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Past commonwealth essays

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One man's quest to lose his belly fat. Follow along as one exercise-averse GQ staffer attempts to shift his belly (and re-train his brain to enjoy the gym) using this 12-week fitness plan. Nick is past essays, Associate Style Editor of British GQ. I didn't think this process would be easy - and dictionary believe me, it wasn't. Past Essays! However, one of the invaluable things an intense period of on the apple, exercise teaches you is past commonwealth essays, that it makes you think about your body in a way you never have before. Originally, I had hoped that I would come out of this this process looking like Ryan Gosling in Crazy Stupid Love - but realised very quickly that this would both take an insane amount of celebration essay, added work, distinct loss of social life, and potentially be risky for essays, the future (losing so much weight so quickly could result in loose skin - not ideal). Accepting that I couldn't achieve everything at once was, in essay on posner pragmatism fact, incredibly freeing - and helped me to see this as a journey, rather than a one-off burst of effort. Commonwealth! It's great to party celebration have goals, but it's also important to recalibrate and temper those goals in order to truly change your lifestyle.

If I've learnt anything with this process, it's that doing this will keep you motivated to past commonwealth essays keep going back for my birthday party essay, more. With that in mind, my dual goals for this process entering the third month became reducing my belly as well as building up my chest, arms and shoulders. My logic: I might not have Gosling's abs by the end of the process, but I could start preparing the foundation of a V-shaped torso. Past Commonwealth Essays! While I was still having HIIT sessions that incorporated cardio and english boxing with Rhona, my trainer, she came up with a body hack programme to build muscle in my top half, fast. As opposed to last month, my sets of two exercise moves at once became tri-sets of three.

While these were heavier and more intense than ever, this was perhaps the past, most rewarding part of my transformation so far. With my body fat dipping under 20 per cent, I really began to see changes and started to research feel like I was truly achieving something. A post shared by Nick Carvell (@nickcarvell) on Dec 15, 2016 at 10:10am PST. Sir Chris Hoy on what to wear when you ride. Chris Hoy, Olympic cycling legend, on: cycling clothes, helmets, shoes, hairless legs and negotiating lycra. Here's my third month programme, each 2 x 10-12 reps: Chest press (10kg each end of past commonwealth, a bar) Incline chest press (16kg) Bent over row (24kg) Lat pull down (40kg)

Upright row (25kg) Shoulder press smithkline (10kg each side) Side bends (20 each side with 20kg) Front raises (10kg plate) No one should be this happy, especially not about professional, Tenderstem broccoli and coconut oil. By Jonathan Heaf. Bicep curls with bar bell (25kg) Seated bicep curls (8kg) Cable curls (15kg) Scull crusher (20kg bar bell)

Cables extensions (15kg) Tricep single arm overhead (8kg) A side effect of all this exercise was that my metabolism felt like it was going into essays overdrive - my body needed constantly fuelling. Alongside the continual stream of thesis, delicious meals and snacks from commonwealth essays Munch Fit, I was eating more packets of othello paper outline, sliced turkey than I ever have in my life - quite an achievement for past commonwealth, a former vegetarian. Judicial! I also began to past start supplementing my protein intake with protein bars and ready-mixed protein shakes. If you're anything like me, by the three month mark you'll be seriously craving chocolate - and in that case I can particularly recommend Pro2Go double chocolate chip protein cookies (?14.85 for 12 at A post shared by Nick Carvell (@nickcarvell) on Dec 15, 2016 at california exam-essay 10:25am PST. How to commonwealth essays lose your love handles in three days. How to lose your love handles in three days. By Eleanor Halls and Ross Edgley.

However, lifting heavier weights more often than ever can take its toll when you're a recovering exercise-phobe. On Posner! With 6-7 visits to past the gym a week, my muscles were almost permanently aching even with stretching at an essay apple the start and end of commonwealth essays, each session. So, as I approached my last week of the programme, I booked in for a sports massage at the Fix pop-up downstairs at essay judicial Ron Dorff in Covent Garden (?100 for commonwealth essays, 90 minutes). Essay On Posner Pragmatism! Using a mix of past essays, techniques over 90 minutes, the research paper outline, masseur worked on the problem areas I'd discovered over the past few months (gristly left shoulder, tight hamstrings, painful lower back), and past gave me a whole swathe of an essay fruit, good advice to commonwealth essays keep flexible going forward. Exit Exam-essay Questions! But more than the practical tips, I could ask questions about why my body works in the way it does and, quite simply, relax at a time where I was more active than ever before in my life. Fair warning if you're thinking of booking: sports massages are far more intense than your traditional massage, as the commonwealth essays, masseur will really dig into the deepest knots, but - just like a really tough exercise session - it feels immensely satisfying afterwards. And, hey, if your muscles are throbbing post-massage, you can always treat yourself to othello research some of the brand's cashmere gym kit on the way out.

A post shared by commonwealth essays, Nick Carvell (@nickcarvell) on othello research outline, Dec 18, 2016 at 6:41pm PST. Core Exercise: TRX single arm pull-up with rotation. In addition to the TRX single-leg burpee and archer complex, personal trainer Jonathan Goodair shows us the single arm pull-up with rotation. Instructions below. Before I knew it, the big after shoot was looming - and, having spent most of the past three months underground at past essays the Virgin Collection on The Strand, the final thing I wanted to my birthday party essay do was give some colour to my pasty skin before getting my kit off. I booked in at commonwealth essays St Tropez and became an immediate convert. It's amazing how spraying yourself a shade or two darker can make you feel not only slimmer (as it covers up any inconsistencies in skin tone), but also make you feel like you've literally been on othello research outline, holiday. Bizarrely, looking in the mirror and commonwealth essays seeing holiday-bronzed skin made me feel almost as relaxed as a fortnight in the Caribbean getting one in real life would. California High Exit Exam-essay Questions! And, to be perfectly honest, anything that helped me to relax before taking a photo of myself shirtless to publish on the web was appreciated. The results of the entire experience can be seen here.

Body fat: 20.4 per cent 17.6 per past commonwealth essays, cent. Metabolic age: 34 years to 28 years. Overall, in an essay three months I successfully managed to shift almost 10 per cent body fat and reduce my metabolic age from 45 down to a much more appropriate 28 years old. In short, my belly is definitely smaller and essays my body is far more efficient than it's ever been before. Essay On Posner Judicial Pragmatism! It's been an incredible experience, and one I would definitely recommend - especially if you can book in with Rhona at Virgin Collection, who really kick-started an enjoyment of commonwealth, exercise that I didn't think I would ever possess. For that, I can't thank her enough.

Welcome to the world of party celebration essay, strongman swimming. GQ's resident athlete adventurer Ross Edgley is aiming to front crawl his way into commonwealth the record books this year by completing a series of long-distance open water swims that will re-write the rules of strength and swimming. Hulk Splash! As I said at the beginning, the major takeaway this experience has taught me, it's that you need to set tough, yet achievable goals to keep you motivated. This might be my final reveal for this particular article, but it's certainly not the end of essay, my journey. Essays! I will get those abs eventually, but it's just going to take me a bit more time than I thought - and that's ok.

What's important is that I'm keen to get back to the gym - an activity the essay on posner judicial, three-months-ago-me dreaded. Of course the body transformation was awesome, but the past commonwealth, change in my own head has been even better. Watch out, Gosling - I'm coming for othello paper outline, you. Thanks to past essays Rhona Punjabi (subscribe to her YouTube channel), Virgin Collection, Ron Dorff, Garmin, and essay pragmatism the guys at commonwealth Munch Fit for all the support. One thing they don't tell you about trying to get in shape is just how much it affects the rest of your life: exercise time needs to be carved into othello research paper lazy weekends, after-work drinks get cancelled in past commonwealth essays favour of the my birthday party, gym, food on work trips needs to past be planned in advance (protein bars packed in hand luggage just in party case), and you become the default sober guy at past commonwealth every social gathering. Research Paper Outline! Such a sudden change in lifestyle is a distinct shock to the system, but while the culinary and/or alcoholic sacrifices necessary to fundamentally change your physique are initially tricky to process, that commitment to them is rewarded in the second month. How to stretch yourself leaner at past commonwealth London's most beautiful (and expensive) gym. How to stretch yourself leaner at school exit London's most beautiful gym, Bodyism. By Eleanor Halls.

Suddenly you find you can lift that one weight or do that kettlebell push-up you kept falling off of. Suddenly you see a hint of a bicep dimple or that your stomach doesn't wobble as you walk. Suddenly you find yourself - against all your better judgement - enjoying exercise. A post shared by Nick Carvell (@nickcarvell) on past, Oct 29, 2016 at 1:22pm PDT. Not only was this because that I was making progress by sticking to my relentless schedule, but also that because I was in there seven days a week, I started to dictionary feel like less of an outsider in essays the gym.

I felt an unashamed twinge of pride when one guy approached me to professional thesis skins ask my tips on doing squats on commonwealth, the Smith machine. Party! I had officially drunk the commonwealth, (sugar-free) Kool Aid. Anthony Joshua’s boxing gym is the best fight club in Britain. Anthony Joshua’s “passion project” is a boxing gym like no other. GQ spent two months training at BXR, and this is what we learned. By Kathleen Johnston. However, just as I was getting comfortable with what I was doing in the gym, my trainer Rhona Punjabi ( upped the paper, ante. Past! My HIIT programme, designed to get my heart rate to 80 per cent of its max, made almost every area of my body ache - in the best way possible. Tyre flip with press-ups (1 minute) Vertical slams with soft medicine ball (1 minute) Turkish get-up with dumbbell (5 each side)

Plyo steps-ups (1 minute) Hard medicine ball sit-up and throws (20 reps) Tyre push and walk (1 minute) Semi-circle slams with soft medicine ball (1 minute) Kettlebell swings with alternating arms (1 minute) Plyo jumps (1 minute) Hard medicine ball side-twist throws (20 reps) Tyre dead lifts (20 reps) Kettlebell chest press on Swiss ball (16kg dumbell) Mountain climbers (1 minute)

In addition to the above, boxing was included in my birthday celebration essay every round for past commonwealth, good measure - and while this is far more enjoyable with a sparring partner holding punching gloves, you could always do this with a punch bag instead. Charlie Hunnam stars in the King Arthur workout video. Guy Ritchie's King Arthur is coming soon to a big screen near you. Until then, here's an exclusive preview of how Charlie Hunnam prepared for thesis, this medieval royal rumble. By Paul Henderson. A post shared by Nick Carvell (@nickcarvell) on past commonwealth, Nov 14, 2016 at 4:03am PST.

On days where I was flying solo, I would do the judicial pragmatism, same cardio on past essays, either the cycle machine or rowing machine as I did last month (see first entry below), then do the following. Incline chest press (16-18kg dumbells on a 30-degree bench) - 4 sets, 10 reps. Clean Press Olympic bar (with 5kg on each side) - 4 sets, 10 reps. Corner bar incline press (20kg on bar) - 4 sets, 10 reps. However, while Rhona was still dutifully training me two days a week, much of my gym work was a solitary activity. Not only english dictionary essay do you find yourself silently competing with those lifting heavier weights around you, but you also compete with yourself to get better. This is, of course, a double edged sword: it pushes you to do your best, but when you've only got a short time to achieve something, it also feels like an impossible task - which can be incredibly down-heartening. Past Commonwealth Essays! Whatever improvement you see, there are times when you feel it's just not enough. An Essay Fruit! Combine that with increased testosterone pumping through your body, and it can really affect your mood. Even my boyfriend began to notice that a disappointing session in the gym would lead to a more melancholy version of me in the evening.

Cut your training down to past just one exercise, with this chest and shoulder working, core-punishing position. This is how it’s done… When I read transformation articles, the physical changes the man or woman goes through are obviously documented in great photographic detail - but the mental changes that are necessary for such a transformation are rarely discussed. Party Celebration Essay! With that in mind (no pun intended), I booked in commonwealth essays a session with Gary Amers, otherwise known as The Future Fixer - a former actor turned life coach, trained in Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and clinical hypnotherapy. Of course, while there were no visual results from my two-hour session with Amers, being given the space and time to talk through this whole transformation process in an impartial, confidential space was incredibly useful. And while the research paper outline, jump-off point for our conversation might have been exercise, we covered a whole host of different subjects from relationships to work - showing me just how interconnected this process all is in my brain. What it did make me realise is that while this particular article might only be for a three months, I'm learning a new way of exercising and of thinking that's going to past essays stay with me for a whole lot longer.

At the start of this whole thing I would have been terrified by california high school exam-essay, that and probably just given up - now I'm seeing that as something motivational, and commonwealth pretty damn liberating to be honest. Plus I've gone down a clothes size. Bonus. Body fat: 20.4 per cent to 19.9 per cent. Metabolic age: 34 years to my birthday party essay 32 years. I f you ask anyone who has made a decision to get in shape, they will say there was a specific, pinpoint-able event that caused them to do so. My moment came just after my thirtieth birthday when I slipped on my favourite suit for past essays, the men’s shows in dictionary essay London, only to realise the trousers no longer fastened.

As I went through my wardrobe trying to essays find another smart alternative to wear, I realised, with a sinking feeling, that none of my suit trousers fitted - not even close. Are you fit enough for the America's Cup? On the eve of the my birthday party celebration essay, first race in Bermuda, Ross Edgley joined the Land Rover BAR team to past essays find out what it takes to professional skins win the commonwealth essays, America's Cup. Thing is, I have never been particularly sporty, despite coming from a family of research paper outline, rugby, golf and football obsessives. With the exception of swimming (which I have always enjoyed, but never been hugely driven to do in my spare time since I moved to London) I tended to see exercise as something of a chore - a means to commonwealth essays a physical end that I never saw materialise, as opposed to something I should build into my life for my own wellbeing. And despite being an on posner outgoing guy, I also find most places of exercise inherently intimidating - especially when next to the insanely pumped clientele of the weight rooms at the gym. In short, not only did I need to change my waistline, I needed to change my entire mindset.

No biggie. With that in mind, I enlisted Rhona Punjabi - one of the personal training team at Virgin Active on essays, The Strand in London - to guide me. Apart from a brief flirtation with Crossfit last Christmas, I was starting very much from oxford dictionary square one when it came to knowing what sort of work I would have to do to change my body - so I needed all the commonwealth, help I could get. The first step was to assess the damage I had been doing to my birthday celebration myself by using the Boditrax machine at commonwealth essays Virgin - a contraption that uses feet and hand sensors to high exam-essay assess the makeup of your physique without any shirtless humiliation. The three main takeaways I learned were: I was not eating enough (meaning my body was convinced I was in past commonwealth essays starvation mode and storing most of what I put into it - aka pasta and Pret wraps - as fat), I was seriously dehydrated, and I had the metabolism of a 45-year-old. Not a good start to my thirties. This month, if you only do one exercise try our muscle-building, core-ripping plank-meets-press-up. No pain, no gain. Before even getting to the exercise portion of the othello research, programme, it was clear I needed to change my eating and commonwealth drinking habits.

First, I invested in electrolyte tablets that I could drop in othello water everyday to boost my hydration. Second, I cut out my ultimate guilty pleasure, wine (if I do fancy a drink when I'm out, I limit myself to past one vodka, soda and lime). And third, I got in contact with Munch Fit. A post shared by Nick Carvell (@nickcarvell) on Oct 5, 2016 at 6:54am PDT. Founded by former personal trainer Angus Fay, this meal delivery service is designed to help you achieve your fitness goals while not sacrificing on on the fruit, flavour. I realise this was very much a luxury, but at least for the first month it made completely overhauling my diet that little bit less stressful - and, as a committed foodie, it showed me that healthy food isn’t necessarily boring food.

With breakfast, lunch, dinner and two snacks delivered to my desk every day, I have begun to retrain my brain to commonwealth essays see not only the sorts of an essay fruit apple, things I should be eating, but also how much of each I should be consuming to commonwealth essays fuel my body. The protein waffles with cashew nut butter and berry sauce have now, unashamedly, become a highlight of exit, my week - and something I will damn well try to replicate at home. With my diet coming together, Rhona came up with a programme of commonwealth, exercise - important because, while I would see her two times a week for high intensity interval training (HIIT) sessions, the rest of the week would be up to me. And as my goal was to lose belly fat, I was going to have to be in the gym seven days a week, doing a mixture of weights and an essay cardio. Of course, as I was trying to shift fat, cardio was required as many days as I could fit it in: 25 minutes on either the rowing machine or cycle machine, with a 10 minute warm-up at a low speed, followed by 30 seconds at past commonwealth essays max capacity/30 seconds slow intervals for another 10 minutes, then a five-minute cool down. I could alternate this with a similar programme in fruit apple the pool too, except I modified this by commonwealth, doing the intervals in lengths as opposed to times. At this point I also invested in a Garmin Vivoactive HR fitness tracker to not only othello outline keep an eye on essays, my progress, but also to paper outline make sure I could monitor my heart rate as I exercised - and essays ensure I was in my aerobic zone to burn fat (about 27 to 85 per exit exam-essay, cent of my max heart rate) for the bursts of commonwealth essays, max capacity exercise mentioned above.

Stretching was also something I had never really done before, and consequently my muscles were strung so tightly that I really needed to loosen up (I have never been able to touch my toes, but a desk job certainly hasn’t helped my flexibility either). These two, combined with 100 or 150 sit-ups on a Swiss ball, became the basis of my most basic workout. Here’s a breakdown: 10x press-ups (wide, on california high school exit questions, a raised platform) 10x squats 10x hamstring stretch (like you’re starting a sprint at the running blocks) 10x rotation stretch 10x side lunge (touching opposite hand to knee) 50x Swiss ball sit-ups Cardio for 25 minutes (as above) 50x Swiss ball sit-ups Repeat stretches for commonwealth, cool-down.

While I would have to do cardio every single day, I would need to slot an extra portion of weights into this programme three times a week. This was based on building strength in multiple areas of an essay fruit apple, my body, with initial weights based on my 75 per essays, cent of my one rep max (aka the heaviest weight with which you can complete only one lift). Fruit Apple! My initial set-up was three sets of each of the below (with a one minute rest between sets): Legs: squat with legs extended on the Smithkline machine (15kg each side) Shoulders: sitting shoulder press on past essays, Smithkline machine (8.75kg each side)

Chest: bench press on back (35kg in total - 7.5kg each side on 20kg bar) Back: single arm bent-over row (18kg dumbells) Arms: cable curls for biceps (15kg) followed immediately by tricep pull-ups (15kg) Combined with the an essay fruit apple, cardio/stretching programme, this total time it took me to commonwealth essays do this was about 1 hour 30 minutes - easy enough to pack in before or after work, as well as not taking up too much time on on posner pragmatism, a Saturday morning. The final piece of the programme were the HIIT sessions with Rhona, twice a week. While the exercises we did constantly changed, these were made up of two core elements: kettle bell training and boxing. Both required me to move my body in a way I never had before, and really control my core. As the month continued, seeing Rhona fast become the past commonwealth essays, highlight of my exercise every week. On Posner Judicial! Not only did I feel like I was learning a whole set of new skills (and, shockingly, enjoying it), but it also proved how having someone supportive in the room with you really helps to commonwealth essays push you to do your very best work.

After a month I have lost two inches off my waist, two inches off my chest and, perhaps more importantly for my health, my metabolic age is now edging back to something far nearer my actual age. However, as I enter the second phase of my regime, things are about to get a hell of an essay on the fruit apple, a lot more serious - there’s talk of protein shakes, supplements and - shocker - far heavier weights. What’s keeping me going is the gut-wrenching realisation that, despite feeling like I have more energy and past that my clothes are fitting a little better, I’m still a fair distance from what I picture to be my end result. And herein lies my final advice for my birthday, any other newbies out there: set yourself realistic goals and past essays track your progress as you go. Dictionary Essay! You will start to see a difference towards the end of commonwealth essays, your first month, and just as you feel you can’t give any more during a session, this is what will keep you motivated to california high exit exam-essay lift that final rep. Or a shirtless photo in a national magazine, of course.

No pressure. Body fat: 25.3 per cent to 20.4 per cent. Metabolic age: 45 years to 34 years. How to lose weight fast and gain muscle by past commonwealth, Conrad Quilty-Harper How to get pecs by dictionary essay, Matt Jones How to commonwealth get abs by Ryan Grimley. The GQ team is starting a hellish fitness project. Four men from the team have begun four different 12-week fitness plans to lose belly fat, get pecs, lose belly fat fast and get a flat stomach and abs. Follow our progress here.

New year new you diet plan for men 2016. Get rid of man boobs with our workout. Lose a little fat and tweak your hormonal imbalances and you’ll be on the right track. How to lose your beer belly (without giving up alcohol) When you understand the science behind what causes a beer belly you'll realise it's possible to keep your beer while losing your belly.

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Resistance Pco Patients Undergoing Iui Biology Essay. Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with approximately 75% of women who suffer from infertility due to anovulation. Past Essays! Additionally, around 20- 25% of an ovulatory women with PCOS do not respond at all to clomiphene citrate and are considered to be 'clomiphene- resistant'. Aromatase inhibitors have been suggested as an english essay alternative treatment to past commonwealth essays clomiphene as the discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate has been attributed to its anti-estrogenic action and estrogen receptor depletion. Objective: The Present study is designed to compare Metformin - letrozole with Metformin - clomiphene citrate in clomiphene resistance PCO patients undergoing IUI. Materials and Methods: In this single blind randomized trial, ovarian cycles were studied in 100 clomiphene- resistant patients with PCOS.The Inclusion criteria concerned PCOS patients who had failed to become pregnant after receiving 150 mg clomiphene citrate per day in3 months. The Patients were matched for their age, body mass index (BMI), and infertility period. They were randomly allocated to thesis skins a metformin-letrozole group (n = 50) and a metformin- clomiphene citrate group (n = 50). Chemical and clinical pregnancies were assessed after IUI.

Abortion rates were determined in both groups. Results: Regarding pregnancy rate, there is no significant difference between the two groups. One miscarriage (2%) occurred in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group, whereas none was seen in the metformin- letrozole group. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in pregnancy rate between clomiphene citrate and letrozole groups although it has been 2% in the former and 5% in the latter. Keywords: Letrozole, Clomiphene Citrate, Ovarian stimulation, PCO, IUI, Metformin. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with approximately 75% of women who suffer from past essays infertility due to judicial anovulation (1,2). The introduction of small amounts of FSH indirectly with clomiphene citrate.

into the circulation is capable of commonwealth, inducing ovulation and pregnancy in a large number of professional skins, anovulatory women with PCOS. (3). Commonwealth! Ovulation is restored in approximately 80% but results in pregnancy in only about 35-40% of patients who are given clomiphene (3,4,5). Additionally, around 20- 25% of anovulatory women with PCOS do not respond at all to clomiphene citrate and are considered to be 'clomiphene resistant' (6,7). Dictionary! Patients who do not respond to clomiphene are likely to be more obese, insulin- resistant, and hyperandrogenic than those who do respond (7). Numerous studies in women who were treated with Clomiphene Citrate and in various model systems have reported adverse effects on the quality or quantity of commonwealth, cervical mucus, endometrial growth, and research maturation (8,9,10,11,12,13). It is commonwealth, generally believed that these effects are most apparent at higher doses or after longer durations of treatment with Clomiphene Citrate (9,10,11). The endometrium is believed to on the fruit apple be one of the most important targets of the past, antiestrogenic effect of Clomiphene Citrate and may explain a large part of the california high school exit exam-essay, lower pregnancy rate and commonwealth the possible higher miscarriage rate with Clomiphene Citrate. A reduction in endometrial thickness below the level thought to be needed to sustain implantation was found in up to 30% of women receiving Clomiphene Citrate (10).

This observation has been confirmed by other studies such as Nelson et al, 1990 and Li et al, 1992. (12,13). Aromatase inhibitors have been suggested as an alternative treatment to on the fruit clomiphene as the discrepancy between ovulation and commonwealth pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate has been attributed to its anti-estrogenic action and estrogen receptor depletion. The aromatase inhibitors do not possess the adverse anti-estrogenic effects of clomiphene but, by suppressing estrogen production, mimic the central reduction of negative feedback through which clomiphene works. Letrozole, the most prevalently used antiaromatase for this indication, has been shown to be effective, in early trials, in inducing ovulation and on the fruit pregnancy in women with anovulatory PCOS and inadequate clomiphene response (14) and improving ovarian response to FSH in poor responders (15). Evidence from larger trials is still awaited, but some encouragement may be taken from the commonwealth, solidity of the working hypothesis and the success of the preliminary results. Othello Research Outline! The Present study is designed to compare Metformin - letrozole with Metformin - clomiphene citrate in clomiphene resistance PCO patients undergoing IUI.

In this single blind randomized trial, 148 ovarian cycles were studied in 100 clomiphene- resistance patients with PCOS who were chosen among 250 PCOS patients attending the infertility research center of Shahid Sadoughi medical university in Yazd, Iran during the years 2007-2008 .The Study was approved by Yazd Medical University Ethical Board and was fully supported and funded by commonwealth essays Yazd Medical University. In this study, 50 people are needed in each group so as to gain a significant difference of 22% in oxford dictionary, pregnancy rate at a significant level of 5% and a power 80%. Randomization is essays, conducted on the basis of random numbers table right after metformin administration. The major criteria for diagnosis of PCOS were oligo and /or anovulation, clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, and professional thesis polycystic ovaries, namely 10 or more follicles with 2 - 9 mm size) which are in past commonwealth essays, accordance with the my birthday, revised 2003 Rotterdom criteria of PCOS. Thyroid, liver, kidneys function, and commonwealth prolactin level were checked for normal values. Pragmatism! Samples without any of them were excluded from the study.

Data were collected from the samples via questionnaires along with conversation and physical examination done by a medical researcher. Hysterosalpingo graphy and sperm analysis of our samples were normal. Inclusion criteria covered PCOS patients who had failed to past commonwealth essays become pregnant after receiving 150 mg clomiphene citrate per day in 3 months that considered as clomiphene failure. In this study, however , the selected cases took the drug in just one treatment cycle Exclusion criteria concerned patients with a history of liver and kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes (based on the criteria set by the American Diabetic Association), or patients who had taken metformin or drugs affecting insulin secretion or clomiphene citrate in othello research paper, the previous 2 months. The Patients were randomly allocated to a metformin-letrozole group (n=50) and a metformin clomiphene citrate group (n = 50).

All the patients of both groups received 1500 mg/day metformin for 6-8 weeks. After metformin administration , two patients in the letrozole group had drug side effects and were excluded from the study. If pregnancy occurred, the past commonwealth essays, patient was excluded from the study. In case of pregnancy failure after the end of this period, the othello research paper outline, patients in the metformin- clomiphene group were given 100 mg clomiphene citrate for past commonwealth, 5 days starting from the outline, third day of commonwealth, their menstrual cycle, and judicial those in the metformin-letrozole group received 5 mg letrozole for 5 days from the third day of their menstrual cycle. Past Commonwealth! The drug administration continued in three cycles for all the essay on posner pragmatism, included patients. Monitoring of follicular development was done by transvaginal sonography every other day from day 12 of the cycle by a single sonographist. Commonwealth Essays! A total of 10 000 IU of celebration essay, HCG was administered to commonwealth those in whom at least one ovarian follicle was ≥18 mm in size. Endometrial thickness, number of research outline, mature follicles gt;18mm, estradiol level, and past commonwealth the ratio of chemical and clinical pregnancies were determined. Chemical pregnancies were assessed 2 weeks after IUI by serum level of β HCG measurement.

Existence of at least one gestational sac in othello research paper outline, ultrasonography was confirmed as a clinical pregnancy. Ongoing pregnancy was defined as the observation of at past least one fetus with heart activity in sonography after the first trimester of pregnancy. Abortion rates were determined in both groups. The sample is divided into two groups using the random allocation software. SPSS version 12.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. T-test, chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used when appropriate.

P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. On the whole, 148 ovarian cycles were studied in 98 patients (70 cycles in high school exam-essay, 48 patients in the metformin - letrozole group and commonwealth 78 cycles in 50 patients in the metformin - clomiphene citrate group). Ninty eight PCO patients who were allocated to the two groups were included in the study. All the patients had at least 2 out of 3 Rotterdom criteria. No significant statistical difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the mean of demographic variables, including age, BMI, duration of infertility. The total Mean estradiol on the day of HCG administration was significantly higher among the patients in professional thesis, the metformin- clomiphene group as compared with those in the metformin-letrozole group (175.01 ± 168.93 Vs 70.24 ± 138.32 pg /ml; P lt; 0.05) (Table I). Mean endometrial thickness was also significantly lower in the metformin- clomiphene group as compared to those in the metformin-letrozole group (0.9 ± 9.3 cm versus 1.03 ± 10.2 cm; P lt; 0.05) (Table I). One miscarriage (2%) occurred in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group, whereas none were seen in the metformin- letrozole group. The clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly different between the two groups (4 patients (8.3%) in metformin-letrozole group as compared to 1 patient (2%) in metformin- clomiphene group; P gt; 0.05) (Table II). The rate of pregnancy in the cycles was 1% (1of 78 cycles) in the clomiphene-citrate group but 5% (4 of 70 cycles) in the letrozole group, which was not statistically significant. Table I. Commonwealth! Comparison of baseline parameters and different variables in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group and the metformin-letrozole group based on mean ± SD.

Metformin clomiphene group. Metformin letrozole group. Endometrial thickness on day of party essay, hcg administration (mm)* Duration of past commonwealth, infertility. LevelE2Mean total (pg/ml) on day of HCG administration. Number of follicles gt; 18 mm in diameter. P-value: No difference was found between the two groups for the above parameters (by t-Test as appropriate). Table II.

Comparison of Pregnancy and miscarriage rate in my birthday celebration essay, the metformin-clomiphene citrate group and the metformin-letrozole group based on mean ± SD. Metformin clomiphene group. Metformin letrozole group. Regular menses after metformin. Chemical pregnancy rate.

Clinical pregnancy rate. Intension to treat Analysis. P-value*: No difference was found between the two groups for the above parameters (by exact t-Test as appropriate). The results of this study indicate that clomiphene-failure women with PCOS experience higher pregnancy rates and fewer abortions when they receive combined metformin-letrozole in comparison with metformin-clomiphene. No significant relationship was observed between age, BMI ,and duration of infertility in the clomiphene citrate and the letrozole groups was observed. Mean of endometrial thickness on the day of HCG administration was significantly less in patients that received clomiphene citrate than those who received letrozole. Commonwealth Essays! (Our results were similar with results that were presented by Mitwally et al (16,17). But in study that was done by Al-Fozan et al a significant relationship was not reported between these two groups. Oxford English Essay! Fisher et al in their study believed that the cause of endometrial thickening in patients receiving letrozole is commonwealth essays, because of thesis skins, improved vascularization as compared with clomiphene citrate (18). Some studies showed that clomiphene citrate can cause inadequate endometrial thickness in essays, 15-50% of patients (19) and the quality or quantity of the cervical and an essay on the endometrial mucosa can affect(14). These side effects may be attributed to past the anti-estrogenic effect and the relatively longer half-life of clomiphene citrate, thus decreasing endometrial thickness by its long-term effect in essay, decreasing the number of estrogen receptors (14). One miscarriage was happened in the metformin-clomiphene-citrate group whereas none were seen in the metformin- letrozol group.

The clinical pregnancy rate between the two groups did not show significant difference. In study was performed by Mitwally and Casper effect of letrozol administration in 10 women with PCOS was assessed. They found that pregnancy occurred in 20% of women (14). Sammour et al in their study on efficacy of letrozole and clomiphen citrate in commonwealth essays, 49 women with idiopathic infertility showed that pregnancy rate was higher in patients receiving letrozole than clomiphene citrate group (16.7 versus 5.6%) (20). According to results of fruit apple, those studies; pregnancy rate is higher in past commonwealth essays, patients receiving letrozole than clomiphene citrate group but is essay on posner judicial pragmatism, lower when compared with the current study. Commonwealth! Moll et al in their study showed that in clomiphene citrate-resistant women, the combination of clomiphene plus metformin was the preferred treatment. Some studies reported that rate of miscarriage was higher than expected in clomiphene group. An Essay On The Apple! (In this study), There is commonwealth essays, one case of abortion in clomiphene group. This increase may be due to changes in an essay on the, peripheral estrogen level in the cervical and endometrial mucosa. Some evidence exists that assess the hazardous effects of clomiphene citrate accumulation during pregnancy and the initial stages of commonwealth essays, development in mouse and rabbit but has not been proved (21). We Hypothesize that clomiphene may have direct adverse effects on on the apple oocytes.

Some studies reported that inadequate uterine blood flow during the early luteal phase was one of the essays, probable causes of low pregnancy rate in patients who received clomiphen citrate. (21) Women with oligomenorrhea and PCOS had some ovulatory disorder because of insulin resistance and its related factors (22). Serum insulin level was main role in PCOS pathogenesis. Metformin can increase tissue sensitivity to insulin as well as decrease plasma insulin level and an essay hepatic glucose production. In PCOS, metformin can decrease the level of L.H. and ovarian androgen level as well as correct hyperinsulinemia (23). Commonwealth Essays! Some clinical trials presented the othello outline, effect of metformin on the activity of ovaries (22).

These studies showed that metformin can correct menstrual irregularity by inducing ovulation (16,17). According to Nestler study, ovarian response to commonwealth clomiphen was higher in obese women with PCOS (24). Aromatase is the enzyme necessary for converting androstenedione to estrone and finally to my birthday party E2 in peripheral tissues and Aromatase inhibitors can prevent peripheral estrogen production in patients that have higher peripheral estrogen production (25). According to noted mechanism, some of commonwealth, selective aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole are used to professional induce ovulation especially in infertile women with PCOS (21). They may also have direct action on the ovaries and increase follicular sensitivity to FSH.

Women with PCOS may also have relatively low levels of ovarian aromatase. High androgen levels result in the formation of past commonwealth essays, multiple small ovarian follicles. In addition, androgens increase the my birthday essay, number of commonwealth essays, FSH receptors in english essay, the ovaries, which results in increasing FSH sensitivity. Past Essays! High exogenous FSH or low estrogen production because of aromatase inhibitors will lead to professional skins growth of one or more ovarian follicles (25,26).

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Past commonwealth essays and studies

Analysis of Performance GCSE PE Coursework. Extracts from this document. Analysis of performance coursework I am analysing myself on the position I play in football which is centre back. The important skills needed in past essays order to party celebration, play centre back are: * Power * Balance * Coordination * Agility * Timing * Control These skills are important for: * Power is important so the past player is an essay on the fruit, able to strike the ball hard enough to clear it from commonwealth essays danger. It is also important so the player can jump high to win headers. * Balance is important so the player is celebration, able to stay on their feet whilst landing after jumping for a header and taking on players. * Coordination is important in order to run and header at the same time and to run and commonwealth, kick at the same time. * Agility is important so the player is california exam-essay questions, able to essays, take on players whilst coming out of defence. It is also important for the layer so he is able to keep track of his marker whilst his marker tries to lose him in and out of players. * Timing is important so the player is able to kick and header the ball at the right time to get the best effect. * Control is oxford dictionary essay, important in order to able to control high balls. The fitness components that are needed to past essays, play centre back successfully are: * Speed * Flexibility * Cardiovascular endurance * Speed endurance * Power * Acceleration These fitness components are needed for: * Speed is needed in order to pragmatism, keep up with the pace of the past commonwealth essays game and to keep track of your marker. * Flexibility is useful when playing centre because it helps you to intercept passes and control high passes with your feet. * Cardiovascular endurance is needed so the player is able to keep moving for the whole length of the match. * Speed endurance is needed so the player is able to my birthday party celebration essay, keep up with their marker when through balls are played throughout the whole match. . read more. During this time you must be moderately active which means working at about 60-80% of your maximum heart rate (MHR). Continuous training is essential for past essays everyone who takes part in activities for a long period of time. Fartlek training can simply be modified to work on improving cardiovascular endurance just by making the sessions longer and including more running. My second weakness that I find I have is passing with my left foot, and my third weakness is heading.

These two weaknesses could be combined and improved on in the same session. Circuit training could be used to oxford, improve these two weaknesses and past commonwealth, instead of essay on posner, using health based exercises at past essays, each station, skill based exercises could replace them. For example at the first station the exercise could be passing the ball onto a wall with your left foot as many times as possible in 45 seconds. To judge to see if you are improving you count the number of times you pass the ball successfully and compare with your next set of results. At the second station the research paper outline same thing could be done but using headers instead. Another way of commonwealth essays, improving these weaknesses is by on posner doing a skills training session.

For this it is best to involve other players so they can help you improve. To improve heading there could be three extra players; a goal keeper, someone to cross balls in and a defender. First a player would cross the ball in essays and I would be trying to win the header and oxford dictionary, header at past commonwealth essays, goal, the job of the defender is to win the ball and the goal keeper's job is obviously to save it. This would help me to improve my heading accuracy whilst I go up for corners, it would also get me more used to california high school exam-essay questions, heading in a game situation. Once about 15-20 balls have been delivered I would then swap with the past crosser and then cross balls in with my left foot in order to improve it. . read more.

As a result of the six week training programme I would expect to see a good improvement in not only the test results but in a competitive match as well. I would hope that I would find it a lot easier running around for the whole match and I would think that I would have improved my weaknesses as well as my strengths. My next steps once I have finished the training programme are to focus on any other weaknesses that could be improved. I will also keep on concentrating partly on my previous weaknesses, but not as intensely because I now have more important weaknesses. An Essay On The Apple? These weaknesses are speed endurance and coordination. I will write up an additional training programme in order to improve these other weaknesses.

However due to the six week training programme I will not yet be good enough at my previous weaknesses in order to call them my strengths, therefore I will need to essays, carry on working on them but not as often. I will write up another six week training programme and in one of those weeks I will include working on on the apple, my previous weaknesses, in past this week I will carry out the same sort of training methods but do them more intensely as I should be better at them. In the other five weeks I will still include one of those training methods once a week but for dictionary essay the rest of the week I will concentrate on improving my other weaknesses. Past? To improve my speed endurance I will need to include training methods such as interval training in my programme. I used interval training in my previous programme but in order to aim it specifically at speed endurance I will need to add more sprints in to it. To improve my coordination I will carry out research paper outline, a circuit training programme that will include various activities to improve my coordination, then I will repeat them three or four times. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in past essays our GCSE Exercise and Training section. Professional Thesis Skins? Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays.

Speed of reaction- when a player hears a call for the ball, how long it takes for him/her to pass it * Timing-choosing to tackle when the ball is essays, away from the professional thesis opponent's feet. * Speed- getting to the ball before the past commonwealth essays opposition All of the oxford dictionary essay above are demands which. Strategies/Tactics Strengths: Starts and turns I know this tactic is a strength in my performance because, when I dive into the water I can determine how long I spend gliding in a streamline position under water. I know this is a good strategy because my coach informs me I have a good streamlined position. Past Commonwealth Essays? GCSE P.E coursework - circuit training. from getting strained. Professional Thesis? Following this you must prepare yourself mentally. To do this you must do a specific activity - Like in football, to prepare yourself mentally, you may do some football shooting, or some heading or maybe some passing of a football. This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is volleyball and he . My muscles started to get tired at the end. Weights felt lighter than before. Past Commonwealth Essays? Until the third set, I began to feel it become more difficult. Improving my muscular strength and reps.

Flexibility Exercise (Stretches) 1-2 minutes My stretches were good. My Birthday Celebration? be able to confidently, accurately header a ball from past commonwealth a high distance in the air to my chosen target. Measurable - I will practise headers from othello research outline inside the penalty box. I will be able to measure it by counting out the number of times I score out of total shots. The first step will be to past commonwealth essays, identify Adamsweaknesses and strengths in Long Jump and . This increased his balance when running also. Overview of session: * His balance and timing was bad only when he was at speed. * Adams potential is great as he can adapt his posture and technique when I ask him. I think a main weakness in my game is that although I sometimes take a good crash ball, I tend to hang off the rucks too often and I need to get more stuck in because I might sometimes stand in the channel between the exit scrum half and fly half, PEP and performance analysis for rounders. (a) List in detail the strengths of the essays player/competitor/participant. In Rounders I'm good at an essay on the fruit apple, hitting the ball when batting; in order for me to do this I had good hand and commonwealth essays, eye co-ordination. When batting it is good to on the, have good hand and eye coordination because it determines whether a hit will be good or bad, I think the. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by commonwealth essays Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

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Two Singaporeans receive The Queen s Commonwealth Essay

Identity in Modern American Literature. Though modernity brought about scientific and technological progress, it was revolutionary in the sense that it threw and commonwealth essays seeped away the old-established moral values and social relations. The American society at that time was characterized by fragmentation, estrangement and dehumanization. Among the othello research outline, factors that had a great influence on America’s national identity and commonwealth the individual’s psychological make-up during the modern times are: the First World War, materialism, the spiritual crisis, individualism, and social discrimination. All these factors and others had negative, disappointing, and disastrous effects on the individual’s psychology. The twentieth century witnessed the beginning of professional thesis skins, a new age in commonwealth, the American history. The American novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald sums up the main features and changes that occurred at this period as follows: ‘It was an age of miracles, it was an age of art, it was an age of thesis, excess, and it was an age of satire’ (‘Echoes’ 2).

This period witnessed an unprecedented economic prosperity that affected the American society in many aspects of life. By the end of the First World War, there was a dramatic change in the attitudes of the Americans. Past Commonwealth Essays. This change produced a new generation which lost its traditional values and struggled to recognize its identity. During this era, a group of American thinkers and writers, known as the Lost Generation, searched for the meaning of life in this new fragmented world. In this dissertation, I will deal with a selected work of one prominent American writer of the twentieth century, who belongs to the Lost Generation. I have chosen to work on Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby, which exposes through many ways the issues of identity in the modern American society. My choice to write about outline identity in The Great Gatsby aims to find out past essays how modernity affected the American identity during the othello research, 1920s, and to what extent the commonwealth, main characters of this novel satisfied their desires in the national context. In addition, my work demonstrates whether or not they have succeeded to shape a full identity through their national and individual experiences; if yes, the work will evince if it is a partial or a whole satisfaction by analyzing how and to which extent they have shaped their national and individual identity. Besides, this work also seeks to explain the motives behind the characters’ own feelings and research paper behaviors. I intend to investigate what really pushes characters in the novel to act in certain ways. In other words, the work demonstrates if their feelings and actions are a result of their own choices, or rather inevitable because of some necessities.

The reader will understand, therefore, how these actions and feelings contribute to their internal identity. Answering the questions above sheds more light on commonwealth the dramatic shift in the perceptions of national and my birthday party celebration individual identity of Americans during the modern times. Additionally, this work provides the reader with an interpretation of the characters’ psyches to past, understand their behaviors and celebration essay their relationships with others. The main characters of The Great Gatsby work hard to fulfill their desires in order to shape a full identity; nevertheless, their happiness is fatally blasted by social corruption and inner conflicts. Despite the fact that the United States of America grew very wealthy and prosperous during the1920s, the American generation of this period can be described as desperate. This aimless generation, that lost hope and faith in themselves as well as their country, suffered from a serious identity crisis. People started to think who they are and to where they belong. Past Commonwealth Essays. This struggle for a social and an individual identity in modern America was well-depicted in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. The issue of identity is presented through the paper outline, main characters and the settings of the novel. This dissertation aspires to have a detailed analysis of more than one type of identity.

It makes the commonwealth, reader observe the struggles of the main characters to form a complete social and internal identity. Accordingly, the approach I have used in california high school exam-essay, this dissertation is psychoanalytical criticism, to analyze the interactions of the characters’ personal and interpersonal experience. I reveal their unconscious desires and anxieties, and seek evidence of their unresolved psychological conflicts. This critical analysis is concerned mainly with the emotions and the attitudes of Jay Gatsby and Daisy Buchanan. To deal with the dissertation’s main concern, I relied on commonwealth essays very important materials that are written by on the fruit apple, literary critics, historians, and psychologists.

In his book entitled Writing Jazzs, Nicholas M. Evans tries to past, tackle the issue of identity in skins, the modern era, making a reference to Fitzgerald’s novel The Great Gatsby. Past Commonwealth Essays. According to Evans, the desire of the protagonist Gatsby to establish a real identity is not a common and timeless issue. Seeking a national and skins individual identity was a major concern in past commonwealth essays, the twentieth century. This is thesis skins mainly because of the psychological trauma that appeared after the First World War.In her critical book about The Great Gatsby, Amy Cannistraro depicts the trauma that characterized the Modern period. This trauma, according to her, was the essential cause of masculinity crisis and the feeling of uncertainty in that era. Moreover, in his article ‘Repetition, Race, and Desire in The Great Gatsby’, Adam Meehan interprets the novel from a psychoanalytical perspective, employingSigmund Freud’s idea of repetition compulsion in past commonwealth, his literary analysis of the characters’ psyches.

These mentioned critical works serve as an opening salvo for my consideration of the problem of identity in Fitzgerald’s novel. To cover all the points in my work, I have chosen the following structure in which I divided my research work into three chapters. Party Celebration. The first chapter is entitled ‘Identity in past commonwealth, Modern American Literature’. In this chapter, I tackle two points. First, I have a flash of insight into how modern life was in the twentieth century American society. After that, I move directly to the impact of modernity on the American identity.

I focuson thestruggles which Americanswent through to establish their national and individual identity. On Posner. The second point in this chapter discusses Modernism in America, providing a brief history of its emergence in America, and past commonwealth essays its major characteristics. Then, my work skims over the theme of identity in the most important Modernist works in American literature. The second chapter deals directly with Fitzgerald’s novel The Great Gatsby. Oxford. This chapter, entitled ‘Social Fluidity in the Great Gatsby: Casting Doubt upon National identity’,has a look at commonwealth essays the dual portrait of the American Dream in the novel; more specifically, it deals with the corruption of the American Dream in the novel. Pragmatism. In addition to this, itdemonstrates the illusion and the reality of the American Dream in past commonwealth essays, relation to the novel’s protagonist. The chapter, also, discusses the issue of racismand the my birthday party, objection to the white supremacy in commonwealth essays, the novel. Moreover, it depicts the split of apple, social classes and its effect on the national identity of the characters. The third chapteris entitled ‘A psychological Insight into the Individual Identity in The Great Gatsby’. This chapter analyzes, from a Freudian perspective, the role of gender in the object choice, which shapes the love between Gatsby and Daisy.

It also sheds light on Gatsby’s psychological trauma that causes him a serious inner conflict. Another concern of this chapter is the psychological problems that follow the essays, characters’ feeling of intimacy. The last point to be discussed is the on the apple, feeling of shame that the characters develop in their experience. This point will demonstrate how the characters behave as a reaction to such feeling and how all their psychological problems lead to a constant feeling of unhappiness in their lives. The main aims of my work go beyond the explicit manners and behaviors of the main characters in The Great Gatsby, such as Gatsby’s love story or Daisy’s carelessness.

They rather include some deep interpretations of the characters’ behaviors, revealing their real inner intentions and motivations to feel and act in such ways. My work ends with a general conclusion that sums up the main findings of my work. Identity in Modern American Literature. The United States, in the period of the past commonwealth, 1920s, witnessed unprecedented changes on both economic and political scales. These new changes had dramatic effects on the social life of Americans. The modern American society, consequently, started to english, adopt some new values, rejecting those traditional conservative ones. Dealing with these previously mentioned changes, this chapter aims to explain how the American society was influence by the new developments that the modern era brought. It also sheds light on the effects of Modernism, as a cultural movement, on past commonwealth the American writes of this period. The twenties century marked the beginning of a dynamic age; it was a time of a huge change across the my birthday party essay, world and more specifically, in the United States. This decade which followed the First World War was the right time for the United States to experience unprecedented economic boom. Past. It witnessed a rapid increase in city population and industrialization, in addition to a profound technological advancement which formed urban cities.

Kathryn Vanspanckeren describes the new changes that characterized the cities in the twenties. She states: The typical urban American home glowed with electric lights and boasted a radio that connected the house with the outside world, and perhaps a telephone, a camera, a typewriter, or a sewing machine. Like the businessman protagonist of Sinclair Lewis’s novel Babbitt (1922), the average American approved of these machines because they were modern and because most were American inventions and American-made (60). These American technological advancements improved the life of citizens and pushed them toward urbanism. Furthermore, the high school exit exam-essay, end of essays, First World War brought a lot of changes on the political scale; there were considerable advances especially when it comes to an essay fruit apple, women’s freedoms during this period.

The Congress, as well, enacted immigration acts in 1924, which allowed the flow of many immigrants into the country. The political change, in addition to the bloom in industry, the flourish in business, and the rapid urbanization clearly confirmed that a new modern era started to shape the American history. Americans of the twenties faced a dramatic change in their social life. A new feeling of freedom and carelessness was widely rife during this era. People discussed ideas about sexual behaviors, breaking the traditional social codes. In fact, sexual promiscuity becomes a common phenomenon. Young women challenged traditional norms of womanhood, and they embrace feminist ideas. There was, in fact, a dramatic change of women’s position in the 1920s American society.

During the First World War, working class women were obliged to work outside, especially in factories, and after the past commonwealth, end of the war, they were joined by other middle class women who started to believe that their job should be more than just looking after their families, and spending time on housework. Professional Thesis. Consequently, they worked outside the home as teachers, secretaries, clerks’etc. Earning the right to vote with the coming of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, women took a significant step towards their equality and independence. Accordingly, a new sort of past essays, young women that was called ‘flappers’ appeared. They rebelled against all traditional manners and oxford were eager to quest personal freedom.

Vanspanckeren claims that ‘American women felt liberated [‘] and had become resolutely modern. They cut their hair short (“bobbed”), wore short “flapper” dresses, and gloried in past commonwealth, the right to vote […] They boldly spoke their mind and took public roles in on posner judicial pragmatism, society’ (60). Flappers started to drink alcohol in public, have shorter hairstyle, and feel freer to commonwealth essays, express their thoughts. Since American people wanted to forget a little about the horrors of the previous war, they spent more time in modern entertainment. On The Apple. New popular types of entertainment had emerged in that period, including movies, radios, sports matches, and the Jazz music. Past. Benjamin Franklin also describes this concern. He writes:

The 1920 census showed that some fifty-four million Americans’more than half of the on posner pragmatism, population’lived and worked in cities, where the forty eight hour workweek became standard. With their greater leisure time Americans played mah-jongg and flocked to sporting events and to the movies that were soon transformed by color and sound. Their heroes became athletes’Babe Ruth, Red Grange, Jack Dempsey’and they adored movie stars such as Jean Harlow, Mae West, Clara Bow, and Greta Garbo (14). Since a large number of people were living in cities, they spent their time in movies and sport events. Wild music and dance modes became national crazes in America. During this period, a new legislation was imposed by the U.S.

Government, after the ratification of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution by commonwealth essays, the U.S. Congress. Being encouraged by conservative activists in on posner judicial pragmatism, the country who considered alcohol as the main cause of past, people’s problems, this legislation restricted the manufacture and high school exit exam-essay distribution of liquor on a national level. Nevertheless, prohibition opened many doors for corruption and organized crimes in America. New illegal outlets for drinking opened all over the country, while underworld industry, Bootlegging, gambling, and commonwealth essays prostitution flourished in many big cities. The American lawyer, Thomas Streissguth claims that big amounts of my birthday party celebration, money were made only by smuggling and commonwealth essays selling alcohol; sometimes they were made by those who belong to oxford english dictionary essay, lower social classes, particularly sons of immigrants (Streissguth xi). Prohibition caused a certain cynicism among Americans, who started gradually to past commonwealth essays, lose respect for the country laws. After the end of the Second World War, ‘[m]any Americans wanted to be left alone, to cling to the nineteenth century and its values’ (Franklin 3). California Exam-essay. Although the war contributed to the rise of nationalism ideals in the selves of Americans, it made them distrust the international politics and focus more on past commonwealth essays domestic affairs. It is true that the war played a major role in the American unity, through directing people to seek the best for their country; nevertheless, this nationalism changed to a ‘civic’ one. In other words, it became much more related to the sense of belonging to the American values, such as democracy and tolerance rather than an inherited ethnic nationality.

Gary Gerstle gives us an idea of what American civic nationalism is. He writes: American civic nationalism embodied the republican notion of popular sovereignty. The people would rule; they would determine the course taken by the governments, local, state, and federal, that had some role in their lives. America’s civic nationalist tradition also promised a society free of discrimination’ethnic, religious, racial, or sexual. It portrayed America as a place where all individuals could pursue opportunity, economic and cultural, and secure their liberty and property. It called on America to open itself to foreigners willing to work hard, obey the essay judicial pragmatism, law, and pledge allegiance to commonwealth, its democratic institutions (34). American civic nationalism was based, therefore, on school questions one’s freedom to pursue his national identity including his liberty, property, and faith. However, these ideals of civic nationalism were obstructed by some emerging problems, at the turn of the twenties century.

The major problem that emerged during this period was nativism. After the devastating war, the majority of Americans came to realize that the essays, Progressive Era reforms had been useless. Professional Thesis. The old values of the American society had been terribly challenged due to those modern rapid changes, while constitute a real threat to the Americans. The increased flow of commonwealth essays, immigrants, coming with foreign radical ideas to big cities, caused a fear to the American society. As a reaction to these changes, a new sense of nativism emerged in many forms. Protecting the interests of native-born Americans while rejecting other non-American lifestyles, and shutting the doors on immigration were perhaps the famous practices that describe this emerging nativism. Even on trial, an upsurge in nativism was brought to light through the cause of the two Italian born anarchists, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti who were arrested and fruit executed for robbery and murder. However, many still argue that they were executed for their political ideas more than for anything else. This trial’s fear increased with the help of the new scientific racist ideas of men like the anthropologist Madison Grant. The latter is the leader of the eugenics movement that reached the United States in the twenties. It was based on ‘a social philosophy which advocates the improvement of human hereditary of past essays, traits through various forms of individual breeding’ (Evans 122).

Madison Grant argued that Anglo-Saxon peoples were superior to the other ‘lower races’. He claimed that ‘the American racial stock was being diluted by the influx of new immigrants from the Mediterranean, the Balkans, and the Polish ghettos’ (qtd. in Pula 64-65). Othello Paper. Thus, legislation to restrict immigration was followed because of the nativist movement’s pressure during this period. The U. S. Congress passed the past commonwealth, Emergency Quota Act of 1921, which limited the inflow of immigrants coming into the United States. This act was followed by the Immigration Act of 1924 that reduced the number of immigrants to only 2% of the people living in essay judicial, the United States. Moreover, the emergence of Ku Klux Klan (KKK) once again was also a prominent result of nativism. Past Commonwealth. ‘The Klan’ represents the name of three movements in professional skins, the United States that have advocated, through violence, white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration in past commonwealth, order to ‘purify’ the American society: The revival of the Ku Klux Klan in essay pragmatism, the 1920s, with its particularly ugly brand of national exclusiveness, was another manifestation of the past, Anglo-Saxon tradition translated into a self-conscious white Protestant ascendancy. Immigration restriction rather than immigrant amelioration was a consequence of this mood in the period of disillusionment that followed World War I. It is ironic that a generation later, in the aftermath of another world war, the followers of Senator Joseph McCarthy, many of on the apple, them from ethnic backgrounds that could not meet the test of Americanism in the past, led a nationalist assault on the loyalty of the older elite (‘Nationalism’ para. 3).

In short, the revival of the past commonwealth essays, Ku Klux Klan was another form of national racism that symbolized the my birthday essay, decade of the 1920s. It caused a great fear within Americans, since their traditional social values were strongly challenged. The definition of the American Dream itself has changed dramatically during the past essays, modern era. The American Dream can be traced to the early days of settlements in America, and it was marked in the Declaration of Independence by the Founding Fathers, who advocated Americans’ rights of life, liberty, and research outline happiness. The American historian James Truslow Adams defines the American dream as a ‘dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for essays, every man, with opportunity for each according to school exit exam-essay, ability or achievement’ (114). Essays. At first, the American Dream was simply a promise for a better life in which people have equal opportunities to work hard, relying on their own abilities and efforts to achieve great things. This led Immigrants to run away from the an essay fruit, restrictions of past essays, their countries to the United States in the hope of gaining freedoms.

However, according to Adams, the American Dream has a deeper meaning than pure material gains and fame. He writes: It is not a dream of motor cars and celebration essay high wages merely, but a dream of commonwealth, social order in skins, which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for past, what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of their birth (114 – 15). The original American Dream highlights those higher human values as important for success and happiness. Yet, right after the First World War, the an essay on the apple, old American values have been totally altered. This sudden change in the perspective of Americans started to create make life materialistic and to create a huge consumer society. Therefore, instead of striving for equality, people started to see the possibility of getting rich without limitations as well as having an opportunity to reach the upper social class. The concept of the American Dream during this period meant that any individual, no matter what his social status is, can achieve success in life. Past Commonwealth Essays. This success was mainly associated with materialistic possessions. Roland Marchand tries to provide us with a definition of the typical American individual who is pursing the American Dream during the 1920s. He writes: ‘Not only did he flourish in the fast-paced, modern urban milieu of skyscrapers, taxicabs, and pleasure-seeking crowds, but he proclaimed himself an expert on the latest crazes in fashion, contemporary lingo, and essay judicial popular pastimes’ (1).

From the preceding statement, one can notice how the American Dream in the modern era changed to become related to consumerism and commonwealth materialism. Snyder also sheds light on the change of the American Dream. He writes: But by the time the 1920s came around hard work wasn’t as important as the material items and the amount of money you had. English. Advertising was also changing and becoming more about materialism just as many of the people were. Material items became a huge selling point as well as defining the amount of money you had and as the new model of the American Dream was starting to form, material items defined who you were and the amount of your success (3-4).

Money became the main aspect that characterized the American Dream during the modern era. One’s success was measured by the amount of past, money that he possesses rather than his commitment to his work. Times have changed, and so do the American ideals and values. Therefore, it is not surprising that the new kind of “American Dream” which was shifted to include the materialistic aspects failed several times and division of classes and corruption have taken root in the American society. Without any doubt, the identity of a nation as a whole reflects those individual identities that shape it.

During the 1920s, the an essay fruit, issue of identity for Americans became more important than ever before. Identity was deeply altered by past commonwealth, the effect of modernity that was marked at an essay fruit apple the beginning of the twenties century. People tried to establish identity not on those traditional values of past, society, but rather on new modern ones. They started to fruit apple, reject mythical, religious, and spiritual methods as a means to seek the truth, and they focused on science and experimentation. Karen Armstrong explains more this idea. She writes: Ou Western modernity has led us to an entirely different notion of truth, and, as a result, we can no longer be religious in quite the same way as our ancestors. Our scientifically oriented society has lost the sense of the symbolic, which lay at the heart of all pre-modern faith. In the past commonwealth essays, perspectives of tradition, where every earthly reality was a replica of high school, its celestial archetype, the symbol was inseparable from the transcendent reality to which it directed our attention (Oldmeadow74). The rise of scientific approaches replaced traditional perspectives, and even had a greater effect on commonwealth people’s identities during the outline, 1920s. Materialism increasingly became the primary standard of living.

In addition, the past, notion of ‘having’ had become the most important principle to define one’s identity within the new secular culture. In other words, quantities become more important than qualities. Equally important, the rapid spread of the means of communication and transportation also had an oxford english dictionary important effect on the national identity of Americans. Past Commonwealth Essays. Radio technology had revolutionized communications during the early 1920s. The biggest cities were connected by a network of lines that offered flights. The production of the automobile marked the beginning of a shift from my birthday party celebration, public to private transportation.

People could exchange cultures and languages easier and in a shorter period of time. Generally speaking, Modernism is a revolutionary and innovative movement that concerned art, literature, music, architecture, and other applied arts. It emerged at past commonwealth essays the first half of the twenties century. Daniel Joseph Singal suggests that ‘Modernism should properly be seen as a culture-a constellation of related ideas, beliefs, values, and modes of perception-that came into research, existence during the mid to late nineteenth century, and that has had a powerful influence on art and thought on both sides of the Atlantic since roughly 1900’ (7). It is, therefore, a modern philosophy, or a new style of thinking that came to existence at the end of the ninetieth and the beginning of the essays, twentieth. This movement marked a sudden break with the celebration, styles of the past, looking instead for new forms of expression to commonwealth essays, fit the paper, necessities of the modern age.

American Modernism, being a version of Modernism, is also a philosophy that asserts the power of human improvement of his environment through modern modes of expression like science and past practical experimentation. Breaking the artistic traditional principles, American Modernism marked the creation of American art as separate and independent from my birthday celebration essay, European experience. In the beginning of the 20th century, artists preferred to find their own visions and past commonwealth essays ways in expressing the American spirit through their productions. Modernism succeeded to make the connection between art and various audiences, especially through museums and galleries. Paper Outline. Calling to mind the sense of challenge, these modern arts helped tremendously the self-consciousness of American people. New Modernist paintings, for instance, highlighted both the spiritual and commonwealth essays the psychical condition of people, evincing the modern American identity. The French naturalized American painter, Marcel Duchamp, when interviewed in September 1915, promoted the sense of distinction in the American Modernist art.

Duchamp says: ‘If only America would realize that the art of Europe is finished – dead – and that America is the country of the art of the future, instead of trying to base everything she does on European traditions!’ (qtd. in Woods 3). Georgia O’Keeffe also has been one of the famous painters who went beyond the fixed principles of arts in her paintings of landscapes, in othello research, addition to the famous African American painter Aaron Douglas, who included the African American heritage in his works. Likewise, photography became one form of past commonwealth essays, fine art, and one of the most significant cultural products in the United States. Modernist American photographers moved towards a distinct style, representing realities objectively and focusing on motifs such as machines, scientific innovations and other issues related to the modern city. Vicki Goldberg and Robert Silberman, describing the American modernist photography, write: American modernism lagged far behind Europe in painting, but in the middle of the second decade, Paul Strand, taking a cue from avant-garde painting overseas, created a distinctly American modernist photographic style. Less involved in experimentation than Europe was. Strand and others like him in this country directly confronted the geometry of modern forms, the modern city, the paper, lost and alienated modern citizen (1). American modernist photography had a distinguished style from past commonwealth essays, that of the European photography, since it did not focus on experimentation.

By the same token, throughout this period, a new kind of wild music called ‘Jazz’ had emerged. My Birthday Essay. Originated in New Orleans, Jazz combined West African rhythms as well as European harmonies. It is developed by African Americans and had roots in ragtime. In fact, it was more than a kind of music; it was rather a lifestyle, an emotional desire, and an integral part of American culture. Jazz was definitely modern in terms of sound and mode. According to past commonwealth essays, Lawrence Levine, ‘Jazz was, or at least seemed to be, the new product of a new age; Culture was, or at least seemed to be, traditional-the creation of centuries. Jazz was raucous, discordant’ (7).

It reflected, therefore, the culture and an essay the new spirit of the modern age. Louis Armstrong was one of the musicians who became the most influential figures in jazz music, in addition to many others including Jelly Roll Morton and Bessie Smith. Jazz Players were inspired most by street talks in Harlem. Essays. The latter turned to be, throughout the modernist time period, the centre of one of the my birthday celebration essay, most significant intellectual movements in the African American history. Performing military services during the past commonwealth essays, war, African Americans had been given a sense of freedom so that a large number of them migrated from the South to settle in Harlem. The latter is a neighborhood on the Westside of New York City. This gathering led to what is known as the ‘Harlem Renaissance’. Harlem became a strong community in which young black Americans celebrated their rich history of heritages and traditions. One of their traditions that they brought with them was jazz music. Harlem certainly played a major role in bringing Jazz and other artistic works to Americans’ attention.

This is mainly because it was a home to othello paper, activities, musicians, singers, writers and scholars, who sought to cheer the rebirth of past commonwealth, African American culture through their own ideas and activities. As has been noted, the 1920s American society knew ideological discussions that aspire for more diverse and tolerant lifestyles especially by young people, who were unsatisfied and disillusioned with the war and the values of california school exit, older generation. These youths felt cut off of the past, old social conventions, and they were much more open to my birthday party celebration essay, a new secular culture. There was a growing number of them entering high schools and colleges significantly during the early twenties of the century. Accordingly, more social connections were created by this young generation, with a less control over their behaviors. This led to past commonwealth, a radical change in professional skins, the opinions of these young people, especially when it comes to morals and religious beliefs. Essays. Fitzgerald depicts this secularization that affected the high school questions, younger generation. He writes:

Here was a new generation, shouting the old cries, learning the old creeds, through a revelry of long days and nights; destined finally to go out into that dirty gray turmoil to follow love and pride; a new generation dedicated more than the last to the fear of essays, poverty and the worship of success; grown up to find all Gods dead, all wars fought, all faiths in man shaken (This Side 240). The new generation stubbornly rejected the traditional values, and rebelled against religion and faith. Fruit. This generation believed only in success. This radical change in beliefs was enhanced with the arrival of some intellectuals who led an influential rebellion against established religious, sexual, and social conventions. They raised, instead, a big question on morality. One might venture to past, say that intellectuals were the first to show the way for this revolution against the traditional morals in America.

Just after its appearance in 1859, Darwin’s Origin of an essay fruit apple, Species had raised a great debate in past commonwealth essays, America, despite the Civil War problems at that time. In the middle of this debate, evolutionary biology became accepted and widespread through the country, especially in urban regions. With the coming of the twentieth century, it was even included in the intellectual equipment of educated Americans. The belief in evolution logically opposes the belief of my birthday party essay, biblical literalism; consequently, some American authorities and scientists tried to bring together evolution and the existence of spirit in essays, man, without a real success, since the my birthday celebration essay, religious principles of American youth had been destabilized (Braeman332). American intellectual contributions during this era had also influenced by the theories of the past essays, Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud who made a revolution in the ideas of the western world about the human behavior and mind. Freud established a system that called for a complete abolition of morality. He is othello research paper considered as the founding father of psychoanalysis as a discipline. Freud was the first European to develop the concept of the ‘unconscious’ by using some techniques such as dream interpretation and free association. Essays. Freudian new terminology had entirely affected people’s way of thinking and living.

The influence of his ideas and theories in the twentieth century spread throughout all the Western culture including the American one. Feudalism with its notions of research outline, sexuality, identity, and memory could be observed in different sorts of art and literature. In fact, ‘Freudian psychology was a much more titillating subject than Darwinian evolution, and borrowings from it were soon evident in past essays, motion pictures and popular literature, as well as in the works of the oxford english dictionary, critically acclaimed writers’ (Braeman 335). Freudian theories reshaped the morals of the past commonwealth, young Americans, creating a freer society with less restrictive rules over sexual behaviors. The fact of considering sex as a taboo came to an end, and sexuality turned out to be a subject of free discussion among people.

The emergence of the theories of outline, psychoanalysis enhanced the essays, examination of people’s psychological responses to the terrors that characterized the modern era. The anxieties that were incited by on the fruit, the rise of individualism and selfhood in modern culture put the self in a centre of commonwealth, attention. As a result, the problem of identity crisis emerged as a significant modern concern in that period. School Questions. The term ‘identity crisis’, which was coined by the American psychoanalyst Erik Erikson, refers to the state ‘when the person’s sense of identity is experienced as being at risk through we need to change, leading him or her to question his or her own identity in some fundamental aspect’ (Rusbridger 136). Identity crisis puts the American people in a state of ignoring who they really are. They felt disconnected from their values, their beliefs, and their own self.

Of utmost importance, Modernist American literature reflected whether directly or indirectly the culture and the different issues of the United States at that time. Franklin maintains: ‘For some authors, of past, course, the direct revelation of the experience of living within their culture is othello their main purpose for writing’ (4). Literature in general mirrors the personal and social experiences. Accordingly, literary works which were produced in the years between the two World Wars deal with the commonwealth, themes of destruction, fragmentation, loss, isolation, and exile. Othello Paper. These themes were a consequence of the emerging individualism in the modern times.

Modernist writers invented new forms and styles of writing that would suit the requirements of the modern age. They are seen especially in urbanism and national identity. Richard Ruland and Malcolm Bradbury point out that these changes ‘forced the American writer toward the past, subjects, languages and themes of the Depression and war years’ (318). Pursuing more individualistic forms of writing, writers of the period developed modern techniques in writing, such as nonlinearity of judicial pragmatism, plot, voices, and stream of consciousness. These new techniques came up to emergence as a reaction to the innovative insights brought by newly established disciplines such as psychoanalysis. In addition, most American writers rejected the old literary forms and got eager to create something completely new; yet, many of them preferred the past, use of literary tradition, including allusions to party essay, canonical works of the past.

Silvie Pal”kov” states: ‘The American authors started to experiment with Symbolism, Surrealism and commonwealth Dadaism, but first and foremost, they were involved in Modernism. Oxford English Dictionary. Modernist authors are innovative in many ways. They are not afraid of mixing those levels which used to essays, be separate so far’ (17). Having a new modern look at english dictionary essay the aspect of the viewpoint in the Modernist novel, American writers no longer used a single, omniscient third-person narrative. It is mainly because authority turned to be a matter of a single perspective, and because the belief of an commonwealth essays absolute truth was replaced by a sense of relativity and multiplicity. The importance of the way the story was told turned out to research paper, be the same as the story itself. Many American Modernist novelists and poets like T.S. Eliot, Henry James, Virginia Woolf, and William Faulkner used multiple narrators in their writings. Commonwealth. In Faulkner’s novel, The Sound and the Fury, for instance, the narration is exam-essay divided into four sections; each of them provides the viewpoint of a particular character, including a mentally retarded boy. Eliot’s poem The Waste Land, as well, presents multiple speakers that reflect the variation of truth and past the diversities of reality.

In order to paper, analyze poetry and fiction of the modern era, the school of New Criticism came up in the United States. New critics examined a literary work, insisting on its intrinsic significance, and focusing more on past ‘the individual work alone as an professional independent unit of meaning’ (Augustyn 252). The American New Critics were mainly influenced by the critical essays of the Anglo-American poet-critic T. S. Past Commonwealth Essays. Eliot. As an instance, ‘[i]n The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism (1920) [‘] Eliot discusses the work of party essay, Algernon Swinburne, William Blake, Dante, Philip Massinger, Ben Jonson, and William Shakespeare, and essays defines terms and concepts that have entered into oxford english dictionary essay, critical discourse’ (Franklin 22). Eliot, in these essays, highlighted the past essays, poem’s separation from the paper, poet’s personality. He believes that the work of art should be objective and impersonal. During that period, a group of American writers gained fame for past commonwealth, being known as ‘The Lost Generation’, a term which was coined by Gertrude Stein, and used to an essay on the fruit apple, describe the people of the 1920’s who rejected Bourgeois values (Jumonville 306). Past. The generation was ‘lost’, in professional thesis, the sense that its traditional values like patriotism, courage, and war were not important anymore. People who witnessed the Modernist period felt fragmented and alienated.

This is because of the horrors that the war left in past essays, their memories. The meaning of the ‘Lost Generation’ developed to be applied to english, American writers, most of whom emigrated to Europe and lived there during the 1920s. They left the United States because of their displeasure, and essays according to Kate O’Connor ‘[s]ome wished to live cheaply; some sought an audience for their work; some fled what they saw as a prudish and narrow minded nation’ (113). The dissatisfaction of these writers with their own living conditions encouraged them to leave the country. The four most prominent writers among ‘The Lost Generation’ were Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and T. Essay Judicial. S. Commonwealth. Eliot. Although these writers belonged to an aimless generation that was disillusioned by war, they expressed their dissent from the materialist modern America.

Concerning American literary works, the writers of oxford dictionary, ‘The Lost Generation’ used specific common themes. O’Connor tries to set the main themes of American literary works, during the Modernist era. One of those major themes is decadence. According to past commonwealth, O’Connor, the extravagance of Gatsby’s parties in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, or the pointless traveling and parties among the expatriates in Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises and in party celebration, A Moveable Feast were deeply related to the dissolutions of ideals after the war. Commonwealth Essays. This led, consequently, to the characters’ pleasure-seeking (Para. 6). As another theme discussed by ‘The Lost Generations’ is the change of gender roles. Essay. A lot of literary works tackled the issue of traditional gender roles and during this period. In The Sun Also Rises, for instance, Ernest Hemingway depicts the weakness of the narrator Jake because of past, a war wound, and instead it is his love Brett who acts the man’s role.

Another example of the crisis of masculinity can be found in an essay on the, T. S. Eliot’s poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ in which the main personae Prufrock’s fails to give his lover a romantic declaration of love. Another third major theme that can be found in the writings of ‘Lost Generation’ is the idealization of the past. Past Commonwealth. Instead of research, facing the horrors of the war, many writers tried to form a shiny image of the past that never exists in past essays, reality. Professional Thesis. The best example of this theme is Gatsby’s idealization of his past in Fitzgerald’s novel The Great Gatsby. Moreover, the problem of identity seems to be among the past, most significant themes of the period. Many Modernist American writers were fully attentive to the new generation’s struggle to impose themselves as modern citizens. In addition, they noticed this generation’s refusal of the on posner judicial, old set of rules and their longing for materialism and essays commercialization. Accordingly, these writers produced prominent works through which they evoked this issue. The famous American writer William Faulkner, for instance, exposed in his fiction a terrible sense of man’s failure to oxford essay, achieve any real ideals in life.

His novel The Sound and the Fury strongly marks out the decomposing values of the Southern society in the modern era, as well as the extreme anxiety and despair of modern individuals. In this novel, the commonwealth, character Quentin Compson’s obsession with the past is outline considered to be a failure to form her personality; this logically explains her suicide after that. In his two well-known novels, The Rainbow (1915) and Women in Love (1920), the famous British modernist writer D.H. Essays. Lawrence tackled the illusion of modern civilization and the dreadful outcomes of industrialization upon the human self. Like Lawrence, the poet T. Research Paper Outline. S. Eliot, another famous American member of past essays, ‘The Lost Generation’, drew in his masterpiece The Waste Land (1922) which expressed the sickness of modern civilization. It is a civilization that caused a loss of moral values and cultural identity. Moral life conditions, as the professional skins, poem shows, result in a real existential crisis. William Faulkner, the American writer who was born to an old southern family, is another famous author who tackled the theme of identity in his writings.

He discusses some important issues as gender and racial problems in the American South. Past Commonwealth. Faulkner went further to research, imply that these problems eventually emerge from the conflicts within the individual’s psyche, and not from his society. This is seen particularly in his novel Light in August, in which the characters seek identity and seem to be isolated and fragmented. This fragmentation is seen more in the character Joe Christmas who becomes isolated since he cannot determine his racial identity as he is neither black nor white. Moving to the African American writer Ralph Ellison, his novel Invisible Man evokes the theme of identity in African American experience; it focuses on the individual’s struggle to shape his racial identity in modern America.

Ellison sheds light on the black Americans struggles for a recognized or a visible identity. Through the Invisible Man, the commonwealth essays, author stresses blacks’ invisibility, using an unnamed protagonist. He tries, therefore, to convey the idea that seeking a real identity cannot be possible without accepting one’s state of invisibility first, then starting to shape a new definition based on good behaviors and manners. Last and not least, the American Modernist writer F. Scott Fitzgerald deals with the issue of identity in many of his literary works. The struggle between the modern and the old values, which is high exit exam-essay questions discussed above, is clearly seen in Fitzgerald’s novels especially This Side of Paradise (1920). This is mainly through the experience of the protagonist Amory Blaine who makes huge efforts to past, avoid neglecting his identity and his feelings of purposelessness.

The Beautiful and Damned (1922) is another novel of Fitzgerald that evokes the theme of identity. Fitzgerald depicts the psychological alters of the protagonist, Amory Blaine, throughout his life. Accordingly, he describes the skins, fragmented self, which results from the unbalanced feelings and the sexual illusions that Blaine has. Fitzgerald’s other novel that discusses the issue of essays, identity is This Side of Paradise. According to Pelzer, This Side of california school exam-essay questions, Paradise is ‘a novel about disillusionment and loss’ (44). In this novel, the main character, Amory, has a difficulty to control his inner self; so, he predictably suffers from disillusion. The Great Gatsby (1925), which represents the core of this dissertation, is also one of Fitzgerald’s most remarkable novels of the period; it brings to light much about the past essays, complexity of such issue. In other words, it stresses the idea of how identity can be affected by paper, materialism and the illusions of wealth. The life of the protagonist Jay Gatsby seems to be full of illusions about his love to Daisy, and his dream of winning her for the second time. Although Daisy betrayed him, Gatsby cannot differentiate reality from illusion; he is not making a clear cut between the past, past and the present. Consequently, Gatsby seems to be unable to find his identity through his attempts to win Daisy.

Jay Gatsby’s love for the careless, stonehearted Daisy Buchanan refers to a psychologically damage in his identity. Professional Skins. This damage is not simply caused by a desire to belong to a higher social class, but to commonwealth essays, regain a woman who is not perfect as he imagines. The Great Gatsby records, as well, the lifestyle of the fruit, Jazz Age aristocracy and its deceiving reality. Commonwealth Essays. Although capitalism and consumerism had an important signification to oxford english dictionary, the American history, they despoiled the life of the characters in The Great Gatsby. Huskey claims that ‘[n]ot only have their values and desires become strictly material, but morality has become almost nonexistent as it has become overshadowed by material gain and desire’ (17). The Great Gatsby’s main characters suffer from essays, a crisis of identity. This mainly results from a lack of knowledge about othello paper their true selves and their true Americanism. To summarize, the commonwealth essays, 1920s was the my birthday party celebration essay, decade of change in the history of the past, United States.

In this Modernist era, an enormous economical growth, in addition to a vast political change, influenced the American society. This influence is manifested in so many ways. English Essay. The growing urban population and past commonwealth the rise of consumerism were perhaps the major aspects of the American economical change. Politically speaking, the governmental Amendments contributed to the advancement of women’s liberty on one hand. Yet, on oxford english dictionary the other hand, they raised a ‘cultural civil war’ in the country, giving a rebirth to racial issues. This socio-cultural mobility was reinforced by the rebellion of the new generation against the traditional restrictions. The rebellion was largely reflected in the literary and artistic works of the period. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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