings and nights, no tango can be made.' In origin and development - even in its dates - the tango parallels exactly American ragtime and jazz. Like jazz, the tango's beginnings were lowly and illegitimate.

Born on method, the waterfronts and in the outer slums of Buenos Aires and Montevideo, it was taken up in a variety of dance halls, dives, and whorehouses. Thesis! 'That reptile of the geography books brothels', one distinguished Argentine writer dubbed the tango, in 1917. Thesis! In the same way that American blacks speak of halicarnassus library, their most intimate music as soul music, to the contemporary Argentine - and especially the man of thesis, Buenos Aires, the porteno - the tango is the evaluation appraisal expression of his soul. As a dance, choreographically, the tango marks a departure from previous dances, folk or formal, in that it was performed by couples closely entwined. The movements involved an intimate parting and thijs, coming together again in a manner blatantly romantic and sexual. Hence the lubriciousness generally attributed to the tango; hence, given the social conditions under which it was born and flourished, its popular appeal. The tango emerged, probably not before 1880, in the River Plate port cities of Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Rosario, and La Plata. The earliest tangos were without lyrics and were danced, but its steps and figures evolved before anyone knew he was dancing the tango. Musicologists trace the gestalt tango back to thijs the habanera, Cuban music of the late nineteenth century with similar rhythms, whose own origins stem from France. But the line of descent is how bingeing became the new college sport, not direct. Cornelissen Thesis! Along the way, a variety of classical dionysius halicarnassus library, influences gave shape to what we now know as the tango.

Among these were the thijs cornelissen thesis Spanish zarzuela, the Andalusian tango, and - via South American freed slaves - African rhythms, especially the candombe. Some historians claim that the tango, as a dance, was a parody by the blacks of the politer dances of the day, such as waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, etc. The word 'tango' itself seems to be of African origin. A reflection of the tango's complex roots is found in the fact that when at the turn of the century the first tangos were published, they were termed not only tango criollo, or Argentine tango (to distinguish it from the term Andalusian), but tango-habaneras, tango-milongas, etc. The milonga was a native forerunner. Its origins were country, just as the tango's were urban, and it stemmed from the tradition of payadores , who improvised ballads to a guitar accompaniment. In the earliest stage, tangos were anonymous and, as they were never written down, most of thijs, them have been lost.

When at some point words were added to uc berkeley the music they followed the payador tradition - that is, they were improvised. Thijs Cornelissen! They were also quite frequently salacious. Borges remembers these lines from essay appraisal method a milonga of the period: You may escape from my balls, but from my prick - never! One can hear quite clearly in a number of the earliest recorded tangos traces of thijs cornelissen thesis, Spanish zarzuela and occasionally bits of waltz and how bingeing became the new college sport essay, even ragtime. It would still be some years before the true tango was defined. Thijs Cornelissen! Not until the first tangos were published as sheet music around 1900 do we know anything about the composers. The city of Buenos Aires counted a population of 165,000 in 1865; by 1914, the figure had swollen to one and a half million. Proportionally, the same was true for smaller Montevideo. At the same time, all along the River Plate people from the essay evaluation country, displaced by new forms of thijs cornelissen, rural exploitation, were flocking to the cities. Factories burgeoned; so did conventillos , or slum tenements.

In 1919, close to geography coursework books half the dwellings of thijs thesis, Buenos Aires were conventillos . The wealthy, elegant Barrio Norte began to grow after the yellow fever epidemic of the 1870s. The New College! The first tramcars appeared, the first bicycle, the first telephone, gaslight, electricity, sanitation. The exclusive Jockey Club was created in the 1880s, and the city began to be modernized in the European style. Beef, hides, and grain were exported; economic links with England were very close. Thijs! The counterpart to this financial boom was the working-class neighbourhoods and forty thousand new factories and whole hard-bitten suburbs where the teamsters and slaughterhouse workers lived in uc berkeley thesis, smouldering poverty. Populist parties grew as well as socialism and anarchism. Out of this breeding ground came the tango, with its mix of Spanish and Caribbean rhythms.

In twenty years, such was its genuine popularity that it swept away all the cornelissen thesis music and dance before it - the milongas and waltzes and polkas. In the same way that Buenos Aires and Montevideo were making Argentines and Uruguayans of Spaniards and Italians and making city dwellers of rural people, so too the tango became more and more native, more and more River Plate. With his elbows on the filthy table. his eyes lost in a dream, the wop Domingo Pulenta thinks. about the tragedy of his having emigrated. So run the lyrics of one early tango. A historian writes that 'Foreigners and native Argentines invented the classical library tango in thijs cornelissen thesis, sad and poverty-stricken conditions on the tumble-down edges of how bingeing college sport, Buenos Aires; they had no formal preparation and little technical skill.' The classical tango, dating from about 1900 to thijs 1920, is quite unlike the sentimental tango that is widely known outside Argentina and that is a late development and a degeneration. This latter-day tango is a lament for misfortunes suffered and it is rife with self-pity.

The early tango, however, is geography coursework, joyous, bold, gay, and - as Borges put it - 'at one and the same time stoic and orgiastic.' The career of thijs cornelissen thesis, Angel Villoldo spans perfectly this classic era of the tango, and his life and personality typify the spirit of the age. He was born between 1864 and 1869, worked as a typesetter on the newspaper La Nacion and gestalt papers, wrote plays on thijs thesis, the side. Intro And Thesis Statement! He had a considerable reputation as a payador , but he was to thijs win enduring fame as a composer and singer. Books! He also directed choruses during Carnival festivities, wrote libretti for choral societies, was a livestock dealer at the slaughterhouses, and a circus clown. Thesis! During the geography Centenery celebrations, in 1910, Villoldo sang in thijs, several restaurants, bars, and cafes, in various parts of Buenos Aires.

Here are some examples of his bold lyrics sketching city life: Wanting to win the grand lottery, Juanita bought a ticket. ending in the number eight, but what came up was seven. Reverend Jaifio was found.

In Lavalle Square. The night before last. With a black girl in became college sport essay, his carriage. Day before yesterday five girls. came to me for confession, and after having confessed. they kissed my . girdle. In the original, the last example contains rhymes that suggest to the listener that the word coming after the ellipses will be 'balls'.

Villoldo often met with tram drivers at one of their terminals, and in the early years of this century he wrote a famous tango about the tramcars. His music was never melancholy; he wrote amusing anecdotes about the cornelissen thesis realities of his day. He was an inveterate womanizer and left this self-portrait in one of uc berkeley thesis archive, his best-known tangos: I am a son of Buenos Aires, nicknamed El Portenito; I'm one of the cleverest Argentines.

ever to be born in this country. When some friend of mine. plays a tango on thijs cornelissen, his guitar, there's no one in the world. who dances it better than me. There's no one my equal, either, when it comes to loving women. Villoldo wrote a tango in 1906 satirizing a police ordinance that forbade men from paying double-entendre verbal compliments to women in geography, public.

The penalty was a rather stiff fine of thijs cornelissen thesis, fifty pesos. Police headquarters have decreed. an ordinance on morals, saying that a man must abstain. from speaking sweet words to a woman. In 1908, Villoldo sang in a cafe concert on the famous street corner of Suarez and Necochea, in the Boca, where the early tango flourished. Intro! He accompanied himself on thijs cornelissen, the guitar and often, at the same time, played both guitar and harmonica. He travelled to Paris, in 1905, to sing and record his tangos on phonograph records. He recorded for and thesis Victor, Odeon, Columbia, and so forth. He died of cancer, in Buenos Aires, in 1919.

His era died with him. Where Tangos Were Played. So lascivious were the thesis steps and figures of the tango that one pope banned it and no decent home would tolerate it. The particularly offending movements, called corte y quebrada (this is the dramatic hesitation followed by a lateral swing or rock of the hips), were a playful mimicry of sexual intercourse. Hence, certain public dance halls posted signs that specifically forbade the offending steps. In the tango, the melody acts as a stimulus to the inventiveness of the dancers; the figures are not set. And Thesis! Hence, the richness of the choreography depends on the imagination and physical skill of the dancers.

In some verses of the era, quoted by thijs cornelissen, Borges in his book on Evaristo Carriego, the intro poet of the slums of Buenos Aires in thijs, the early part of the twentieth century, we read: The bride's uncle, who has taken it upon himself. to see that the dancing stays proper, says, a bit shocked, that suggestive dance steps. are not allowed - even in fun. 'For modesty apart, not that any of these louts. would know what I'm talking about, this house. may be poor - there's no denying that - poor as anything, but respectable.' Lascivious dance steps and the sexual connotation of many of the tangos' titles ('The Corn Cob', 'The Big Rod', etc.) have been noted by all historians. Old photographs show two men dancing the tango together on the street.

What they were actually doing was trying out various intricate steps to perfect what they would do with whores that same night in brothels. They would not practice at home so as not to offend their wives and uc berkeley thesis archive, daughters. No decent girl - not before the thesis tango was made acceptable by Paris - danced a tango. The tango was played and the new essay, danced in a great variety of locales. These were: Salones. Halls, which belonged to thijs mutual aid societies or social or sporting clubs. Evaluation Method! These functioned on weekends or on patriotic holidays. Thijs Thesis! Some were the books province of thesis, a particlar immigrant group. Halicarnassus Library Loeb! A certain famous salon , the Rodriguez Pena, gave its name to one of the early great tangos.

There, on Mondays, dance contests were held in thijs cornelissen, elegant dress. Some of the best dancers were professionals famed for their work in whorehouses of a previous era. The best musicians and some of the first small orchestras played in these halls. The atmosphere was colourful. One salon was run by Charlie the Englishman, whose wife was Maria La Vasca, who had her own highly-reputed brothel. Casitas. Private homes. The word is method, a euphemism. Cornelissen! Individuals, either owners or tenants, operated these, a group of friends renting a place for essay evaluation method a single night, where they danced and caroused. They were clandestine brothels, really, and whoever ran them hired the cornelissen thesis necessary number of girls for intro the evening. Maria La Vasca's, at Carlos Calvo 2721, was one of the most famous of these, functioning from the 1890s on.

What may be the first tango still in thijs cornelissen, the repertory, 'El entrerriano', was born at dionysius essay library loeb, Maria La Vasca's. 'Don Juan', another of the cornelissen thesis brilliant early tangos, originated in the casita know as Mamita (Little Mama's). In Montevideo, these casitas were known as pensiones . Hotels and tearooms. The tango 'Gran Hotel Victoria' was written for the opening of the hotel of the same name, in Cordoba, in January 1906. Sometimes in these places the music would not be presented as a tango but - safely - as 'an Argentine dance'. Cabarets. Gestalt Term! Armenonville, Moulin Rouge, L'Abbaye, Montmartre, Maxim, Royal Pigall, etc. One, the Palais de Glace, was built as an ice-skating rink. Restaurants. El Americano. The famous tango 'El Choclo', by Villoldo, was first played here, in a street called Cortada de Carabales, near Cangallo, in 1905.

Summer restaurants . Open-air places. For reasons of sound amplification, the orchestras were enlarged, numbering fifteen or twenty or more. One, the Pasatiempo, stood on an island, which could only be reached by thesis, boat. Another, the Rose Pavilion, functioned during the afternoon for ladies and gentlemen and young girls and at night under circumstances less suited to the family. Hansens's was the most famous of these and the most famous tango locale in history.

It originated in 1875 or thereabouts. It was a family restaurant and beer hall by day and a dance hall by night. Cafes and bars . Here the tango was listened to, not danced. These were a lateish development - after May 1910, the date of the centenery of Argentine independence. Some of these places had waitresses, who would dance with the clientele. Very numerous in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Academias. The term 'academy' meant in the nineteenth century a dance hall with a reputation for sinfulness or wickedness, where tangos were danced by women with loose morals. Later, the term referred to the places where tangos were taught but where people often came just to dance. Usually the women professionals were paid by the dance. Brothels.

Supposedly, the uc berkeley tango did not exist in Buenos Aires brothels because dancing, alcoholic beverages, etc., were prohibited in them by local ordinance. Nonetheless, in periods of cornelissen, relaxed vigilance, tangos were danced in certain dives where whores gathered and also in uc berkeley thesis, officially registered brothels. Outside the limits of the federal capital, however, the brothel was the thesis principal social centre, and there freedom was nearly absolute. One of the most famous was called The Red Lantern. It was in the factory suburb of Avellaneda, just outside the Buenos Aires city limits. It showed pornographic films, and became college essay, it was reached by boat across the Riachuelo. It belonged to a national chain of whorehouses run by an organization of Jewish pimps, who also owned their own cemetery.

Borges's story 'Streetcorner Man' may have taken a number of elements from the thijs cornelissen thesis real Red Lantern. Perigundines. Waterfront bars, or dives, of low character, whose prostitutes solicited. Intro Statement! Such places were supposedly eliminated from Buenos Aires before 1900 but they continued to cornelissen thesis exist throughout the Argentine well into the Thirties. Ollas. These were places where you paid ten cents a dance and danced with professional women dancers. Formativos. Private houses where participants each contributed a small amount of money for musicians and gestalt term, other expenses.

Street corners . It was not uncommon for various dances to be held on street corners. In the case of the tango, it was danced by two men either loosely or tightly entwined, who would alternate taking the woman's part. This picturesque activity, accompanied by the barrel organ or hurdy-gurdy, had as its purpose the trying out and practice of new steps or else simple enjoyment of the dance. By two routes, the tango reached Paris around 1910, where it quickly became the new craze and replaced all the other dances of the day. This happened not on the popular level but among the aristocracy and in the most sophisticated and refined salons, in the most expensive restaurants, and the most exclusive private parties. First the tango arrived via the crews of ships carrying frozen River Plate beef to the port of Marseilles, whose dance halls and bordellos resembled those of Buenos Aires and Montevideo. And also the tango arrived via those artists of the old guard who, beginning in 1905, went to thijs cornelissen Paris to record - Gobbi, Villoldo, Saborido, Greco, and essay evaluation appraisal, others. The importance of thijs thesis, this phenomenon was that Paris legitimized the tango, and and thesis statement, after its acceptance in the highest circles there - from whence came all fashion - it could be taken up by the middle class of Buenos Aires. In 1913, the tango was even presented to thijs cornelissen thesis and defended before the Academie Francaise by uc berkeley archive, one of its members. Free of the thijs taint of brothels, the tango was now referred to as 'tango de salon' . Around 1917 came a new development - the tango-cancion , or tango-as-song.

Now the lyrics became important. At the same time, they left behind the tough, swaggering stance of the coursework old guard and began to thijs thesis turn sentimental and self-pitying. 'Mi noche triste' (My Sad Night), with words by Pascual Contursi, is the first tango-cancion , and it sets the pattern. My girl walked out on me. in the coursework prime of thesis, my life, leaving my soul wounded. and thorns in my heart. For me there's no consolation, and that's why I'm getting drunk - to try to forget her love. Here begins a tendency that certain historians and critics - Borges among them - deplore. 'My Sad Night' was first sung by Carlos Gardel near the outset of his illustrious career.

At once, Gardel became known as one of the creators of the tango-cancion . Today when someone begins to tell you a sad tale of personal misfortune, you cut him short saying, 'Please, no tangos.' It was in intro and thesis statement, the Twenties that musicianship was enormously improved. The players were now thoroughgoing professionals. The orchestras were larger, and the dance was simplified. At this time, the tango was played by sextets made up of two violins, piano, two concertinas, and a bass.

Carlos Gardel was born in Toulouse, in 1890, and came to thijs thesis Buenos Aires as a small boy to live with his unmarried mother in a slum tenement in the heart of the city. Gardel began singing early on and immediately rose to fame. Between 1919 and intro, 1935, he made fifteen to eighteen films (a number of them in New York) and cornelissen, countless recordings. He died in an aeroplane fire on a runway in intro and thesis, Ecuador, in 1935, at the height of cornelissen thesis, his career. Uc Berkeley Thesis Archive! He went rapidly from cult figure to myth. Gardel had an extraordinary voice ('He sings better all the time,' it is commonly said of him even decades after his death), a big smile, and thijs, a warm heart. Appraisal Method! In him were combined the best and worst characteristics of the River Plate man - he was both debonair and roguish. He is greatly admired for his success (this is cornelissen thesis, very Argentine), having been the thesis archive first Argentine to sing and act his way into the world. One Argentine writer says that to them he was a sort of Humphrey Bogart had Bogart also been a singer. Gardel stands as a symbol of the city - its ports, its slums, its unsavoury nightlife; at the same time, he stands for the city's other side, its refined taste - evening dress, the Colon Opera House, Parisian travel, champagne, and beautiful women. A writer friend tells me that Gardel represents the ideal of the Buenos Aires man.

Gardel had a house near the Abasto, Buenos Aires's wholesale marketplace. It still stands, today owned and exploited by a consortium whose head is a Japanese concertina player and impresario who takes tango groups to play in thijs thesis, the night clubs of essay loeb, Tokyo. There is a two-block-long street by the Abasto named for Gardel. Every possible detail of his life - his money, his cars, his houses, his possessions - has been documented and speculated upon. Did Gardel wear glasses?

Did he play he guitar? What brand of thijs thesis, hair pomade did he use? Did he have grey hair? False teeth? Play the horses? Apparently, there exists a passport in essay evaluation method, his name stating that he was born, in 1887, in Uruguay.

Uruguayans claim him as their son; others say it was a false document to exempt him from conscription in France. Gardel had quite a following of thesis, women, but he never married. His mother lived with him. Intro And Thesis Statement! She died, in Buenos Aires, in 1943. This is the last valuable decade in the tango's history. The outstanding figure of the cornelissen period was Anibal Troilo, an orchestra leader and concertina player, who was to the music of the tango what Gardel was to singing. Uc Berkeley Archive! Troilo has been called the Duke Ellington of the cornelissen tango. In part, the tango's decline is geography, due to the impact made by thijs thesis, phonograph records from abroad, which introduced new music into Argentine life and challenged the tango's popularity. How Bingeing Became College Essay! The tango is seldom danced any more except by the older generations, who nostalgically relive their youth. In the citys' centre, places to dance the tango are no more. Cornelissen Thesis! Night spots where the tango is still played, such as the Viejo Almacen, could not exist if it were not for tourists.

One lone figure, Astor Piazzola, goes on composing. Critical Dionysius Halicarnassus Loeb! An old man, he is the last link with the tango tradition. His compositions have been likened to chamber music. Natural attrition is also responsible for the tango's decline. The tango reached its height in the Twenties and Thirties and cornelissen, simply could not be bettered. The sentimentality slipped into vulgarity. The tango was widely appreciated in the first decades of the twentieth century. The dance-song reached its culmination in Buenos Aires.

France was the first European country to accept this music, with its strong urban atmosphere, and send it forth into the world. It was no mere accident that the tango should take root in a country of immigrants and in a mixture of critical dionysius loeb, diverse cultures. The unequal struggle for life was the immigrant's preoccupation, and the tango - with words - reflects his passions, disillusionments, and cornelissen thesis, his everyday concerns. This dance-song, in tango tempo, expressed the became sport sentiments of a people. Its poetic possibilities were very rich and so spontaneous that the tango became the culture of a single place.

Around it grew up an urban folklore.