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In this essential webinar for both Year 1 and Year 2 A Level Psychology students, we recapped some of the key content in relation to

Essay Writing Guide for Psychology Students | Simply Psychology

Psychology essay writing tips

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Carl needs to and sir gawain make sure . he does not procrastinate on the tasks he is given and double check all the new trainees’ paper work to ensure they are 100% complete. Carl could also have a secretary assist him with these tasks or have an experienced recruiter supervise his work. Carl needs to reserve the psychology training room to make sure it is for literary essay, available and not assume that the room. Employment , Practice , Rooms 1410 Words | 4 Pages. actions made possible by his public relations campaign.3 Public Relations in a Young Nation In the infancy of the United States, public relations was . Psychology Tips? practiced primarily in Presentations the political sphere. The publication and dissemination of the Federalist Papers , which led to the rati?cation of the U.S. Constitution, has been called “history’s ?nest public relations job.”4 Early in his presidency, Andrew Jackson appointed Amos Kendall, a member of the famous Kitchen Cabinet, to serve as the candidate’s pollster. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Boston Tea Party 1331 Words | 5 Pages. Individual Paper CMGT/554 – IT Infrastructure December 16, 2012 . Patton-Fuller is a community hospital treats all kinds of concerns (Ecampus, 2009).

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This paper will explain the following: 1. Compare and contrast methods to for literary response monitoring vital signs and psychology doctor visits. 2. Analyze the pros and cons of using mobile computing technology to monitor patients. 3. University Critical Thinking A Level? Assess the essay writing tips security concerns with the transmission. Health care , Health care provider , Illness 1638 Words | 5 Pages. used on patients that do not absolutely have a need for spanish holiday them, exposing the patient to a higher risk of psychology acquiring an infection. There are an abundance of oxford university critical . precautions that could be taken to essay tips reduce the risk of infection associated with catheters. This paper will discuss the issues surrounding the topic of CA-UTI, the monetary effects related to the issue, and evidence based guidelines used for prevention of CA-UTI. Impact of the beowulf gawain Issue Circumstances surrounding the issue Mosby’s Dictionary of psychology essay writing tips Medicine. Catheter , Catheters , Foley catheter 1588 Words | 5 Pages.

restaurant industry. University Critical? Within this business plan is an overview of the basis and prospective function our exciting idea. Essay? Included in this overview are the . mission, classification, targeted clientele, location, and function strategy of Veg Restaurant. Rubric For Literary Response Essay? This paper aims to build a foundation for psychology essay tips our vision, and attract interest from the community, possible investors, and future customers. Mission Veg Restaurant will provide a nutritional and educational experience that focuses on beowulf and sir, the importance and awesomeness. Eating , Family , Food 1426 Words | 5 Pages. posed by Apple and HP, leading to declining market share. Also, Dell has diversified into consumer electronics and mobile products, but has not been able to essay writing tips . capture a strong position there due to intense competitive and and john more innovative companies. This paper looks at psychology, recommending some attractive merger and acquisitions option for Dell that would bring in value added synergies, along with a discussion on proctor, the best way it can finance this initiative (“Mergers and Acquisitions: Why They Can Fail,” 2011). Psychology Essay? . Mergers and university thinking acquisitions 1390 Words | 4 Pages. into the minds of people of how the role of each gender should be played out. There are two recognized types of gender, a man and a woman; however there . are many types of tips gender roles a man or a woman may assume or be placed into by thinking a level, society.

This paper will examine five literary works in which roles in psychology essay terms of society sees men and women stereotypically. Also, some of the literary works will be about sexual identity and how today’s society is based whether or not he or she fits into oxford the “norm”. Gender , Gender identity , Gender role 1589 Words | 5 Pages. ideas from another author(s). In this course, we are using an edited chapter book as our text, so the actual authors of the psychology essay chapters you cite will vary . Elizabeth And John Proctor? depending upon the chapter from which you take your information.

That being said, your posts and papers should not [emphasis added] cite Erford (2014) alone unless he, in fact, wrote the chapter you are citing. He is the psychology writing tips editor of the textbook and not necessarily the author of the chapters you are citing (He is the sole author of critical thinking chapter 15 and essay co-author. Allendale, New Jersey , Bergen County, New Jersey , Citation 980 Words | 3 Pages.

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colorado essay Neuroanatomy and Physiology of the “Brain Reward System” in Substance Abuse. How does experimental use of substances of writing tips abuse lead to drug addiction in some individuals? How do these drugs cause intoxication? Part of the answer lies in a common reinforcement pathway in the human brain which drugs of abuse stimulate, potentially leading to addiction (1,2,3,4,7).

This reinforcement pathway, which is critical thinking, composed of both central nervous system structures and psychology essay writing tips endogenous neurotransmitters communicating between these structures, has been termed the elizabeth and john, “reward pathway”(1). Psychology Essay. The reward pathway evolved to promote activities that are essential to oxford university thinking a level the survival of the human race as well as other mammals. One may compare the mechanism of drugs of essay tips abuse with that of viruses. Viruses and proctor drugs of abuse are both foreign to humans. Viruses enter an animal’s cells and use the pre-existing cell “machinery” to synthesize more viruses, thus promoting their own survival. As the viruses infect more and more cells, the organism may become ill. Illicit drugs can take advantage of an psychology tips organism in a similar fashion. Just as viruses take over elizabeth essay, cell function throughout the body, drugs of abuse modify cell function in these important brain structures leading to modifications in behavior. These drugs enter the human brain and use its own “machinery” (the reward pathway) to promote continued use.

Just as the psychology essay tips, cell’s survival is dependent on its “machinery” so is the survival of the organism dependent on an intact brain reward pathway. Drugs of abuse, although harmful to the organism, are able to elizabeth proctor essay capture this “machinery “ in some individuals driving further drug use. Depending on our own characteristics (our inherited neurochemical make-up etc.) we may be more susceptible to the illness of drug addiction just as certain people are more susceptible to infection. Certain pathogens are ubiquitous or occur so frequently that almost all of us are exposed to them. Those who have inherited genetic immunodeficiencies fall prey to these pathogens more than the psychology essay writing, general population. Similarly, individuals who have a genetic predisposition, may be more vulnerable to addiction after exposure to the drug. As noted earlier, substances of abuse affect the rubric response essay, brain reward pathway, which is made of neurons that release chemicals when they are stimulated. This release leads to subjective feelings of well being (1,2). This brain reward system evolved to subserve activities essential to species survival, such as sexual activity and feeding behaviors.

Activities that activate this pathway become associated with ‘feeling good’ (1,2). For example, sexual intercourse causes release of essay tips chemicals activating this pathway, and the result is a feeling of well being. Thus, the reward pathway serves to promote survival of the species by essay rewarding behaviors necessary for continued survival (seeking food, reproduction, shelter, drink, etc). Drugs of abuse stimulate this “brain reward” pathway in a similar fashion, and this is why substance users experience feelings of pleasure or “high” when they use them (1,2). When drugs of abuse are repeatedly used, they may “commandeer” the brain reward system, driving compulsory drug use to the exclusion of other adaptive activities. Psychology Essay Writing. Thus, “addiction” can be partially explained by the action of drugs of abuse on proctor essay, this common reward pathway, in which drug use stimulates further use and drug seeking behavior (1,2,3,4).

In the following paragraphs, the psychology essay, basic anatomy of the Presentations, reward pathway and brain structures that interact with this pathway will be discussed. Psychology Writing. Next, the rubric for literary, molecular physiology of the reward pathway will be delineated. After laying the psychology essay, foundation of the interesting papers, anatomy and physiology of brain reward, the specific interactions of drugs of abuse will be examined. Finally, with this understanding, we may examine treatments aimed at modulating this important pathway. II. The Structures of the Reward Pathway: The basic anatomy of the reward pathway will be described below. However, it must be remembered that the anatomical structures involved have complex interrelationships, and psychology essay are modulated by other parts of the brain and other neurochemicals.

Many of the factors influencing brain reward may not be known or have not been well established. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the most well established structures and Presentations pathways involved. Psychology Essay. With this overview we may develop a basic understanding that anatomical structures have evolved to promote the elizabeth and john essay, survival of the organism and how drugs of abuse stimulate and psychology essay tips “commandeer” these structures. Core Structures of the biology, Reward System. The core structures of the brain reward pathway is located in the limbic system, a set of primitive structures in the human brain (1,2,3,7,9). Conceptually, the function of the limbic system is to monitor internal homeostasis, mediate memory, mediate learning, and experience emotion. It also drives important aspects of sexual behavior, motivation, and feeding behaviors (9).

The primary nuclei (or parts) of the limbic system include the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, septal nuclei, and anterior cingulate gyrus (9). Also important in the function of the limbic system is the limbic striatum, which includes the nucleus accumbens, ventral caudate nucleus and the putamen (9). Tips. The nucleus accumbens (NA) has been implicated as an especially important structure of the brain reward pathway because drugs of abuse target it. (1,2,3,5,7). Other structures important in brain reward include the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). (1,2,3). The majority of oxford thinking a level this paper will concentrate on psychology essay writing tips, the NA and the VTA. In addition to the other structures listed above, several other systems have an influence on the brain reward pathway as well.

The endocrine and the autonomic nervous systems interact via the hypothalamus, an thinking integral part of the limbic system, and psychology essay writing tips the pituitary (1). These structures modulate the Presentations, reward pathway. The hypothalamus is involved in every aspect of endocrine, visceral, and autonomic functions, and it is able to influence eating, drinking, sexual activity, aversion, rage, and pleasure (1,9). Environmental stimuli may affect brain reward via this neuroendocrine axis. Electrical Stimulation of the Brain Reward Pathway. The link between the essay, brain reward system and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis may be seen through experiments on animals where electrodes are placed into the nucleus accumbens (part of the thinking, brain’s reward system) under conditions of imposed environmental stress. Electrical self-stimulation experiments are designed in animal models such that electrodes are placed in various brain structure regions thought to be involved in brain reward (2). The animal then performs an activity (i.e. presses a lever) which leads to essay stimulation of the proctor essay, electrode and the neuronal structure. If the writing, electrode is placed in a structure in the reward pathway, the resulting stimulation is pleasurable and self-stimulation is therefore encouraged. In models of addiction hungry animals will demonstrate a preference for self-stimulation over and sir gawain essays, food and drink to essay writing the point of starvation (2). This experimental paradigm shows how drugs of abuse can commandeer this system and become even more rewarding than the behaviors it evolved to subserve.

Other techniques allow the animal to press a lever and the drug is injected into specific areas of the brain as illustrated below. If the point of injection is not within the papers, brain reward pathway, reinforcement will not occur. Through these techniques, general anatomy of the brain reward system has been delineated. Experimental Self-Stimulation of the Brain Reward Pathway. Core Structures of the Reward System. As discussed before the reward pathway, located in the limbic system, is primarily made up of core structures that are connected by essay writing the median forebrain bundle (MFB): the nucleus accumbens (NA) , the ventral tegmental area (VTA) , the elizabeth essay, ventromedial and lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the amygdala (1,2,3,7). The NA and the VTA are the most frequently implicated structures in the literature on drug reward.

The MFB is composed of nerves that connect the septum, amygdala, the NA and writing tips the olfactory tubercle with the hypothalamus and the VTA (1,9). In other words, the Presentations, MFB is like a power line of psychology essay neurons connecting the structures of the reward pathway with other brain structures. Experiments demonstrate that when this “power line” is cut, animals will decrease or stop self-administration of drugs. Thus, an intact MFB appears to be necessary for beowulf and sir gawain essays, the “brain reward” system to function properly. Below are slides that show the anatomy of writing neurons and the electrical activity that occurs between them. NEURON AND NEURON FUNCTION. ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BETWEEN TWO NEURONS. Dopaminergic neurons making up the MFB or “power line” of the brain reward system run from the spanish holiday essay, VTA to other structures involved in brain reward. The neurotransmitter they release is called dopamine. One can think of this as the psychology writing tips, “current”, or energy of the interesting research papers, brain reward system (1,2,3).

2.2 Communicating Brain Structures. The central reward pathway of the brain sends information to and receives input from many other brain structures: the reticular activating system (RAS), the central gray around the aqueduct of psychology essay writing Sylvius, limbic regions, and the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Located in the brain stem, the past, RAS controls attention and arousal to various sensory inputs from our environment. Limbic regions such as the psychology, amygdala, the and john proctor essay, septum and the thalamus provide input to the reward pathway concerning motivational and emotional variables. Next, the reward pathway interacts with the basal ganglia and cerebellum to modify motor activity. These interactions between the psychology writing tips, reward pathway and other regions of the brain are complex (1). The hypothalamus, control center of the autonomic nervous system, serves as a major integrative circuit between the nervous and endocrine systems (1,2).

The components of the hypothalamus monitor blood nutrients as well as endogenous compounds in order to maintain homeostasis. To promote adaptive behaviors such as obtaining food, water, and sexual activity, the pituitary signals secretion of hormones that interact with the reward system (1,10). Thus, the biology, hypothalamus is the command center interconnecting the reward pathway with the body and environmental stimuli. These stimuli are analogous to psychology writing tips a complex array of music each a melody of university thinking summation in the form of writing tips endocrine hormones, blood temperature, blood osmolarity, blood volume, and neurotransmitters are deciphered and directed by the hypothalamus. This command center then sends out signals in the form of neurotransmitters (chemical signals) to interesting biology research papers various parts of the brain including the brain reward system. Why do recovered substance users relapse when their lives get stressful? The answer partially lies in the neurophysiology of the brain and interaction of environmental stimuli on it. Links between the psychology essay, hypthalamo-hypophyseal system and spanish past essay brain reward pathways have been established through experimentation. For example, the linkage between environmental and increased drug use is most likely mediated by the hypothalamus. Stress increases the self-administration of drugs of abuse, and co-administration of pituitary hormones alter self-administration in animal experiments. These experiments further support the view that environmental factors have a large influence on psychology essay writing tips, drug use and rubric relapse (1,2).

III. Genetic and Biological evidence for a Common Reward Pathway. 3.1 Evolution of the Pathway. As noted earlier, the intrinsic purpose of an endogenous reward center is to reinforce behaviors that promote the survival of a species. Tips. When drugs of abuse (DOA) stimulate this center, drug-seeking behavior is also promoted. 3.2 Genetics and for literary Population Studies. Why do studies show that many individuals experiment with DOA but only some become addicted? Genetic studies in both animals and humans have contributed to our ability to writing tips answer this question. Genetic studies on oxford critical, animal, or rodent populations, generally consist of inbreeding or selective breeding. Mating brothers, sisters, or first cousins creates inbred strains of rodents.

After 20 generations of essay writing tips mating a strain is created that is, for all practical purposes, genetically identical (1). The next step is to look at differences in response to DOA through experimentation on different rodent strains. In selective breeding, a desirable trait is chosen. For example, researchers may breed for elizabeth and john proctor essay, a high response to EtOH. Rodents who have the desirable trait are then mated. After 20 generations the strain is considered genetically pure for the desired trait. Through such selective inbreeding experiments, it has been shown that a predilection for drug dependence is highly genetically influenced. Furthermore, those genetically predisposed to abuse one class of drugs may also abuse drugs of another class. It has been demonstrated that strains predisposed to cocaine abuse are predisposed to opiate addiction as well. Human studies investigating the psychology writing, genetics of drug abuse consist of either adoption or twin studies (1).

Adoption studies allow us to spanish past holiday separate genetic and psychology essay environmental factors by looking at biology research individuals in an environment and comparing them to their genetically different adoptive parents. The individuals are then compared to psychology essay writing their biological parents. With a large number of individuals, traits that are primarily under genetic influence and traits that are under environmental influence may be described. In twin studies, identical and fraternal twins are compared. Identical twins share 100% of their genes while fraternal twins share 50% of their genes. The relative agreement of behavioral traits to these percentages suggests the proportion of genetic and environmental influences. Thinking. Some studies incorporate both adoptive and twin study paradigms to study addiction.

Through these studies scientists have shown that experimentation and initial use of drugs may be more environmentally determined by such factors as availability. However, progression on to drug dependence or addiction after exposure or “experimentation” appears to be heavily genetically influenced (1,9). IV. Molecular Physiology of the Reward Pathway. Dopamine Binding at the Neuron Level. The primary neurotransmitter of the reward pathway is dopamine (1,2,3,4). Although drugs of abuse often act through separate mechanisms and on various locations in the brain reward system, they share a final common action in that they increase dopamine levels in psychology tips, the brain reward system.

However, neurotransmitter systems are inextricably intertwined. Thus serotonin, endogenous opiates, as well as GABA also modulate dopamine levels in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). In the following paragraphs the major neurotransmitters involved in brain reward will be discussed. Drugs of abuse have been shown to increase dopamine neurotransmitter levels in the reward pathway (1,2,3,4). In general, drugs that are not abused have no effect on dopaminergic concentrations (1,2). Some mechanisms that may contribute to increasing dopamine levels include blockade of re-uptake and stimulation of release (1,2,3). The specific mechanisms of action of rubric for literary response various substances of abuse in essay writing, increasing dopamine levels in the brain reward pathway will be described below.

Neurotransmitter Release and Re-uptake. 4.2 Other Neurotransmitters and Brain Reward. Even though increased dopamine in the brain reward system is generally thought to be the final common pathway for the reinforcing properties of drugs, other neurotransmitters such as serotonin are involved in the modulation of gawain essays both drug self-administration and dopamine levels. Serotonin may be important in psychology writing tips, modulating motivational factors, or the amount of work and individual is willing to perform to obtain a drug (1). Serotonergic neurons project both to the NA and VTA and appear to regulate dopamine release at the NA. However the relationship between serotonin and dopamine release is complex in for literary response essay, that, serotonin has numerous receptor types and its regulation of dopamine release is at times inhibitory and at other times excitatory (1,2). Thus, serotonin modulates the reward pathway through various mechanisms by psychology essay tips interacting with different receptors throughout the brain. GABA, another neurotransmitter involved in response essay, the modulation of dopaminergic reward systems, plays a role in psychology tips, the mediation of effects of many drugs of biology research abuse (1,2,3). GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter located diffusely throughout the brain. Drugs of abuse (DOA) act on the GABA receptor to hyperpolarize neurons.

When a neuron is hyperpolarized, it is inhibited from firing. Psychology Essay Tips. An analogy may be applying brakes to a car. Just as greater amounts of gas are required to cause the car to move while stepping on the brakes, greater amounts of stimuli are required to cause a neuron to elizabeth and john proctor fire that is hyperpolarized. When neurons fire they release neurotransmitter, and since drugs of abuse (DOA) inhibit these neurons, they release less GABA. When barbiturates, benzodiazapines or alcohol interact with the GABA receptor, they inhibit the release of GABA onto tips, the dopaminergic neurons (1,2,3). Thus, this is like taking your foot off the brakes allowing the car to go full speed ahead. The net result is disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons, making them fire more rapidly and releasing more dopamine in the reward system. With higher dopamine concentrations, feelings of well being or euphoria are induced. The net effects of inhibiting the diffuse GABA-ergic system are anxiety reduction, behavioral disinhibition, sedation, and euphoria.

Through GABA interacting with limbic structures many of these effects are mediated (1,2,3). Regions that mediate the Presentations, sedative anxiolytic effects of the limbic system also interact with reward systems. In conclusion, GABA-ergic neurons are diffuse throughout the central nervous system and they are extremely influential in their interactions with reward pathways (1,2,3). 4.2c The Endogenous Opiates. Endorphin Binding at the Synapse.

Just as the structures of the brain reward system encourage adaptive behaviors such as seeking food and sex, endogenous proteins called endorphins also motivate behaviour (1,3). The “runner’s high” is thought to be related to the production of such endogenous opiate compounds or endorphins. In addition, place preference (animals prefer the environment where the psychology writing tips, drug is administered to beowulf gawain essays other environments) is elicited when endorphins are applied to the NA (1,2). Endogenous endorphins attach to the same receptors as exogenous opiates. Through the psychology tips, same mechanism, they both increase dopamine in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). 5. Drugs of Abuse and the Reward Pathway. Primary Location of Action for Drugs of Abuse.

Experiments have shown that specific drugs of abuse affect receptors/neurochemical response act in different areas of the elizabeth proctor essay, brain. The nucleus accumbens (NA) is the primary place of action of amphetamine, cocaine, opiates, THC, phencyclidine, ketamine, and nicotine. Opiates, alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazapines (2,3,4) stimulate neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The final common action of most substances of abuse is stimulation of the brain reward pathway by increasing dopamine. The action of drugs of psychology essay writing abuse on structures of the critical, reward pathway at the gross anatomical level, followed by molecular actions of this system, will be discussed below. The complete discussion of the anatomical and biochemical effects of alcohol is tips, beyond the scope of oxford thinking this paper.

In the following paragraphs, an overview of alcohol’s action on essay tips, the reward pathway will be presented. Because of alcohol’s ability to pass freely through cell membranes, it affects many neurotransmitters and neurons throughout the brain. The focus of the discussion will be the molecular effects in relationship to the brain reward pathway. Alcohol has been shown to excite dopaminergic neurons in for literary response essay, the VTA as well as in the NA (1,2,3,4). In animal experiments, dopaminergic agonists (chemicals which increase dopamine) reduce alcohol consumption (1,2,3).

For example, the essay, dopamine agonist bromocriptine increases water intake and proctor decreases consumption of psychology essay tips alcohol in rodents(1). Dopamine agonists, however have not successfully reduced alcohol consumption in human experiments. Neurotransmitters other than dopamine are involved in alcohol dependence. Studies demonstrated that serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (medications that are commonly prescribed for depression such as fluoxetine ) may decrease consumption of alcohol in both rodents and in research, humans (2). It is psychology writing, not known whether this is due to a direct or an indirect effect of serotonin on dopaminergic systems, or a combination effect. Larger scale replication studies are needed before this is understood. The effects of university serotoninergic medications on drug self-administration may be due to writing tips their effects on motivational factors, as opposed to the specific reinforcing effects of the drug by modulating the reinforcing properties of other reinforcers such as food, water, alcohol and drugs of abuse (2). Opiate Action in the Brain.

Opiates influence dopamine levels and brain reward indirectly by elizabeth proctor inhibiting GABA neurons in the VTA (1). As noted previously the VTA is an important structure in the reward pathway. GABA neurons inhibit dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Psychology Writing Tips. Thus when opiates inhibit GABA neurons, dopaminergic neurons are free to fire more often. In essence, opiates remove the “brakes” from critical thinking a level dopaminergic neurons and allow them to fire more rapidly resulting in an increase of dopamine release (1,2). Numerous studies support opiate action in key structures of the psychology writing, reward pathway. For example, dopaminergic neuronal lesions of the NA or the VTA have been shown to either reduce or eliminate opiate reinforced behavior (1,3).

Opiate administration into the VTA leads to an increase in dopamine neurotransmitter release and beowulf essays promotes further self-administration (1). These studies further support the role of the psychology essay writing, brain reward system in opiate addiction. Some experiments chronic dopamine blockade is and john essay, unsuccessful at altering opiate self-administration, providing evidence that non-dopamine dependent reward pathways for opiate addiction also exist. (1,3). However, most experiments demonstrate that opiates function by stimulating both the psychology essay writing, NA and the VTA, both of which are key structures in the reward pathway. However, as lesions to dopaminergic neurons do not completely eliminate self-administration of opiates in biology research, some experiments, indirect and dopamine independent mechanisms of opiate addiction and reinforcement also exist (3). Like other drugs of abuse, stimulants increase dopamine concentrations in tips, the brain reward pathway (1,2,3,4,7). Stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine and interesting biology nicotine all stimulate the brain reward pathway through slightly different mechanisms and essay increase dopamine to different extents. Moreover, the route of administration of stimulants also influences the past essay, addictive properties of stimulants, by psychology essay influencing the rate at holiday which dopamine “spikes” in the brain. Psychology Essay Tips. In general, intravenous and transpulmonary (smoking) delivery is more “addictive” than nasal (“snorting”) or oral administration.

Cocaine Binding at the Synapse. Cocaine, like other drugs of and john abuse, increases dopamine in the reward pathway. Psychology Essay Tips. Lesions to the reward pathway or pharmacological blockade of rubric for literary response dopamine diminish cocaine’s rewarding effects (1,2,3). Thus, dopaminergic neurons in the reward pathway have been shown to be important in the reinforcing effects of cocaine (2). This increase of dopamine in psychology essay, the brain reward centers is and sir, dose dependent (the more cocaine that is taken in, the higher the dopamine concentration in these areas). In fact, cocaine addicts describe their experience like “hunger”, ”taste”, or “sex” (2). These observations further illustrate how drugs of abuse stimulate structures of the brain that have evolved to promote behaviors that aid in the survival of the species (1,2,7). Cocaine’s effects on the reward system are so powerful that it may override other generally gratifying reinforcers: money, safety, loved ones, morality and even survival may become less important to the abuser than obtaining and using cocaine (2).

Thus, cocaine stimulates the psychology essay writing, brain reward system more effectively than the behaviors that the reward system evolved to reinforce! Cocaine acts to increase dopamine levels by inhibiting monoamine ( dopamine , serotonin, and response essay norepinephrine) re-uptake from the synaptic cleft (1,2,3,4,6,7). The primary effects of writing cocaine on reinforcement involve its ability to spanish past holiday essay bind to psychology writing tips the dopamine transporter and prevent re-uptake of dopamine (2). By inhibiting dopamine re-uptake, it increases dopamine in the reward system. Like cocaine, amphetamines stimulate the brain reward pathway by increasing concentrations of dopamine. Amphetamines both decrease the re-uptake of dopamine and directly increase the neuronal release of dopamine (1,2,3,4) Many experiments have shown the importance of dopamine in the rewarding effects of spanish holiday amphetamines. For example, dopamine agonists (substances that can substitute for dopamine by binding to the same receptors and psychology essay writing tips producing the similar effects) decrease amphetamine self-administration in animals (1,3). On the other hand, dopaminergic blockade (antagonists) decreases amphetamine self-administration in rats by preventing amphetamine binding, thereby preventing its dopaminergic effects (3). Similarly, lesions to the dopaminergic neurons in the NA lead to long lasting decreases in self-administration of amphetamines (3).

These examples emphasize how drugs increase dopamine levels and elizabeth and john stimulate the reward pathway. When dopamine levels are prevented from psychology writing tips rising in response to past holiday drug administration (either producing chemical or structural “lesions”), then animals stop using the drug since it is no longer “rewarding”. These elegant experiments demonstrate that the “rewarding” properties of the drug are directly related to whether it increases dopamine or not in the reward pathway. Nicotine is essay writing tips, thought to affect the brain reward system by increasing dopamine concentrations through interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It has been shown to mimic endogenous (or the body’s natural) acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Nicotine increases dopamine efflux in the reward pathway by mimicking acetylcholine at and john proctor presynaptic nicotinic receptor sites, and exciting dopaminergic neurons (2). Nicotine receptors are located throughout the brain; however, nicotine exerts its greatest effects on brain reward in the NA (1,2,3). By acting on these neurons, nicotine increases release of dopamine in the NA (1,2,4). Nicotinic antagonists, chemicals which block the actions of nicotine at its receptor, inhibit dopamine release while nicotinic agonists increase dopamine release (1,2).

Thus, nicotine leads to increased dopamine concentrations in the brain reward pathway like other drugs of abuse. Caffeine is the essay writing, psychoactive drug that is Presentations, most commonly used throughout the world (11). Psychology Essay Tips. Caffeine blocks the Presentations, actions of adenosine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to its receptor and psychology essay preventing post binding changes from interesting taking place (2). Caffeine is a “competitive antagonist” of adenosine. Since the neurotransmitter adenosine is like the safety on a gun, when it is removed, neurons begin to psychology tips fire. By blocking the effects of adenosine, caffeine leads increased firing of dopaminergic neurons. This is especially evident in the NA (4,5). 5.6 Treatment Implications of the Brain Reward System. Operating through different mechanisms drugs of abuse have a final common pathway by which they increase dopamine levels within the core structures of the so called “brain reward system” which includes the VTA and NA. A balance between the negative effects of the drug and proctor essay positive feelings associated with stimulation of the brain reward system determine if an psychology writing individual will enjoy and continue using the substance or not (1,2). Generally the interesting biology research papers, positive effects or “high” of psychology tips using a drug occur immediately or shortly after use, by the action of increasing dopamine.

The closer positive and negative effects are to the actual time of drug use, the more likely we are to associate these effects with the drug. Unfortunately, the negative consequences of drug use often come much later and more unpredictably compared to the immediate pairing of drug administration and reward. For example, the later potential negative consequences of chronic drinking (such as liver disease) may not be as important as the immediate rewarding positive effects of interesting research drinking. Some approaches to treatment attempt to consistently pair the essay writing, negative consequences of drug administration with drug administration. If one is taking disulfiram (Antabuse), the action of drinking will immediately cause a negative consequence (extreme illness).

The immediate negative consequence of drinking now competes with the normally immediate positive reward of a level drinking to combat illness. By changing the time course of psychology essay writing tips positive and negative drug effects through behavioral interventions or pharmaceutical interventions, we may be able to better treat addictions in the future. VI. Pharmacotherapy of Presentations Drug Addiction: Pharmacotherapeutic interventions have been developed to decrease drug use by influencing the brain reward system. The focus in the following paragraphs will be pharmacological treatment to prevent relapse of the addicted individual. General strategies for psychology writing, pharmacological treatment of drug addiction include creating aversion to the addicted drug, bringing consequences or punishment closer to the reinforcement of drug use, modification of neurotransmitters to decrease drug intake, and long-term substitution with a less addictive and cross-tolerant medication (1). 6.1 Aversive Conditioning. Increasing the negative or aversive effects of a drug is one effective treatment used for alcohol addiction. Disulfiram (Antabuse), metronidazole, or calcium carbimide is used to create negative effects with the ingestion of interesting biology research alcohol (1,2).

These medications, when taken, cause the abuser to become extremely ill when they engage in drinking. Instead of experiencing the negative effects of alcohol the next day (hangover) or years later (liver disease), they experience unpleasant effects such as nausea, vomiting, and flushing in closer proximity to ingestion which opposes the normally immediate positive reward of the drug (see above). Although these drugs have been effective for some individuals by case report, these treatments have failed to show efficacy in numerous clinical trials (1). However recent work by Carroll et al demonstrates that Antabuse can be effective in preventing cocaine dependent individuals from relapsing into cocaine (12). By reducing alcohol consumption they were less likely to psychology writing tips relapse to cocaine since alcohol may “dissolve” one’s “resolve” to stay abstinent, by past holiday lowering one’s inhibitions and impairing one’s ability to make wise choices. 6.2 Neurotransmitter Manipulation. By manipulating neurotransmitters in the reward pathway, we can potentially modify cravings for drugs of abuse.

This can be accomplished in two ways. First, we can give drug antagonists, or drugs that block the psychology writing, addicting effects of the dopamine reward system. Biology. For example, dopamine blocking agents have been shown to diminish intake of all drugs of abuse in animal studies (2). However, application in humans has been less promising. In humans, the psychology tips, euphoria induced by amphetamine administration is attenuated by Presentations dopamine blocking agents. Thus, when the drug no longer increases dopamine levels and causes feelings of essay tips well being, the desire for the drug may diminish. Bupropion, a dopamine agonist, has been shown in nicotine addiction but has not been shown to be effective in cocaine addiction. Medications, which more directly influence neurotransmitters other than dopamine, have also shown promise in decreasing substance use.

For example opiate antagonists such as Naltrexone have also been use to elizabeth and john proctor essay down regulate the reward pathway in alcohol addiction. In addition, opiate antagonists serve to decrease the positive effects of opiates (2). Fluoxetine, a serotonergic agent, has been shown to decrease alcohol consumption in nondepressed alcohol dependant adults as well (13). Both naltrexone and fluoxetine may indirectly affect dopamine in the “reward center. Thus, by essay manipulating neurotransmitter levels, we may reduce consumption of substances. 6.3 Pharmacological Substitution. By substituting one substance that stimulates the brain reward pathway with another less addictive/ less harmful substance, we may aid in relapse prevention. University Critical Thinking. One example is the writing tips, use of methadone to treat heroin addiction. Response Essay. Methadone does not have the euphoric effects that heroin does; however, it does adequately stimulate the brain reward system and essay writing provides a safer alternative to heroin use.

In adequate doses methadone reduces craving for heroin and thereby the risk for relapse to heroin. Methadone, an biology research papers orally administered opiate, is associated with less risk of acquiring HIV, hepatitis C, and criminal activity - all of which are highly associated with heroin dependence (2). Another example of a substitution therapy approach is that of nicotine replacement therapy with the patch or nicotine gum (1). This allows the individual to struggle with behavioral aspects of drug addiction and minimize the pharmacological aspects for a time being. Writing Tips. In addition, nicotine replacement is beowulf and sir essays, less addictive and less harmful to overall health than obtaining nicotine through smoking. This is writing tips, because when one inhales cigarette smoke, nicotine is immediately absorbed in proctor, the brain in a spiking manner, which, as discussed above, is the most addictive pattern of drug administration (2). On the other hand, the nicotine patch provides the same net dose of nicotine, but has a time release mechanism to allow for relatively constant blood levels. Thus, the psychology tips, gradual increase in nicotine that occurs with the nicotine patch will lead to more constant moderate levels of dopamine in the brain as opposed to the “spike and dip” pattern produced by most drugs of abuse.

This prevents dopamine from dipping to low levels, which may then prevent craving. Instead of quitting a substance “cold turkey”, and allowing dopamine levels to plummet, a chemical ladder that uses the brain reward system to slowly change dopamine levels may be used to more easily descend the cliff face of addiction, attenuating the pattern of craving and relapse. In the interesting, last decade it has become clear that addiction, in addition to having environmental determinants, is also of the brain. Scientists have found that a common reward pathway exists in the brain. When stimulated by drugs of abuse, addiction often occurs especially in those who are genetically or otherwise neurochemically vulnerable. Psychology Tips. This pathway, located in the primitive limbic system, has evolved over time to promote behaviors that increase the survivability of organisms, such as feeding and reproductive behaviors. Drugs of abuse also stimulate structures in the reward pathway, primarily acting on dopaminergic neurons in the VTA and NA. Holiday. These drugs not only stimulate areas of the essay, brain that have evolved to encourage adaptive behaviors; they stimulate these areas more effectively than the survival behaviors themselves! Substances of abuse may “commandeer” this reward system just as viruses “commandeer” intracellular machinery during infection, driving compulsive usage of those substances resulting in behavior that we commonly call addiction. Dopamine action can be increased in for literary, several different manners; drugs may increase post-synaptic sensitivity to dopamine, increase dopamine release, or inhibit dopamine re-uptake.

Drugs of abuse may accomplish this by acting directly on dopaminergic neurons or indirectly through other neurons and neurotransmitters. Although these drugs interact through different mechanisms and different areas of essay tips brain reward pathways, they all converge on elizabeth essay, this common reward pathway and increase concentrations of dopamine in its structures. As the mechanism of the reward pathway and psychology tips its interactions with other areas in the brain become clearer, new pharmacotherapies and behavioral treatments may be developed to effectively treat substance use disorders and decrease its devastating human cost. 1.Lowinson, J; Ruiz, P; Millman, R; Langrod, J. Substance Abuse: A comprehensive Textbook 3 rd Edition. Williams Wilkens 1997. 2. Niesink, R; Jaspers, R; Kornet, L; van Ree,J. Drugs of Abuse and Presentations Addiction: Neurobehavioral Toxicology.

CRC Press 1999. Ritz, Mary. Writing Tips. Reward Systems and Addictive Behavior. Rubric. Chapter 5, Pg124-149. Ritz, Mary. Molecular mechanisms of writing addictive substances. Chapter 6. Pg150-189. 3. Koob, G.; Nestler, E. The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 1997; 9:482-497. 4. Bardo, Michael. Neurophrmacological Mechanisms of Drug Reward: Beyond Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens.

Clinical Reviews in Neurobiology 1998, 12(12): 37-67. 5. Dager, S; Layton, Matt; et al. Human Brain Metabolic Response to Caffeine and the Effects of Tolerance. Am J Psychiatry 156:2, Feb. 1999. 6. Childress, A; Mozley, D; et al.

Limbic Activation During Cue-Induced Cocaine Craving. Am J Psychiatry 156:1, Jan 1999: 11-18. 7. Little, K; Zhang, L; et al. Striatal Dopaminergic Abnormalities in Human Cocaine Users. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156:238-245. 8. Solhkhah, R; Wilens, T; Pharmacotherapy of spanish past Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders. Alcohol Health and essay tips Research World.

Vol. 22, No.2, 1988: 122-125. 10. Graham, A; Schultz; T. Principles of Addiction Medicine. American Society of Addiction Medicine, Inc. 1998. Koob,G Roberts, A; Neurocircuitry Targets in Reward and Dependence. Presentations. Chapter 6 73-82.

11. Joseph, R. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Clinical Neuroscience: Emotion, Evolution, Cognition, Language, Memory, Brain Damage, and Abnormal Behavior. Section III. The Limbic System Williams Wilkens 1996. 12.Caroll Pharm Iv for Alchohol and Cocaine Abusing Adults. American J of Addiction 2:77-79 1993. 13.

Navarjo Ca, Sellers Em, Lawvin Mo. Modulation of ethanol intake by Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors . J. Clinical Psychiatry 47: 16-22. 1986.