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Bachelor Thesis template from thesis-template.com. I'm pretty new to Lyx and history essay grading I would like to use it in order to write my Bachelor. Eric Kerrigan Thesis. Thesis within the next few months. As the newbie I am - I've got some questions about different aspects, mostly. about a template I found online. Dresden at ap us history essay grading www.thesis-template.com I changed a lot according to my needs but. experienced some problems: there are no headlines at the TOC and the following page. What do I have to. change in order to get headlines there as well? 2.) a) How can I change the appearance of various indexes (such as list of. figures, tables and abbreviations) in the TOC? Consider e.g. the kerrigan thesis bibtex-index: I can do a right-click and mark the ap us history essay grading checkbox and. it's listed. But what to essays on theory of multiple do for the other indexes? b) Moreover, is it even possible to assign them a chapter number? Let's say my.
7th chapter is 'Indexes' containing list of figures at 7.1 and ap us history list of. abbreviations at 7.2 and so on. How to achieve that? 3.) How to insert a non-breaking hyphen? Is there any better way than using. mbox? I read that there's a command for LaTeX ( -) or something similar. Interest. But. this one's not working in Lyx.
Suggestions anyone? Thanks in Advance and ap us history essay grading have a nice day. Re: Bachelor Thesis template from thesis-template.com. I'm pretty new to Lyx and I would like to use it in order to reflective on emotional write my Bachelor. Thesis within the next few months.
As the newbie I am - I've got some questions about different aspects, mostly. about a template I found online. Starting with the template: It has been published as a template for essay the TU. Dresden at www.thesis-template.com I changed a lot according to my needs but. experienced some problems: 1.) The whole document (excepting the title) should have headlines. But somehow. Military Statement. there are no headlines at essay grading the TOC and the following page. What do I have to. Military Spending Statement. change in order to get headlines there as well? 2.) a) How can I change the appearance of various indexes (such as list of. figures, tables and abbreviations) in the TOC? Consider e.g. the bibtex-index: I can do a right-click and ap us essay grading mark the. it's listed.
But what to do for the other indexes? b) Moreover, is it even possible to assign them a chapter number? Let's say my. Academic Interest. 7th chapter is 'Indexes' containing list of figures at 7.1 and list of. Ap Us Essay Grading. abbreviations at 7.2 and so on. How to achieve that? And finally just a minor problem - rather a question: 3.) How to insert a non-breaking hyphen? Is there any better way than using. mbox?
I read that there's a command for LaTeX ( -) or something similar. But. this one's not working in Lyx. Suggestions anyone? I would really appreciate if someone might help me on these problems. Thanks in Advance and have a nice day. Sunny regards from Berlin, Germany. I took only teachers should essay, a quick look at the template and ap us essay grading can not answer your. questions but wanted to essay give you some general advice. The template is. based on KOMA-Script, which has a very well written German manual, which I highly recommend. History Essay Grading. Many of your questions regarding. Academic College. customization are KOMA-related questions in the end and for many of. them you will need to put LaTeX-code either in the preamble or via ERT.
The KOMA-handbook will help you to find out, what code to ap us grading put where. Berlin, then you might as well make your own template, based of. preferrable KOMA-Book or Memoir (rather than the standard classes). Simply start with the basic documents and slowly set up your document. the way you need it. Re: Bachelor Thesis template from thesis-template.com. preferrable KOMA-Book or Memoir (rather than the standard classes). don't have to learn all these LaTeX commands. But I'll try my best and have a. brief look at academic college the KOMA Script documentation. to be some bug -- of course in front of the pc :-) Re: Bachelor Thesis template from thesis-template.com. Hi Maksi, thanks for your reply. preferrable KOMA-Book or Memoir (rather than the standard classes). that I don't have to learn all these LaTeX commands. But I'll try my. best and essay grading have a brief look at the KOMA Script documentation. Thesis Statement. this seams to be some bug -- of course in front of the history grading pc :-) (evil red text, i.e. raw LaTeX): Press Strg-L and insert appearing box. (This and a lot more about basic typograhic rules and. their implementation with LaTeX can be found in essay, a PDF document: und ihre Umsetzung in ap us history, LATEX.
3. September 2007. Re: Bachelor Thesis template from thesis-template.com. Back to essay on a peace by john the original questions: a non-breaking hyphen can be input as ERT. Ap Us History Grading. (evil red text, i.e. raw LaTeX): Press Strg-L and insert appearing box. (This and a lot more about basic typograhic rules and. their implementation with LaTeX can be found in a PDF document: way to insert non-breaking hyphens, or in reflective essay, the terms of LyX a protected. hyphen. You can insert it by pressing Ctrl+Alt+-. More of those. commands can be found in the Insert-Special Character/Formatting. menu. So, don't ERTs for protected hyphens. Re: Bachelor Thesis template from thesis-template.com.
commands can be found in the Insert-Special Character/Formatting. menu. So, don't ERTs for protected hyphens. find this shortcut neither the menu point (for non-breaking hyphen). But that's. good to know, thank you. Here's a link to ap us essay grading the document: thanks a lot, diefettenjahre. The KOMA forum entries helped me on this on (missing. parameter to ihead: The website is quite confusing. I found my biggest mistake.
The KOMA forum entries helped me on this on (missing. If you want to have headlines as well for the plain sides, you gotta add. parameter to essay ihead: Does anyone have a direct link to the coma docs? The website is quite confusing. template is using quite a lot of LaTeX to set up some individual stuff. especially for TU (?) Dresden. Unless that look is what you really, really want, you will have to ap us essay change some things. And then it might. seem easier to start from eric, scratch and build your own template (this way.
I learned a little bit about LaTeX) – that's what I meant with “having.
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safe sex lies essay When I was twenty-five years old I appeared in essay grading the pages of the New York Times Magazine in my underwear. Reflective On Emotional? Well, almost. A cartoon drawing of a girl in her underwear—a girl who, with her short blond hair and apple cheeks over a pointed chin, looked remarkably like me—appeared in conjunction with an essay I’d written about the way Generation X was reacting to the safe-sex message. The year was 1996 and the AIDS crisis, though technically past its apogee, seemed to have finally succeeded in infiltrating every corner of the general public consciousness and scaring the hell out of ap us history it. Invocations to get tested for HIV loomed from billboards and in subway ads. Celebrities preached about safer sex in public-service announcements. Music videos and advertisements appropriated AIDS awareness as not only a form of essays on theory provocation but an agent of style. It was the year of the Broadway debut of Rent, a modern-day retelling of La Boheme that featured several characters who were either infected with HIV or dying of AIDS. The essay had been brewing in my mind since at least two years before, when I’d been jolted by a print advertisement for the Benetton clothing company.
It featured more than a thousand tiny photos of smiling, attractive young people purporting to represent every part of the world. Ap Us History? Intermittent faces were shaded and essays intelligences partially obscured by the word AIDS, creating a visual effect that spelled out the word in larger type when you looked at the image from ap us farther back. I ran across the thesis, ad while flipping through magazines with some girlfriends one night, and it prompted a heated and slightly panicked conversation about whose faces these were and whether they really had AIDS. One friend said, “Yes, of course they do; that’s how bad things have gotten.” Another wasn’t sure, and I thought it couldn’t be possible. This led to an even more heated discussion about how dangerous the world was and history grading how we, as twentysomething females living in New York City, should perhaps hang up our dancing shoes (or, in our case, black leather lace-up boots) and marry the eric thesis, next person we met (after the requisite health screenings, of course), lest the single life literally kill us.
I was a young writer back then. I won’t say “aspiring writer,” because I’d actually managed to grading, publish a few things that elevated me slightly out of the “aspiring” camp and were steering me into the “promising” camp. Teachers Should Homework Essay? Still, I was green. I was enrolled in an MFA writing program that I fiercely loved but for which I had taken out monstrous student loans. It seemed worth it, though. Ap Us Essay? In my second year of the program, I set aside the fiction I’d gone there to pursue and began writing personal essays. Things started clicking almost immediately and a central theme emerged: the spending, relationship between myself and society, the ap us, tension between the trappings of contemporary life and the actualities of that life, what it meant to on theory of multiple, be “alive” (i.e., twenty-five years old) in “today’s world” (i.e., New York City). And, as is ap us history grading, always the case for a young writer, every experience I had—every book I read and film I saw, every trip to the corner deli, every ranter I heard in essays of multiple intelligences the street—was potential fodder for another piece of ap us history grading groundbreaking, human condition–explaining nonfiction. Hence the of multiple intelligences, week in the fall of 1995 when, after visiting the health-services office of my university for ap us history essay grading a head cold and teachers not give deciding on a whim to get a free HIV test, I started thinking about that Benetton ad and grading those shaded faces and found myself suddenly gripped by interest college essay the terrifying possibility that, despite not having engaged in history grading anything remotely constituting risky behavior (at least from a rational standpoint; in those days of equal-opportunity alarmism, any acts of uncondomized sex, possibly even those involving only essays on theory of multiple intelligences, oneself, were considered a death wish), I could wind up among their ranks. And when I went home that evening and sat down at the computer (Band-Aid stuck menacingly to my arm from the blood-draw, my stomach queasy at the prospect of ap us essay waiting two weeks for the result), an essay was born: a loud, flashy, nakedly ambitious essay about the way non-promiscuous, non-IV-drug-using heterosexuals often abandon condoms a month or so into their relationships, after which they get paranoid so they get tested for HIV and then drive themselves insane with anxiety during the wait, after which they usually resume the behavior that made them paranoid to begin with. Essays On Theory Of Multiple Intelligences? I talked about the essay grading, way the national conversation around HIV-awareness had resulted in spending statement millions of little white lies that people told each other on a regular basis: for instance, “I’ve never once had sex without a condom.” I talked about essay grading, how it was difficult for a woman to go on a date with a man without looking for subtle clues that the guy might once have had sex with another man.
I spoke of how messages like “There’s no such thing as safe sex” had promulgated the idea that paranoia and mistrust were the keys to eric kerrigan, a healthy life. I talked about how, as a freshman in college, a senior who claimed to have inside information about the public-health stats of the student body looked at me earnestly and said that there were lesbians on campus who had HIV, which they’d contracted from other lesbians. I spoke of how stuff like this was simultaneously so hard to believe and ap us so terrifying that it was tempting to just ignore the message altogether. I spoke of my own melancholy and interest college loneliness and confusion. I think at one point I might have used the word dystopia. I also called Benetton and ap us grading asked if the people in the ad were really known to have HIV or AIDS.
They weren’t. Military Spending Thesis? I mentioned that, too. I may have been in graduate school, but I was already flinging my work all over town, pitching ideas to magazine editors and ap us history hand-delivering work samples (somehow this seemed more serious and professional than using the U.S. mail) to the reception desk of every publication within subway distance. When an editor at the New York Times Magazine called me and asked if I had anything edgy and new to on a peace, say about my generation, I sent him the grading, AIDS essay and he immediately invited me to lunch to discuss it further. Upon inquiring during that lunch as to whether I’d be willing to essay on a separate knowles, “trim the essay a bit” (“Sure!” I chirped. “Anything you want!”), another lunch was scheduled, this time at grading Orso with two more editors who plied me with yellowfin tuna and told me the piece would need to on theory intelligences, be cut nearly in half to history, accommodate a two-page spread, but that I shouldn’t worry because I was the voice of my generation and everything would be spectacular.
They were right about the should homework essay, spectacle. Though I’d worked hard—with the editors and on my own—to shoehorn my original three thousand words of, as I’d proudly described them, “very nuanced ideas” into ap us essay, the allotted seventeen hundred words, I didn’t pull it off. The final edit was abrupt, not all that coherent, gratuitously provocative, and kerrigan thesis suggested that I might have had unprotected sex with upward of five hundred people (in truth, the number was in the low single digits, and “unprotected” was a matter of interpretation). In addition to the tarty cartoon drawing (which had been sent to press without my knowledge, and which the art department had conceded to only after I declined to ap us history essay, sit for essays of multiple intelligences a photo shoot), the essay had been assigned the rather awkward title of “Safe-Sex Lies.” If I had been just slightly older and wiser, I would have withdrawn it from ap us essay grading publication in a heartbeat. But of course I was neither of essay those things. I was the history essay, voice of my generation, which, in eric thesis the case of this article, wasn’t proving to be a very appealing one. The article came out, the Times received roughly six hundred irate letters within five days, my phone rang off the hook, and I was invited to appear on the NBC Nightly News.
Let’s keep in mind that this was pre-blogosphere, pre–twenty-four-hour news cycle, pre–caller ID, pre–ubiquitous email. I had a dial-up AOL account and a red Southwestern Bell telephone that my parents had picked up back in Texas in the ’70s and relinquished to me when I struck out on my own. I was sharing an apartment with two roommates who did not appreciate that the ap us essay grading, phone was ringing every five minutes. Usually the thesis statement, person on the other end had called to say how disgusted they were with what I’d written and what a slut I was and how I was either appallingly homophobic (for suggesting that HIV might not be affecting heterosexuals at the same rate) or had a “pro-gay agenda” (for suggesting HIV was a problem at ap us essay all). My classmates, who’d been the first to teachers should essay, read the ap us history, piece back in workshop, seemed perturbed about the whole thing. Thesis? (How was it that I’d ignored their editorial suggestions but ended up in a national publication nonetheless?) My parents were rightfully mortified, and my friends were rapidly growing tired of talking me off the cliff every day, listening to ap us essay grading, my whining and intelligence rationalizations and history essay grading telling me what I wanted to hear, which is that the “right people” understood what I was trying to get across; I was ahead of my time; and, besides, no one was saying I was a bad writer, merely a bad person. When a correspondent for the NBC Nightly News came to interview me in my apartment (roommates eavesdropping from the kitchen as they made grilled-cheese sandwiches), I tried to acquit myself but mostly made things worse by thesis rambling on in a sound bite–unfriendly fashion (again with the “dystopia”) and looking slightly derelict with an ap us essay grading, aggressively short, bleached-blond haircut (it was the mid-’90s, after all). The final broadcast included a lot of B-roll footage of me in my overcoat and black leather boots walking down the snowy New York City sidewalks. When the thesis, segment ended and Tom Brokaw looked up from his desk monitor and into the camera, he shook his head with an history, air of such profound, almost avuncular concern that I felt like I had been sent to knowles, my room.
It would be years before I could watch him without feeling like he was judging me from inside the essay grading, television set. Fifteen years on, a head shake from Tom Brokaw wouldn’t register as even mild censure. As much as the culture has eased up on HIV-preventative scare tactics, it’s become ruthlessly punitive in the face of just about any point of statement view that embraces ambiguity or gets expressed in ap us history a less-than-literal fashion. A young person (any person) who published a piece as incendiary as “Safe-Sex Lies” today would be chewed up and spit out so many times over by bloggers and commenters and cable-news screamers that the idea of “understanding what I was trying to get across” would seem not just quaint but moot. Indeed, nobody understands or even cares what anyone’s trying to get across anymore, only essay on emotional intelligence, that the ensuing buzz has made the author a “media presence.” An essay like “Safe-Sex Lies,” were it to history, appear today, would not merely make a splash, it would likely go viral. It would ricochet around email boxes, fill those yawning expanses of airtime on talk radio, and eric appear on the home pages of grading countless news aggregators, all the while dragging behind it an ever-expanding trail of “response,” much of it from people who haven’t read all, or perhaps any, of the essay, but nonetheless feel compelled to weigh in. The writer would then be inveighed upon to react to the reaction, to compose blog posts and participate in live chat sessions and call in to radio programs, not so much in an attempt to clarify her original message, but to essays on theory intelligences, talk about how “interesting” the public reception has been, and what a “wild ride” it all is—“wild ride” being a euphemism for thousands of anonymous internet comments calling you unprintable words.
These days, being attacked isn’t just the result of essay grading saying something badly, it’s the result of essays on theory of multiple intelligences saying anything at all. I can testify to this, because for more than six years, I have been a weekly opinion columnist for the Los Angeles Times. This is a great gig, and I have many loyal, smart, thoughtful readers. Ap Us Essay Grading? But I also live with the fact that practically everything I write is met with an avalanche of invective. Separate By John Knowles? It runs the gamut from partisan attacks to personal attacks to entreaties to my editors to stop publishing me immediately.
Internet comment-boards can easily take up ten or fifteen times the space of the column itself. My email in-box overflows with outrage and history grading umbrage: “Shame on you!” “You are an on theory intelligences, idiot and ap us essay a disgrace.” “What a stupid little twit you are.” And, in one of my recent favorites, “You have no credibility because you let your opinion get in the way.” Some weeks, if I’ve hit a particularly sensitive nerve, blogs of every imaginable variety will link to military thesis statement, the column, offer their own spin, and then invite their own legions to chime in. On one hand, of course, this is essay, what every columnist wants most. Like anyone who publicly expresses his ideas, be it through writing or music or visual media or anything else, the goal is to be heard, to inspire reaction and separate peace knowles generate discussion.
But based on history essay grading much of the reaction I get—especially the comments in my own paper, where a stable of regulars have become so personally invested in on emotional their dislike for me that they’ve taken to remarking not on my column but on my looks, marital or reproductive status, and standing on the bitch-o-meter—I can hardly give myself credit for history essay grading starting anything resembling a discussion. What prevails instead are more like internet-style shoot-’em-ups, all-capped shouting matches between people with screen names like LibertyLuvr44 and essay on emotional GreenGrrrl. They rage on for pages and pages, enjoying far greater word-count freedom than I or my colleagues could ever dream of. Liberals will refer to history essay grading, Republicans as “rethugs,” who in turn will call liberals “libtards.” Blue-state types will make lame trailer-park jokes about red-state types, who, in turn, will call the essay on a by john knowles, president a socialist. The frequency with which people actually call me “Meghan Dumb” often makes me feel young again—for instance, in second grade. My commenters also have a great affinity for making things up—again, a freedom not enjoyed by grading those in the newsroom. Meghan is kerrigan thesis, 40 years old and still not married. Ap Us Grading? Tick tock tick tock… Anyone who knows Meghan knows of what I speak. She’s an angry middle aged woman and an intolerant hack. What a pathetic, inept, and essays on theory uninformed person you are.
Your articles are brainless, and history essay grading when I read them I think of how miserable as a person you must be. College? Probably a fat ugly little girl who needs to prey on others to feel better…A fat, ugly squashed bug. You are a vile, loathsome, despicable pig. Your stench permeates through the web. Let me make one thing perfectly clear. I know that online hecklers represent but a tiny fraction of readers. I also know it’s actually a privilege to get feedback like this. History? It means that people are actually reading what I write, that editors are actually publishing it, and, moreover, that I’ve been able to make a career out of intelligence observing the culture and expressing my thoughts in writing. History? Over the years, I’ve scrambled to on theory intelligences, pay rent with enough menial office jobs to know better than to take even one day of uninterrupted, paid (or even unpaid) writing for history granted. I know that a lot of essays writers would kill to be called a squashed bug or a despicable pig, if only ap us history grading, because it beats not being called anything at all. But if most writers have long understood that publishing is a privilege that carries certain responsibilities—foremost among them taking the time to present ideas in a careful and thoughtful manner, ideally with the military, help of one or more editors—many readers seem to be approaching their commenting privileges like teenagers with newly minted driver’s licenses.
Belted in by anonymity and often distracted by history the equally reckless ravings of reflective on emotional their peers, they take potshots, spread untruths, and, at their worst, spew racism and bigotry that would put a professional writer out of business in a nanosecond. In so doing, they spread a rancor that can eclipse not only the original article but also the comments of ap us essay grading readers who take a more constructive, civil approach. They take the very privilege the essays, internet has afforded all of us—the privilege of equal opportunity, instant expression—and spit on history it, making the teachers should essay, very notion of essay “speaking your mind” seem almost like a dirty practice, the intelligences, national pastime of the lowest common denominator. This “haterade” (as the young blogger types have brilliantly coined it) is especially acute around political subjects and, in the case of my colleagues and myself, doubly acute when it comes to ap us essay grading, President Obama or Hillary Clinton or Sarah Palin or any subject remotely connected to essay on a separate peace, race or gender. It by no means stops there, though. I’ve written about everything from shelter pets to the lost pleasures of waiting for the mail, and still been called a “retarded scum pile that personifys [ sic ] everything that’s wrong with society today.” As many times as I’ve been called a feminazi—more than once by Rush Limbaugh, who apparently skims my column regularly—I’ve had liberals calling for my resignation because I’m not politically correct enough, and ap us history grading feminists wanting to break my knees over any number of perceived slights to the cause. Essay Separate Peace? Like most of my fellow columnists, I’m told on a daily basis that I’m utterly unqualified for ap us history my job and the sole reason that print media is dying. For all the sputtering outrage I’ve provoked in my socially conservative readers, most of thesis whom know nothing about me but nonetheless like to fantasize that I’m some kind of ap us essay East Coast blue blood who gets abortions in her spare time and eric was educated entirely by vegetarian, Marxist lesbians at fancy schools I didn’t have to ap us history essay grading, pay for essay on a peace (“Meghan comes from a very rich family that paid for all her schooling and supported her lavish lifestyle,” a commenter once declared), I also hear from plenty of humorless progressive types who find me “offensive” and “terribly disappointing,” and who want to be removed from my mailing list immediately. Admittedly, I’m the kind of person who’s capable of history essay grading hearing a single boo amid a cascade of applause.
Though I don’t always realize it, a lot of the feedback is statement, not only positive and history essay grading flattering, but critical in essay on a peace by john knowles ways that I need to hear and fully accept (one of the great lessons of doing a weekly column is essay, accepting that you won’t hit it out of the park every single week and that your audience has a right to kerrigan thesis, inform you when those weeks occur). Though I know that it would be a lot better for everyone (first and foremost my husband, who must endure my efforts to “reappropriate” the meanness by printing out the most egregious examples and attaching them to the refrigerator) if I could just focus on ap us history essay grading the respectful communiques, it’s not always easy. The writer and director Nora Ephron, who wrote columns of a personal and often provocative nature for on a peace Esquire in the ’70s and then returned to the form in 2005, when she began blogging on the Huffington Post, told me her first encounter with twenty-first-century audience participation left her totally shocked. “It’s like in high school I’d wonder what people are saying about me and then I’d realize it’s just as well that I don’t know,” she said. In “The Readers Strike Back,” a particularly thoughtful article on this subject that appeared on ap us Salon back in 2007 ( Salon being famous for some of the more affronted and pious commenters on the web), Gary Kamiya admitted that “it’s very hard for writers, who want to be read and thesis want to know what readers are saying about them, to ignore letters or blogs about themselves.” He quoted Salon senior writer Laura Miller, who allowed that “practically every writer I know has gone through the mill with this,” and history then invoked Anthony Trollope’s line from Phineas Finn: “But who is there that abstains from reading that which is kerrigan thesis, printed in history essay abuse of himself?’” Though I’ve never been tempted to go undercover to avenge myself, as was the case with Lee Siegel, the New Republic reporter who created a false account and on a separate attacked his attackers on his blog on the magazine’s website (and got himself suspended in grading the process), I do have my share of reflective on emotional confrontation fantasies. I’ve often imagined tracking down some of my more vehement detractors, knocking on their doors and asking, “Who are you?
What has made you so angry? What has happened in your life that you’re reduced to spewing bile at people you know nothing about?” It turns out ap us history essay, I’m not the only one with this fantasy. Military Spending Thesis? Last year’s short-lived reality show, succinctly entitled H8R (if you can’t decipher that idiom, you are too old to be watching the program), followed celebrities like Snooki and Kim Kardashian as they confronted people who’d said mean things about them on the internet. It would be foolish, of course, to expect a show of this kind to offer anything terribly insightful about this phenomenon. Since the haters weren’t hiding behind screen names but instead proclaiming their hate on camera and ap us essay grading keeping it in on a peace by john knowles compliance with the specifications of any number of producers, network executives, and advertisers, they were no match for even the mildest trolls on a political blog. But the very fact that the show made it on the air at all suggests that the cultural appetite for this kind of confrontation is growing more ravenous by the day. Ap Us History? (This past Halloween, a middle-school-age trick-or-treater showed up at my door wearing a costume that said hater lover; later, I spotted another kid in dress proclaiming him an actual “hater”; I hope they found each other.) It makes me think I wasn’t so crazy when I once, only half-jokingly, suggested to a colleague that the statement, opinion columnists at our paper should host a “haters picnic,” wherein we would cheerily serve up hot dogs and potato salad and give our angriest readers the chance to ap us essay grading, tell us in person what they thought of us. My colleague’s response was that it would cost too much to hire security, though he also hinted that I should shut up and just do my job. Essay? He had a point. Part of ap us grading our line of work involves being able to ignore the agitators, or at least brush them off.
If I were fundamentally unable to not give homework essay, handle criticism or anger or even the grading, occasional threat, then, yes, I truly would be unqualified for interest college essay my job. But there is a world of essay difference between the traditional notion of public participation in a newspaper or magazine and the cacophonous, sometimes libelous free-for-all that passes for it today. Whereas the old-fashioned letter to the editor involved crafting a letter, figuring out where to send it, springing for academic interest essay a stamp, and ap us history essay grading knowing that its publication-worthiness would be determined by reflective essay intelligence an actual editor who might even call and suggest some actual edits, today’s readers are invited to “join the conversation” as if the grading, work of professional reporters and columnists carries no more authority than small-talk at a cocktail party. And although some sites are making efforts to weed out the trolls by disabling anonymous posting, filtering comments through Facebook, or letting readers essentially monitor themselves by flagging or promoting comments at their own discretion, most are so desperate to catch eyeballs wherever and however possible that they’re loathe to turn down any form of free content. This is by academic now an old gripe in journalism circles, many members of which will point out that the ap us grading, last word on the matter could well have been said three years ago when the Onion published its fake news story “Local Idiot to Post Comment on Internet.” But if three years ago the reflective essay intelligence, phenomenon felt like a wave that was about to crest and then surely dissipate into a vague memory of some fleeting, anarchic period in ap us the history of the internet (“Remember back in 2008 when only idiots posted comments?” we imagined ourselves chortling one day), it feels today like the disease-ridden aftermath of a flood. Ugly commentary doesn’t just litter the internet, it infects it. It takes the act of homework reading an article or watching a video or listening to a podcast and turns it from a receptive experience into a reactive one. It does not invite us to history, “join the conversation” as much as to essay on a peace, join in on ap us history essay a fight, or at least gawk from the sidelines. Perhaps worst of all, it gives the impression that the thesis, opinions expressed in those fights are not just the ravings of a few local idiots but the “voice of the people.” Spend enough time in the company of ap us grading that voice and teachers should homework essay the world will begin to look like a very bleak place indeed. When I think of the coiners of the term haterade, those young, mean/smart, media-obsessed bloggers on mean/smart, media-obsessed websites who seem to be able to whip up five hundred words of clever commentary in the time it takes people my age to think of an opening sentence, I wonder if their brains are wired in ap us history essay such a way that the slings and arrows of should free-flowing obloquy don’t inflict quite as much pain on essay grading them as they might on their elders.
The fact that they’ve developed several playful iterations of the intelligences, word hate —you can hate on ap us history essay someone, show some hatitude, or simply be a hater —suggests that they’ve found a way to laugh at and therefore defang (reappropriate?) the reflective essay intelligence, whole gestalt. But I also wonder how often they get to experience the thrill of clueless abandon. History? I wonder if they’ve ever really been able to express anything—in print, on a blog, on Facebook, wherever—without on some level bracing themselves for mockery or scorn or troll-driven pestilence. I wonder if they could write something as controversial as “Safe-Sex Lies” (even in a more coherent form) and expect anything less than a full-blown assault from an electronic lynch mob and a lifetime of damning search-engine results. Still, for all the ways in which haterade feels like a scourge of very recent vintage, it’s crucial to essays, remember that in some aspects the acrimony has always been thus. The earliest newspapers in America were penned almost entirely by pseudonymous writers, many of them up to essay, just as much mischief as today’s anonymous bloggers. Benjamin Franklin created several false identities under several different pen names, including a middle-aged widow named Silence Dogood, a gossip named The Busybody, and, his best-known, Richard Saunders, whose aphorisms and predictions became the basis of Poor Richard’s Almanac, an should not give, annual publication, launched in 1732, whose mocking tone went so far as to history grading, report deaths that hadn’t occurred. During the federalist era, political opponents Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, and teachers should their respective acolytes, were hating on each other and on essay the Adams administration so vituperatively that the president signed the Sedition Act of 1798, a statute that made it illegal to publish “false, scandalous, and malicious writing” against the government or its officials. Not that there weren’t still plenty of choice words for nonofficials, particularly those with access to a printing press. During his tenure as editor of a New York–based federalist newspaper, Noah Webster was characterized by rival pamphleteers (the bloggers of their time?) as “an incurable lunatic,” “a toad in the service of sans-cullottism,” “a prostitute wretch,” “a great fool, and on a by john knowles a barefaced liar,” “a spiteful viper,” and “a maniacal pedant.” (It’s fitting that these barbs made such baroque use of vocabulary; Webster was the founder of the essay grading, first modern dictionary.) In other words, angry people of the millennium, haterade in public discourse didn’t spring fully formed from the digital cabbage patch; it’s part of the military spending thesis, DNA of opinion itself.
Betty Winfield, Curators’ Professor at the University of ap us grading Missouri School of Journalism and a specialist in mass-media history, sees it as little more than the latest form of public expression. “If you have a democracy and people have viewpoints, this is essay on a peace by john knowles, another way to ap us history essay, express it,” Winfield told me. “We’ve had viewpoints and individual expression since caveman paintings. Teachers? The question is whether you own it.” The whole notion of accountability in essay grading journalism, she said, didn’t start until the reflective essay, advent of ap us history essay journalism schools, in the early twentieth century, when the concept of “professionalism,” with its emphasis on military statement standards, criteria, and established procedures, took root in America. But a funny thing has happened since the rise of professionalism. The tenets it embraced—that some people are more qualified than others, that training and apprenticeship have value, that not everyone can or should (or needs to) gain admission into the club—have become unfashionable. And that is because haterade is not exclusive to the media world.
It’s not merely an occupational hazard of being a bigmouth. It affects just about anyone who tries to do anything that is subject to ap us essay grading, public (which is to say online) discussion. It affects the business owner who’s at the mercy of interest random, nameless Yelp reviewers who might well be his competitors in disguise. It affects the physician for whom the few patients who post reviews on medical-ratings sites are inevitably the ap us history essay grading, disgruntled ones. On A Separate By John? It affects the educator who can’t give a poor grade without risking retribution via the websites Rate My Teachers or Rate My Professors. It takes the very essence of what it means to be a professional—training, experience, sheer chops—and reduces it to a stage act to be evaluated with an applause-o-meter.
Part of me wants to history, conclude this essay with a manifesto. I’d like to academic college essay, declare an end to the self-torture. I’d like to history essay, call on every writer, musician, comedian, cartoonist, chef, glassblower, nail-salon owner to intelligence, promise right here and now to stop reading his own bad press and concentrate on doing work that’s true to his vision and unencumbered by anticipatory concessions to ankle-biters who probably won’t ever be satisfied with anything. I’d like to be able to make my own vow to stop looking over my shoulder and go back to essay, writing like the person I was before I’d ever seen a comment board (even if that means taking a little messiness with the exuberance). But I cannot lead such a charge, not only because, as tends to happen with manifestos, it’s as impractical as it is rousing (if Trollope couldn’t be expected to control himself, why should we?), but because ignoring the bad stuff would mean missing a lot of good stuff. And when that stuff is good it can be really, really good. When the criticism is valid it can be priceless.
And when ideas are given their due—that is, treated as living, breathing, imperfect things rather than written off as glib reactions to preexisting ideas—something rather magical can happen. There can be a second of silence during which we, as readers, think before chiming in. There can be a gasp of recognition that reminds us why we read or write in the first place. On A Separate? There can be a moment of reverie as the words hang in the air, before the hate blows in and knocks them to grading, the ground. Such things are possible. They are just uncommonly rare these days.
Rarer still are two words that can form one of the dearest phrases in the English language: no comment. Meghan Daum has been an opinion columnist at the Los Angeles Times since 2005. Her latest book, Life Would Be Perfect If I Lived in That House, is now out in paperback.
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15 Quick Tips for a Winning Resume. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. As part of the celebration of Quintessential Careers#8217;s 15th anniversary, we#8217;re presenting lists of 15 tips on some of the most essential topics in history essay college, job search, and eric, career. Yikes! You find yourself in history essay a position to teachers homework essay, craft a resume or update an existing resume. So much resume advice floats around out there, making you wonder about the best approach. The tips we offer here capture the history most important aspects of an effective resume. You can scarcely go wrong if you incorporate these nuggets into your next resume.
Here#8217;s our list of the 15 best tips for job-seekers in on theory crafting a winning resume. Your resume must be sharply focused and target your desired career goal with precision. Job-seekers tend to forget that employers review resumes extremely quickly #8212; often in just a few seconds. Ap Us History Essay Grading? An employer taking such a quick glance should be able to immediately grasp what you want to do and gain a sense of the on a separate by john value you can contribute to history essay, the organization. The resume must focus on key strengths that position the candidate to meet a specific need and target specific jobs/employers. In other words, employers don#8217;t consider resumes that aren#8217;t focused on a job#8217;s specific requirements to on theory of multiple, be competitive. Employers and recruiters expect your resume to be precisely tailored to the position you#8217;re applying for. The reader should be able to tell at a glance exactly what job you#8217;re targeting and what need you will fill. The reader should never have to guess or wade through copious text to determine what job you want and what you#8217;d be good at.
An unfocused resume is a time-waster for history essay the employer. Should Not Give Essay? Ways you can sharpen your focus include a headline atop your resume stating the type of job you seek, a branding statement that positions you for a specific job or type of job (headlines and branding statements are often used in combination), a Qualifications Summary or Professional Profile section, a section listing your Core Competencies/Proficiencies/Areas of Expertise, strategic organization of your resume to position you for essay grading the job you seek, and bullet points describing your experience in a way that is specifically tailored to the position you seek. To ensure a sharp focus, you will likely need to create multiple versions of your resume, building a boilerplate version that you then customize to each specific positions. Today#8217;s resume must be keyword-rich. Eric Kerrigan Thesis? The majority of resumes submitted to employers today are handled by Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS), which Wikipedia defines as software applications #8220;that enable the history essay electronic handling of corporate recruitment needs.#8221; The systems store #8220;candidate data inside a database to allow effective searching, filtering, and routing of applications.#8221; Because applicant tracking software and keyword-searchable databases dominate today#8217;s hiring process, successful resumes must feature cutting-edge industry jargon in the form of keywords. To read more about using keywords in of multiple resumes, see our article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume#8217;s Effectiveness. When your resume is essay grading seen by academic interest college essay, the human eye, it needs to catch attention and be simultaneously reader-friendly. The print version of an effective resume must be sleek, distinctive, and history essay grading, clean yet eye-catching. Your resume should feature conservative, easy-to-read fonts, plenty of white space, a layout/design that goes beyond ordinary yet is reflective essay on emotional not so far out as to turn employers off, and ap us essay grading, graphic elements that add interest, such as rule lines, boxes, shaded areas, and military spending, tables (for print version only, as these graphic elements will likely not hold up when entered into employers#8217; Applicant Tracking Systems.) Avoid instantly recognizable Microsoft Word resume templates.
Employers have seen a million of them, so they don#8217;t stand out. Resumes, especially for career changers, need to portray skills as applicable and transferable to the position the job-seeker is ap us history grading targeting. You need to show the employer that the skills you#8217;ve polished will contribute to interest essay, the bottom line, even if you seek a job different from what you#8217;ve done in history the past. For more about transferable skills, read our article, Strategic Portrayal of Transferable Job Skills is a Vital Job-Search Technique. Focus on accomplishments #8212; not duties and responsibilities #8212; that set you apart from essay knowles, other job candidates. In each job, what special things did you do to set yourself apart?
How did you do the job better than anyone else or than anyone else could have done? What did you do to make it your own? What special things did you do to impress your boss so that you might be promoted? What were the problems or challenges that you or the organization faced? What did you do to ap us history essay grading, overcome the problems? What were the reflective essay on emotional results of your efforts? How did the organization benefit from ap us history essay, your performance? How did you leave your employers better off than before you worked for them? For more about how to identify your accomplishments, see our article For Job-Hunting Success: Track and teachers not give homework essay, Leverage Your Accomplishments and our Accomplishments Worksheet to help you brainstorm your accomplishments.
Spotlight your best selling points up front. #8220;The Resume Ingredients Rule,#8221; set forth by Donald Asher, author of ap us history numerous resume books (see our QA with him), notes that information on a resume should be listed in order of importance to the reader. Therefore, in listing your jobs, what#8217;s generally most important is your title/position. So list in this preferred order: Title/position, name of employer, city/state of employer, dates of employment. Also consider whether your education or your experience is spending thesis your best selling point and which should therefore be listed first. Generally, brand-new graduates list education first, while job-seekers with a few years of experience list experience first.
Don#8217;t bury relevant skills, such as technical and foreign-language skills, at the bottom of essay grading your resume. If computer skills are relevant to not give homework essay, your field, list them in history grading a Summary or Profile section atop your resume. Of Multiple Intelligences? That way, they#8217;ll catch the ap us history essay reader#8217;s eye in the first third of the document. Similarly if language and international-business skills are important in the type of academic college essay job you seek, list them prominently, not at the end of your resume. Communicate your personal brand in ap us essay your resume. The branding expressed in your resume captures your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image, as well as the promise of the value you bring to the employer.
For a branded resume, integrate a distinctive appearance, a consistent branding message woven throughout the document supporting the branded message you intend to convey, as well as a branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. Learn more with our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists. Make your resume a sales pitch that conveys your distinctiveness, passion, and unique understanding of the business environment. It must answer the employer#8217;s question: Why you over any other candidate? Clearly, uniqueness is closely related to both branding and focus.
If your resume conveys a sharp focus, the reader can instantly visualize you in the position you seek. If your resume is academic essay branded, it immediately communicates your promise of value. The uniqueness factor takes your resume to the next level by portraying you as not only in the position but the best person for the position, even the only logical choice for essay grading the position. When you imbue your resume with your uniqueness, you show the employer that you completely comprehend the essays on theory of multiple intelligences challenges the organization faces and that you are overwhelmingly qualified to history essay, meet those challenges. If you have adequately sold your uniqueness, the kerrigan reader reviewing your resume should say, #8220;This person gets it.#8221; Eliminate clutter from your resume.
Among the elements can clutter up your resume and impede readability are unnecessary dates (such as dates of ap us history essay involvement in professional or civic organizations); parentheses (no need to set off dates of employment with parentheses; just use commas), articles #8212; those little words, #8220;a,#8221; #8220;an,#8221; and #8220;the,#8221; most of which aren#8217;t needed; and the line #8220;References available upon request#8221; (unnecessary because it is a given that you will provide references upon request.) Structure your accomplishments as stories #8212; but tell them in reflective on emotional intelligence reverse order. You#8217;ve probably heard of a story structure commonly suggested for ap us essay job-interview responses: Situation Action Result, sometimes expressed as Challenge Action Result or Problem Action Result. Since a hiring decision-maker reads your resume so quickly, you need to spending statement, tell the story backwards. Grab the reader#8217;s attention by giving away the ending first. So, instead of Situation Action Result, resume bullet points should be told as Result Action Situation. Grading? Quantify wherever possible. Employers love to see numbers #8212; metrics that provide tangible evidence of results you#8217;ve achieved. Use metrics such as percentage by which you#8217;ve increased sales or cut costs. Take steps to ensure your resume is free of misspellings, grammar flaws, and typos. Proofread it.
Set it aside overnight, and then proof it again. Then have a friend, family member, or colleague who is should not give homework essay well-versed in proper language use proof it for you. Errors can kill your chances with many employers, so keep your resume error free. Keep your resume fresh and updated. Your resume should not be a static, stagnant document; change it as needed.
If it#8217;s not working for you, have it critiqued by a professional to see what you can improve. Update it the history essay minute you start a new job. Track your accomplishments so you can add those to the document. Final Thoughts on Creating a Successful Job-Search Resume. Resume-writing isn#8217;t easy, but it#8217;s not as overwhelming as it may seem. Get a feel for an effective resume by looking at samples, and essay intelligence, consult the ap us history copious resume resources here on Quint Careers. If you still feel like you can#8217;t do it, there#8217;s no shame in consulting a professional resume writer. Questions about some of the essay on emotional intelligence terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about history essay storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Kerrigan Thesis? Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from ap us history essay, Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is intelligence author of Dynamic Cover Letters for ap us essay New Graduates and thesis statement, A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into ap us history essay grading, the Hidden Job Market (both published by eric kerrigan, Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and ap us essay, The Complete Idiot#8217;s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at should, kathy(at)quintcareers.com.
Check out essay Dr. On Emotional Intelligence? Hansen on GooglePlus. Enhance your career! Take advantage of all of our expert free career development advice, tools, and more in our Career Resources Toolkit for Job-Seekers. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.
Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of history essay grading career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. On Theory? Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com.
He is ap us grading also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is teachers should publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Essay Grading? Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and interest, hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the grading country.
Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at email@example.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on interest college essay, GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for ap us essay Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Spending Statement? Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for ap us history essay grading New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and academic essay, with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Essay? Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at military spending thesis statement, firstname.lastname@example.org. Ap Us History? Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.
I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and reflective on emotional, resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to history, go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and eric thesis, Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by history grading, the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the reflective essay on emotional new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for ap us essay Job-Seekers and Careerists.
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Edna Lewis and the Black Roots of ap us grading, American Cooking. The chef and author made the case for essays on theory of multiple, black Southern cooking as the foundation of our national cuisine. Does she get the credit she deserves? By FRANCIS LAM OCT. 28, 2015. T he air around Bethel Baptist Church in Unionville, Va., is sweet with pine and moss. From the road, Bethel seems like any other small-town white clapboard church, though a closer look shows some wear: a few holes in the windows, spidery cracks in ap us history grading the vinyl siding, a plastic Christmas tree tossed into teachers, the woods behind its gravel lot, sun-bleached to a shade of blue God never intended.
But the church was built to last, and it’s still solid at nearly 125 years old. It sits at the corner of history grading, Marquis and Independence Roads: nobility and freedom, a fitting location for a place founded by black people who decided they weren’t going to worship at the back of thesis, white churches anymore. One of ap us essay grading, those founders was Chester Lewis, an angular man with wide, piercing eyes who spent much of his life enslaved a couple of miles down Marquis Road. After emancipation, he built a house and planted orchards with a few other families on a plot of essay on a, land his former master ceded to ap us grading, him. He and his wife, Lucinda, were illiterate, but they welcomed Isabella Lightfoot, a black graduate of military spending statement, Oberlin College, to use a part of ap us history essay grading, their home as a school for essays on theory intelligences, the fledgling community’s children. Ap Us History Grading? They farmed, fished and foraged all their food, threshing their own wheat, raising their own animals and walking over to Jackson’s General Store for salt, spices, vanilla and Valentine’s Day presents. They struggled but were self-reliant, relishing their freedom, and they named their settlement Freetown. In Freetown, the people lived close to the land, cooking their harvest in reflective on emotional wood stoves, using wells and streams to history essay grading, keep food cool. Academic Interest? And they lived close to one another. Chester and Lucinda’s granddaughter Edna Lewis remembered food as the essay grading, center of its culture of work and community.
In 1984, she told Phil Audibert, a documentarian: ‘‘If someone borrowed one cup of sugar, they would return two. On Theory? If someone fell ill, the neighbors would go in and milk the cows, feed the chickens, clean the house, cook the food and come and sit with whoever was sick. I guess rural life conditioned people to cooperate with their neighbors.’’ Their conversation was recorded a half-century after Lewis moved away, but the impression her community made on her was still profound. Her father died in 1928, and the rest of the family, which included six children who survived into adulthood, struggled during the Depression. Lewis left Freetown by herself as a teenager, joining the ap us history essay, Great Migration north. Eventually, the rest of the community left, too. Today, Freetown is just a stand of fruit trees, and Jackson’s store has become someone’s rickety machine shop, its porch greening with vines of Virginia creeper crawling through the floorboards. But nearby, there are a few gravestones behind a white fence. I read the epitaphs when I visited, arriving at the grave I had come to pay my respects to: ‘‘Dr. Edna Lewis, April 13, 1916–February 13, 2006, Grande Dame of Southern Cooking.’’ I reached out to touch it, but then pulled back my hand; I remembered that I had the scent of cheap fried chicken on my fingers, fried chicken that I am sure Miss Lewis, as she was always known, would not have approved of.
It was tasty, that chicken, in the way that pre-fried chicken plucked out from a pile under heatlamps can be tasty: salty and greasy, slicking the lips with bird fat. Reflective Essay On Emotional Intelligence? But Lewis, who placed Southern cooking in the pantheon of essay grading, great cuisines, respected fried chicken as a special-occasion food. She made hers not by punishing it in a pot of essays on theory of multiple intelligences, hot grease, but by patiently turning it in a shallow pan, crisping it over time in a blend of lard, butter and country ham, a technique that reflects something greater than the flavor of conjoined fats. When Lewis was growing up in ap us essay Freetown, she learned that there was a season truly perfect for frying chickens — late spring to early summer, when the birds were the right size and had the right feed — just as there was a season for kerrigan, peaches and a season for grading, blackberries. Foods, Lewis argued, are always temporal, so all good tastes are special. And when you have only a few chances every year to make something, you make it well. You use home-rendered lard to cook the eric kerrigan thesis, bird. You brown the breasts first, then lay them on top of the sizzling legs so that they finish cooking gently in the heat above the pan. You slip in a slice of country ham to history grading, season the fat. That’s how you give thanks for it.
Along the essay on emotional, way, fried chicken has become a fraught food, somehow both universally beloved and essay grading also used in teachers homework ugly stereotypes of black people. But Lewis treated all the food she prepared, perhaps all things she did, with dignity and sensitivity. You get this sense in photos of history grading, her: She always stood tall, often dressed in interest college clothes made of African fabrics, her white hair crowning her head. Almost everyone who met her describes her as ‘‘regal.’’ It’s almost as if her parents knew, when they gave her the middle name Regina. Lewis went on ap us history essay grading, from Freetown to become a revered chef and academic interest college essay cookbook author, a friend to literati and movie stars and the winner of nearly every award our culinary institutions had to give. Today, her name is revered among food-world cognoscenti but less well known than your average Food Network star, and yet her championing of Southern food, and cooking it close to the land, is more relevant than ever. ‘‘We weren’t ready for her then,’’ one of her acolytes, Alice Waters, says. ‘‘Now we are.’’ ‘‘Our mother was an excellent cook,’’ Lewis’s younger sister, Ruth Lewis Smith, told me recently. ‘‘Our Aunt Jennie was an excellent cook. A lot of our family went to Washington, D.C., to work as cooks.
When they came home, they all learned from each other.’’ The elite homes of Virginia, going back to the days when the Colonial elite socialized with French politicians and generals during the Revolutionary War, dined on a cuisine inspired by France. It was built on local ingredients — many originally shared by Native Americans or brought by grading, slaves from Africa — and developed by enslaved black chefs like James Hemings, who cooked for essays, Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. Because this aristocratic strain of Southern cuisine was provisioned and ap us essay cooked largely by black people, it came into kerrigan, their communities as well, including Freetown. Smith is history essay 91 and still raises chickens; a cage of quail coo in her kitchen. When I called her, she asked me to call back later because her apple butter had been on the stove for two days, and essay peace by john it was ready for canning. As a girl, Lewis busied herself with gathering berries, sewing and other home-taught skills. She watched the history essay, older women intently, learning to cook alongside them. After leaving Freetown, she made her way to reflective on emotional intelligence, New York City, where she took a job at ap us history grading, a laundry and was fired three hours later: She’d never ironed before.
She became a Communist and teachers should not give essay bristled at having to enter employers’ buildings through the ap us essay grading, back door but nonetheless worked for a time as a domestic, helping to put her baby sister Naomi through art school. At one point, she became a sought-after seamstress, making dresses for military thesis, Doe Avedon and ap us history Marilyn Monroe, and dressing windows for the high-end department store Bonwit Teller. Surrounded by bohemians and fashion figures, she gave dinner parties for her friends, channeling her memories of her mother and not give homework aunt at the stove. In 1948, Johnny Nicholson, a regular at Lewis’s table, was getting ready to open a cafe on the Upper East Side. Essay? As Nicholson used to tell it, Lewis walked by, about to essay on a peace by john knowles, take another job as a domestic, when she looked into her friend’s place and said it would make a terrific restaurant. Ap Us Grading? A week later, Lewis was cooking lunch at Cafe Nicholson. She offered a tidy menu: herbed roast chicken, filet mignon, a piece of fish, some cake, a chocolate souffle. The restaurant was a smash.
It had a dining room like a fabulist’s dream: floral displays and soaring palm fronds dipping down to kiss the heads of on theory of multiple intelligences, guests like Paul Robeson, Tennessee Williams and Gore Vidal. Ap Us Essay Grading? Truman Capote would come into the kitchen, purring at his new friend Edna for a fix of reflective on emotional intelligence, biscuits. William Faulkner once flattered Lewis by asking if she had studied cooking in Paris. But no, her sister Ruth Lewis Smith told me: She learned to make souffles from grading, their mother, back in Virginia. Smith, in essay on emotional intelligence fact, often made them herself, after the restaurant took off and she came to help out. The restaurant critic Clementine Paddleford reviewed the restaurant in 1951 in The New York Herald Tribune, calling that souffle ‘‘light as a dandelion seed in a wind’’ and noting a sense of ap us history essay grading, pride in of multiple intelligences the chef: ‘‘We saw Edna peering in history essay grading from the kerrigan thesis, kitchen, just to ap us history grading, see the effect on the guests and hear the echoes of praise.’’ But Lewis wasn’t just the chef. With Jim Crow in full effect and de facto segregation the reality in kerrigan thesis most of the North, this granddaughter of slaves had become a partner in a business that counted Eleanor Roosevelt among its favorite customers. Sign Up for the Magazine Newsletter.
Get the history grading, best of the Magazine delivered to your inbox every week, including exclusive feature stories, photography, columns and more. An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. In 1961, Judith Jones, an editor at not give homework, Knopf, ushered in an era of fascination with French cuisine by publishing an intensely detailed cookbook called ‘‘Mastering the Art of history essay, French Cooking,’’ written in part by a tall, warbling woman named Julia Child. Reflective On Emotional Intelligence? A decade later, Jones was looking for essay grading, someone to help America turn its sights to the glories of its own tables.
One day, the chief executive of Random House, Knopf’s parent company, asked Jones if she would meet his friend, a socialite named Evangeline Peterson. Peterson had taken a liking to a wonderful caterer and wanted to write down her recipes. Unsure of what the meeting would yield, Jones agreed to it. ‘‘But when Edna swept into my office, in this beautiful garb, her hair piled up, she was just such a presence that you were a little awed by her,’’ she says. After leaving Cafe Nicholson in the mid-1950s, Lewis had continued her cinematically eclectic life. She and her husband, a Communist activist named Steve Kingston, spent time as pheasant farmers in thesis statement New Jersey, until all the birds died overnight from a mysterious disease. She opened and ap us essay closed her own restaurant. She began catering and teaching cooking classes and took a job as a docent in interest essay the Hall of African Peoples in grading the American Museum of essays, Natural History. A slip on a snowy night broke her ankle and, bored during her recovery, she accepted Peterson’s invitation to write together. They had essentially finished writing a book, ‘‘The Edna Lewis Cookbook,’’ that Jones thought was fashionable but characterless.
But when Lewis started talking, recalling scenes of growing up in Freetown and the foods they had gathered, grown, harvested, shot, hooked and cooked, Jones lit up. ‘‘I knew this was a voice that could teach us,’’ she said. This was the story of American food that she had wanted to grading, hear. Peterson graciously went home, Jones asked questions, Lewis wrote answers on yellow legal pads and the seeds of her classic, ‘‘The Taste of Country Cooking,’’ were sown. Lewis would go on to write more books and to on theory of multiple intelligences, hold chef posts at esteemed landmarks like Middleton Place in essay grading South Carolina and Gage Tollner in New York. But she will be forever remembered for writing the essay by john, book that started with that meeting. ‘‘The Taste of Country Cooking,’’ published in 1976, is revered for the way it shows the ap us history essay, simple beauty of food honestly made in the rhythm of the seasons — the now common but at the time nearly forgotten ethos of eating farm-to-table — and for the way it gave a view of Southern food that was refined and nuanced, going beyond grease, greens and grits. ‘‘Until recently, we Southerners were very apologetic about our food,’’ Lewis’s friend, collaborator and eventual caretaker Scott Peacock told me. ‘‘But she wrote about it with such reverence.’’ She inspired generations of Southern cooks to honor their own roots. Alice Waters, who is usually credited for sparking the American organic-and-local movement at military spending statement, Chez Panisse in ap us history essay grading California, says: ‘‘It was certainly revolutionary at that point. I was such a Francophile, but when I discovered her cookbook, it felt like a terribly good friend.
By then, we were already in a fast-food world, and she showed the deep roots of gastronomy in the United States and that they were really in the South, where we grew for essay on emotional intelligence, flavor and cooked with sophistication. I had never really considered Southern food before, but I learned from ap us history, her that it’s completely connected to nature, totally in time and place.’’ The book is, in one sense, a country manual, with instructions on military spending statement, picking wild mushrooms and the best way to turn dandelions into wine. (It tastes like Drambuie, Lewis offers helpfully.) It’s also a cookbook, because there are teaspoons and tablespoons and essay ‘‘cook uncovered for 10 minutes.’’ But perhaps the truest way to describe the book is as a memoir told in recipes, where every menu, dish and ingredient speaks to her childhood in rural Virginia and how her community made a life from the land, taking pleasure in the doing of many things. It stands as an exemplar of American food writing, a complex, multilayered, artistic and even subtly subversive document. Essay On A? And it stands on the other side of history grading, a cruel tradition in cookbooks from the first half of the 20th century, one in which black domestic cooks often had their recipes recorded and written by should, their white employers, who tended not to ap us history essay grading, flatter the help in essay on emotional intelligence the process. Toni Tipton-Martin’s 2015 book ‘‘The Jemima Code,’’ a bibliography of African-American cookbooks, collects some examples of this, including one from 1937 called ‘‘Emma Jane’s Souvenir Cookbook,’’ by Blanche Elbert Moncure. In the equivalent of blackface dialect, a servant cook, Emma Jane, ostensibly says, ‘‘I ain’t no fancy cake maker but here is a re-ceet dat ‘Ole Miss’ taught me,’’ then goes on to give the ap us grading, cake a name involving both a racial slur and an insult to her own intelligence. Lewis is kerrigan a sensitive, even-toned renderer of beauty.
Her small stories in ‘‘The Taste of Country Cooking’’ gently urge the reader toward a life of mindfulness, a life of learning to see the details. Early in the book, she describes a spring morning: ‘‘A stream, filled from the history essay, melted snows of winter, would flow quietly by us, gurgling softly and gently pulling the leaf of a fern that hung lazily from the teachers homework essay, side of its bank. After moments of complete exhilaration we would return joyfully to grading, the house for essay knowles, breakfast.’’ As Jones once said on a panel, ‘‘You felt all through her writing that she was giving thanks for something precious.’’ In a passage called ‘‘Hog Killing,’’ Lewis recalls the day each fall when her family would turn pigs into ap us history essay grading, pork. It’s not gruesome, but it is earthy. Today, at a time when the teachers should, phrase ‘‘rock-star butchers’’ has occasion to exist, making us reckon with the mortal reality of meat isn’t so shocking. But it’s still grounding to read these lines: ‘‘My father would remove the liver and the bladder, which he would present to us. We would blow the bladders up with straws cut from reeds and hang them in the house to history essay, dry. By Christmas they would have turned transparent like beautiful balloons.’’ Can you imagine being so intimately connected to the guts of on a, life that you could look at ap us history, a bladder, just separated from its pig, and see a balloon for your Christmas tree?
Can you imagine seeing so much to love around you? But those same hogs also point toward deeper meaning in the text. The next paragraph reads: ‘‘The following morning my brothers and sisters and I would rush out before breakfast to see the hogs hanging from the scaffolds like giant statues. The hogs looked beautiful. They were glistening white inside with their lining of fat, and their skin was almost translucent.’’ In November 1918, two years after Lewis was born, a black man, Charles Allie Thompson was lynched in Culpeper, a nearby town. A mob hung him from a tree after claims that he raped a white woman.
He had been seen asking her to help with butchering, at hog-killing time. It’s not clear whether Lewis knew this story. But she was not naive. ‘‘She could see the ugly in the world,’’ Peacock says. ‘‘This is someone who had street smarts.’’ She wrote ‘‘The Taste of Country Cooking’’ while in eric kerrigan her 50s, in the 1970s, after years as a political radical, after the civil rights movement, after marching for the Scottsboro Boys, nine black teenagers accused of raping two white women, who escaped being lynched in Alabama in 1931 only to history essay, be railroaded into shoddy convictions. On A Separate By John Knowles? (They were all eventually pardoned or had their convictions overturned, some posthumously.) Whether Lewis intended to imbue her hog-killing scene with such references, it became impossible for me to read ‘‘The Taste of Country Cooking’’ without a sense of the wider setting of her story and how she chose to tell it without terror, how she refused to let the past, her past, be defined by anyone else but her. If someone handed you a book about a settlement of essay grading, freed slaves trying to live off the land, what would you expect? A story of struggle, at least. Privation and desperation, probably.
But in spending statement Lewis’s telling, it is a story of peace and celebration, of receiving the ap us essay grading, gifts of the earth and hard work. Essays On Theory? The children sing at concerts in history grading this story. The recipes are arranged by menus with formal titles as literally quotidian as ‘‘A Late Spring Dinner’’ or ‘‘A Cool-Evening Supper,’’ because the very acts of academic interest essay, cooking and serving and eating food are worthy of occasion. It is a story of refinement, not in the fine-china sense but in the sense of grading, being meticulous and careful about the way the people of Freetown raised and teachers not give grew and trapped and foraged and ap us grading prepared their food, because their lives were worth that. The pleasure of eric kerrigan, that was due them. A Few of ap us essay, Edna Lewis’s Favorite Things.
A Few of Edna Lewis’s Favorite Things. Credit Victor Schrager for should homework, The New York Times. Food stylist: Maggie Ruggiero. History Essay Grading? Prop stylist: Rebecca Bartoshesky. Lewis took the story of rural black people, formerly enslaved black people, and owned it as a story of confidence and beauty. Reflective Intelligence? She didn’t have an easy life, even in her Freetown years. Her family suffered through two stillborn children and two more who died young of grading, pneumonia. But she chose to see, and to show us, beauty; and under the shadow of oppression and slavery, that is a political act. I spoke with Lewis’s niece, her youngest sister Naomi’s daughter, Nina Williams-Mbengue, who, at age 12, took her aunt’s handwritten sheets of yellow legal-pad paper and typed the manuscript for ‘‘The Taste of Country Cooking.’’ Her aunt never said her book was meant to be political. But she often spoke of being inspired by the people and the humane, communal spirit of Freetown. Williams-Mbengue said: ‘‘She just didn’t have any notion that these people were less-than because they were poor farming people.
She wanted to academic college essay, make their lives count.’’ And then she added: ‘‘Imagine being enslaved, then rising above that to history essay, build your own town. Aunt Edna was always amazed that one of the first things they did was to plant orchards, so that their children would see the fruit of their efforts. Spending? How could those communities have such a gift? Was it that the future had to be so bright because they knew the history grading, past that they were coming out on a separate, of?’’ One of the most quietly devastating passages in American literature is the opening of ‘‘Narrative of the ap us essay grading, Life of Frederick Douglass, an military, American Slave’’: ‘‘I was born in history essay Tuckahoe, near Hillsborough, and essay separate by john knowles about twelve miles from Easton, in Talbot county, Maryland.
I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it.’’ Here we find so many of slavery’s psychological horrors in Douglass’s two simple, measured, masterful sentences: I can tell you, in great detail, about the location of my body. But I can’t tell you how long I have been here, because the system that made my body someone else’s property keeps the most basic, most intimate fact of my own life away from me. It’s possible to hear the echoes of Douglass’s sentences in the first lines of ‘‘The Taste of Country Cooking’’: ‘‘I grew up in ap us history essay Freetown, Virginia, a community of farming people. Academic Essay? It wasn’t really a town. The name was adopted because the first residents had all been freed from chattel slavery and they wanted to be known as a town of Free People.’’ You can hear the ap us, echoes in the even tone, in facts, plainly stated, that have to say no more to essay on a separate, say so much. The message here is empowered, almost fierce: Our town may not have been a town, according to the people who draw the ap us, maps and place the eric, post offices. But it was a town, a whole world, because we, and I, say so. ‘‘The book was this coming out,’’ Jones says. ‘‘But she felt able and entitled to it. She was very strong in her beliefs.’’ When they were working on the book together, Jones noticed that there wasn’t a menu for Thanksgiving.
She asked Lewis about it, who said, quietly: ‘‘We didn’t celebrate Thanksgiving. We celebrated Emancipation Day.’’ And so she wrote a menu for that, leaving it to history, the reader to figure out why. Nearly every year, Lewis went back to Virginia, often visiting the site where Freetown had stood, even when all that remained was a stone chimney and should homework a few houses, sagging as if molten. But she would delight in grading feeling the of multiple intelligences, soil under her feet with her older sister Jenny, who still lived nearby. History Grading? ‘‘I remember trailing along behind them, picking blackberries, the brambles getting caught in thesis my pants and my hair,’’ Williams-Mbengue says. ‘‘And they would be giggling, picking berries and wild greens for salads.’’ While she was writing ‘‘The Taste of Country Cooking,’’ Lewis cooked with Jenny to refresh her memory of the techniques and essay the flavor and eric thesis often called her from New York while testing the recipes. She read historic cookbooks to learn more about the cooking done by blacks in the past, how Native Americans ate, what French influences Thomas Jefferson brought to her home region. History Essay Grading? She spoke of the creativity of black women in the kitchen; how that represented some measure of should essay, freedom when they otherwise had none. ‘‘She always talked about how, in spite of these people being slaves, they created a cuisine that would become world-renowned,’’ Williams-Mbengue says. Lewis stood as the ambassador of that cuisine, who announced the universality of ap us essay grading, its appeal and essay separate by john importance and who wrote, in part, to ap us, preserve it. She feared that the departure of people from the land, and the rise of fast food and convenience foods, would change the culture of cooking. ‘‘Southern cooking is about to become extinct,’’ she said to The New York Times Magazine in 1992. And she feared, too, that people would lose sight of who should be credited for that cooking. Intelligence? ‘‘It’s mostly black,’’ she said, more forceful in her later years, because blacks ‘‘did most of the cooking in private homes, hotels and on the railroads.’’ She began work on, but never finished, a book about the significance of black cooks in Southern food.
Southern food has had its ups and downs in the national consciousness. History? In 1962, Eugene Walter of Mobile, Ala., wrote of his culinary homesickness while traveling for Gourmet magazine: ‘‘It’s interesting that in New York one can find authentic food of every country on earth, save of the essay intelligence, South. What is advertised as Southern fried chicken is usually an ancient fowl encased in ap us history essay a cement mixture and tormented in hot grease for an eternity. Southern biscuits a la New York are pure cannon wadding. On Emotional? Gumbo they’ve not even heard of.’’ But for the last nine years, by my calculations, two-thirds of the nominees for the James Beard Foundation’s annual award for the best book on American cooking have been on the subject of Southern food. Southern books have won the award all of those years but one. Essay? Yet none of those Beard award winners, or nominees, were black. Leni Sorensen is a Virginia historian of African-American cooks. ‘‘Many black people have not heard of Edna Lewis because they’re urban and raised in schools to learn that farming is dirty and slavery was awful, so let’s not talk about it,’’ she told me. ‘‘There is a feeling: ‘Oh, hell no, we just got off the farm.’ And for many black people, to see any activities done under slavery now as professional is just too painful.’’ Joe Randall, a chef of five decades and a friend of on theory of multiple, Lewis’s, says: ‘‘Cooking was relegated to black folk, and when Johnson signed the history, Civil Rights Act, a lot of civil rights leaders said, ‘We don’t have to work in your restaurants anymore.’ ’’ Randall taught hospitality management at universities and says, ‘‘A lot of my students’ grandparents said, ‘I didn’t send my baby to college to be no cook.’ ’’ Once cooking became a profession with cultural cachet — Randall attributes this rise to military, the moment in 1977 when the Department of Labor began classifying chefs not as ‘‘domestics’’ but as ‘‘professionals’’ — many black chefs then became pigeonholed as ‘‘soul-food cooks.’’ In her 2011 book ‘‘High on the Hog,’’ the culinary scholar Jessica B. Ap Us Grading? Harris writes that in the 1960s ‘‘soul food was as much an affirmation as a diet.
Eating neckbones and chitterlings, turnip greens and fried chicken became a political statement for many.’’ But Lewis publicly distanced herself from soul food, once saying to military thesis, Southern Living magazine, ‘‘That’s hard-times food in essay grading Harlem, not true Southern food.’’ Adrian Miller, who wrote a book called ‘‘Soul Food,’’ says he understands where Lewis was coming from: ‘‘This is the food of black migrants, who were transplanting a cuisine to where they couldn’t always find what they had before. So they had to find substitutes, like canned and processed ingredients. I think Lewis thought it just was something different than the scratch cooking that she made.’’ Lewis came directly from teachers should essay, slaves and from the land and the food that they grew and ap us essay grading prepared for peace knowles, themselves. Her food wasn’t a remix of essay grading, food that they got from the elite; it was the same food as the thesis, elites ate, only they owned it themselves. Grading? She had no truck with the belittling mainstream idea of soul food — cheap and greasy — as the totality of black cooking, but it’s easy to see how her words would fall hard on ears that still hear pride in the term.
It has been almost 10 years since Lewis died, 40 since she published ‘‘The Taste of essay on a peace by john, Country Cooking.’’ Who carries her torch? There are many calling for seasonal, organic eating, but who else has been afforded the essay grading, iconic position Lewis held, to separate peace by john, keep showing us the rich history and influences that black cooks have had on history essay, American food? Jones found Lewis by chance. Eric Kerrigan? Is America looking hard enough for the next Edna Lewis? It’s a question that has weighed on ap us, Tipton-Martin for of multiple, years, as she pored over hundreds of history, African-American cookbooks to write ‘‘The Jemima Code.’’ She got to speak to Lewis at a food writer’s event and, while still in interest college awe of history, her, steeled herself to academic interest college, tell her that she was not the only one. ‘‘I told her that I wanted to tell the world that there were more women like her than just her,’’ she said. A while later, Lewis sent her a letter, written on ap us history, the same kind of yellow legal pad that she used to write ‘‘The Taste of Country Cooking.’’ ‘‘Leave no stone unturned to prove this point,’’ she wrote. Eric Kerrigan? ‘‘Make sure that you do.’’ Francis Lam is history essay a contributing writer for the magazine and an editor at large for reflective on emotional intelligence, Clarkson Potter. Sign up for our newsletter to get the best of ap us grading, The New York Times Magazine delivered to your inbox every week. A version of this article appears in print on November 1, 2015, on Page MM44 of the thesis statement, Sunday Magazine with the headline: What Edna Lewis Knew. History Grading? Today's Paper | Subscribe.
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Grammar and Style in British English: Acknowledging the sources of other writers’ words and ideas is important for two reasons. Firstly, it informs the reader who might wish to consult. the source for himself and, secondly, it avoids plagiarism by discharging a moral and legal obligation to ap us essay the original writer. But referencing is not. always necessary. When another writer’s work has merely been consulted rather than quoted or paraphrased, no text reference is required; it. need only be acknowledged in the bibliography. Deceased people are usually referred to in the past tense if their ideas are mentioned only briefly ( The early Greek philosopher, Thales, believed. all matter to be composed of water ), and in the present tense if their ideas are to be the subject of analysis or development ( Plato argues that the. political rulers, the Guardians, should lead lives of austerity and forbearance ).
Finally, the choice of intelligences referencing system will rarely be the writer’s. Ap Us Essay Grading? Most universities or their faculties will stipulate the system required, sometimes. with their own house variations, so that students should prefer the of multiple advice of their tutors to ap us history anything that follows here. The oldest of the three main systems, Oxford referencing is traditionally associated with the eric humanities. It uses superscripted (or less commonly. bracketed) numbers in the text that correspond to full citations found either in footnotes at the bottom of the page or in a list called Notes located. between any appendices and the bibliography.
In texts with chapters, a separate list is given for each chapter, either collectively at the end of the. script or separately at the end of each chapter. Trevelyan writes: ‘The days that followed the flight of James saw even. greater confusion in England than the ap us months which preceded the. Restoration or those which ushered in the Civil War. Then there had. been too many claimants to legal authority; now there was no legal. authority at all’.
1 As Carr points out, however, writing history ‘is a. process of selection in terms of historical significance’. 2. The two superscripted numbers direct the reader to the full citations. Essays On Theory Of Multiple Intelligences? If footnotes are used, these citations appear in a smaller font beneath the last. line of text on the page, sometimes separated by a horizontal line. Assume this sentence to be the last line of text on the page.
1 G. M. Ap Us History Grading? Trevelyan, England Under the Stuarts , Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429. 2 E. H. Carr, What is History? , Penguin, London, 1976, p. 105. Assume this sentence to be the essays on theory intelligences last line of text on the page. 1 G. M. History Essay? Trevelyan, England Under the on emotional intelligence Stuarts , Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429. 2 E. H. Carr, What is History? , Penguin, London, 1976, p. 105.
Each text reference on a single page is assigned a new number, even if the source has been referenced earlier. For example, were a second. reference to Trevelyan to appear on our sample page following the ap us grading reference to Carr, it would be numbered 3. Text numbering begins anew on. If Notes are used instead of footnotes, the full citations appear in essay on a peace by john knowles, the same font size as the history essay text. The Notes appear at the end of the academic interest essay script. immediately before the bibliography or (optionally in the case of books) at the end of each chapter 1. G. M. Trevelyan, England Under the Stuarts , Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429.
2. E. History Grading? H. Carr, What is History? , Penguin, London, 1976, p. 105. When the reflective essay intelligence Notes appear in one list at the end of the script, numbering in the text does not begin anew on each page but continues throughout. the script. When the Notes are sectioned into chapters, numbering begins anew with each chapter. The Oxford system has three advantages over Harvard. Firstly, it creates minimal disruption to the text by allowing no other words to interrupt it; any additional information, including authors’ names and page references, appears in the footnotes or Notes. Ap Us History Essay Grading? Secondly, in the case of footnotes. (but not Notes), citations are quickly consulted without the need to turn pages.
And thirdly, the system allows the writer to do more than merely. reference sources by enabling her to reflective essay on emotional intelligence transfer parenthetic information of her own out of the text. Trevelyan writes: ‘The days that followed the flight of James saw even. greater confusion in England than the months which preceded the. Restoration or those which ushered in the Civil War. Then there had. been too many claimants to legal authority; now there was no legal.
1 G. M. Trevelyan, England Under the Stuarts , Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429. Clearly, no. historian can record every event, even assuming there is ap us essay concurrence on what constitutes. an event. He must necessarily, therefore, choose those events he considers to college essay be significant.
Among the disadvantages, however, is that the reader has no way of knowing which kind of note has been made until he consults it. He might, for. example, be uninterested in grading, the sources but will want to read the author’s own comments. This is an academic interest easy enough task with footnotes, when all he. has to ap us essay grading do is glance down the page, but highly inconvenient when the eric notes are at the end of the chapter or script. As we shall see, with the Harvard. and Vancouver systems, all authorial asides are kept in essay, the text.
Another disadvantage of the Oxford system arises with multiple referencing of the same source. For while the Harvard and Vancouver systems give. citations only once, the Oxford practice is to reflective essay include a new citation every time a source is referenced. For example, the first reference to Trevelyan. might have appeared on grading page ten and the second on page 550.
All the teachers reader finds on the latter page is, Trevelyan, op. cit., p.128 . History? If he cannot. remember the title of Trevelyan’s book, he then has to search back through the numbers, a particularly irksome task in the case of footnotes. In traditional Oxford referencing, moreover, the academic interest essay reader has to be acquainted with several Latin abbreviations such as ibid ., loc. History Grading? cit . and op.cit . Yet another disadvantage of footnotes is essays of multiple that a page can use so many that they take up more space than the principal text. Citations of additional books by the same author. Full citations are required. When citing an essay author’s work that has in turn been cited by another, a full citation of each work is required This is essay on emotional intelligence followed by in grading, , then precisely the military spending same information on the citing author. For example 1. James Fitzjames Stephen, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity , Chicago. University Press, Chicago, 1991, in Jonathan Wolff, Political.
Philosophy (Revised Edition), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006, Citations of chapters in edited books. 1. Sir Isaiah Berlin, ‘Historical Inevitability’, in Patrick Gardiner (ed.), The Philosophy of essay grading History , Oxford University Press, London, 1974, Citations of television and radio programmes. • title of article or document (in single quotation marks) Some Oxford house styles no longer use Latin expressions. A second citation of Trevelyan’s book, for example, might simply be entered Some house styles have also discarded quotation marks for essays on theory intelligences, the titles of ap us articles, italics for the titles of books and most of the capitalisation of. 1. Separate By John? G. M. Trevelyan, England under the stuarts, Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429. Internet (www) addresses might be bracketed.
The Harvard referencing system is characteristically used in the natural and social sciences, but has increasingly become the preferred method. of other disciplines. All that appear in the text are the author’s last name, the history essay grading year of publication and, if relevant, the page number(s). The. author’s initials are used only essays on theory of multiple when they are necessary to distinguish him or her from another with the same last name. The information is. enclosed in round brackets.
But the author’s name is not included in ap us history grading, the brackets if it appears in the writer’s sentence Trevelyan (1977: 429) points out that, while there had been multiple claims. to legal authority immediately before the Restoration, after the flight of. James there was none at all. Trevelyan is part of the sentence and is not, therefore, bracketed. Kerrigan Thesis? When the author’s name does not appear in grading, the sentence, it must, of on theory of multiple course, appear in the brackets While there had been multiple claims to legal authority immediately before.
the Restoration, after the flight of James there was none at all (Trevelyan, Note that the year of history essay publication and the page numbers are separated by a colon, and that no p. Should Homework? or pp. abbreviations precede the latter. Full. citations appear at the end of the script in a list headed References , Reference List or End-Text Citations and history arranged alphabetically by. authors’ last names. 1. Berlin, Sir Isaiah (1974), ‘Historical Inevitability’. In Gardiner, Patrick. (ed.) (1974), The Philosophy of teachers not give History , London: Oxford University Press.
2. Carr, E. Ap Us Essay? H. Interest College Essay? (1976), What is History , London: Penguin. 3. Trevelyan, G. Ap Us History Essay? M. (1977), England Under the Stuarts , London: Methuen. The Harvard reference list is easier to manoeuvre through than the footnotes or notes of the Oxford system, each source having only one citation. no matter how many references are made to it. Moreover, the reader is guaranteed immediate access to the author’s name in the text, information. that is essays on theory of multiple provided by the Oxford system only ap us essay grading if the writer chooses to include it. The drawbacks are that (a) the reader always has to turn pages to find. the citations, (b) the text suffers greater disruption by including the author and date, rather than simply a number, and (c) the system cannot. accommodate the writer’s own incidental comments in the references.
It is also a system more suited to the sciences than the humanities, where. original publication dates are less important (as, for example, with the essays intelligences works of Livy, Hobbes or Jane Austen). No subsequent citations are required in the References; there is one reference only. In the text, a second reference to a work would be written. in the usual way: author, year of publication and page number(s). Citations of history additional books by the same author. If a second book by the same author is cited and it has been published in essays on theory of multiple intelligences, a different year, the text references indicate the years in the usual way: (Smith, 2007: 317) then (Smith, 2002: 46) . The full citations in history grading, the References are listed in order of essay their appearance in the text, regardless of the. dates of publication. If the second work was published in the same year as the first, the years are suffixed by sequential letters in the text: (Smith, 2009a: 218) then (Smith, 2009b: 173) . Ap Us Essay Grading? Each requires a full citation in the References.
For example 1. On Theory Intelligences? Jones, J. (2011a), Cultural Identity and the Global Economy , Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 2. Jones, J. (2011b), One World , Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard. When citing a work that has in turn been cited in another, only the first work is referenced in the text. Ap Us Essay Grading? B oth sources, however, require full. citations in the References. For example, i f Jones has quoted Smith, only should Smith's work is cited in the text (author and date). In the References, Jones's full citation appears after Smith's This is followed by a full stop, the word In , then precisely the same information on history the work in which the original citation appeared (i.e.
Jones's). On A Peace? In. such cases, note that the page numbers are transferred from the text to the References. Citations of chapters in edited books. • volume and ap us grading issue numbers (if applicable) (issue number in round brackets) Citations of television and radio programmes. • title of article or document (in single quotation marks) House styles are abandoning the practices of italicising book titles and enclosing the essays intelligences titles of articles in quotation marks. Essay Grading? The capitalisation of. titles is also often minimised, with the initials letters of all but the first word in lower case. Internet (www) addresses might be bracketed.
The Vancouver referencing system was established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) which f ormed in that city. in 1978 and has become the standard system for reflective essay, medicine and clinical science. Ap Us Essay Grading? But it has also been adopted by other disciplines where multiple. referencing is common. Eric Thesis? Such disciplines see a great deal of authorial collaboration, so that the contributors to one medical article might number. as many as five or six. Since the inclusion of all the authors’ names in the text would be highly disruptive, the ap us history grading Vancouver system, like the Oxford, uses numbers in the text rather than the names and dates of the Harvard system.
Each cited text is assigned a reference number in order of eric kerrigan its. appearance and keeps that number for all future citations. Full citations are listed at the end of the script in a numerical Reference List. For example, if the first reference is a book by Trevelyan, all subsequent references to ap us essay grading it will be indicated in the text by (1) . If it is cited only once, the page reference appears in the Reference List; if more than once, the page references appear in the text (otherwise a new number would have. to be assigned to the source every time it is on emotional intelligence cited).
Text example of only one citation of a work Trevelyan (1) points out that, while there had been multiple claims to. legal authority immediately before the Restoration, after the ap us flight of. James there was none at all. There is eric thesis only one citation, so the page reference will appear in the Reference List. Text example of multiple citations of a work Trevelyan (1, p. 429) points out that, while there had been multiple claims. to legal authority immediately before the Restoration, after the flight of. James there was none at all. He further maintains (1, p. Ap Us? 512) that There is more than one citation, so the page references appear in the text.
The full citations in the Reference List at the end are then arranged numerically in order of appearance rather than alphabetically 1. Thesis? Trevelyan, G. M., England Under the Stuarts , London: Methuen, 1977, 2. Essay Grading? Carr, E. H., What is History? , London: Penguin, 1976, p. 105. 3. Berlin, Sir Isaiah, ‘Historical Inevitability’. In Gardiner, Patrick (ed.), The Philosophy of thesis History , London: Oxford University Press, 1974, As already mentioned, the most important advantage of the Vancouver system is its minimisation of text disruption with multiple referencing. Instead. of writing out the authors’ names every time they occur, as is required in the Harvard system, they are represented by their reference numbers The Oxford system, on the other hand, would require three more footnotes or three more entries in the Notes. Subsequent citations of a source are indicated in the text by the page number(s) after the reference number No subsequent citations are necessary in the Reference List. As for essay grading, book citations above.
Then In followed by should homework essay, the same information on the citing source. Citations of articles from grading, edited books and journals. • title of article or chapter (in single quotation marks) Text reference numbers might be bracketed, superscripted or both, internet (www) addresses might be bracketed and the titles of articles might. be written without quotation marks. Most of the following abbreviations, especially those in Latin, are used mainly with Oxford referencing, but others are common to all systems. Cf. or cf . ( confer ) ‘compare’. Used to invite the reader to compare one source with another that contradicts it.
If Smith is quoted claiming that. the economy is improving but Jones claims that it is not, we can write after Smith’s quotation (cf. C.Jones,) . The expression is often wrongly. used merely to mean ‘consult’. et al. Academic College Essay? ( et alii .) ‘and others’. Used to indicate multiple authorship. When more than two authors have collaborated on the same work (some. referencing systems insist on more than six), only the first author is cited followed by et al . et seq. Grading? ( et sequentia ) ‘and the following pages’. For example, p.321 et seq . Less common today than f . (see next entry). Ibid. or Ib. ( ibidem ) ‘in the same place’ as the academic college last referenced work.
Used to avoid duplicating a full citation when the work is the same as the one. immediately before. For example, if a book by Jones is cited on two consecutive occasions, the second citation is indicated by Ibid. followed by the. page number(s), if different. But if one or more citations by other authors intervene, loc. History? cit. Military Thesis Statement? or op.cit. is chosen (see below). loc. cit. ( loco citato ) ‘in the passage already cited’. Essay Grading? Used to avoid duplicating a full citation when it has appeared in a passage already cited ( Jones, loc. On A Separate Peace Knowles? cit . ), but only if other sources intervene (see Ibid .). op. cit. ( opere citato ) ‘from the work already cited’.
As loc. cit. but in reference to a complete work (e.g. a book) rather than a passage. q.v. ( quod vide ) ‘which see’. Ap Us? Used in cross referencing to indicate that a word or an idea is explained elsewhere in the text (e.g. in a glossary). Website Disclaimers Creative Commons 2.0 licence - cc by nc nd.