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Architecture in the Renaissance Era. The period between the early 15th and the early 17th Centuries heralded the research conscious revival and development of certain elements of a persuasive essay be written classical Roman and Greek though and material culture. Renaissance Architecture was born out of this resurgence of classical contemplation and culture. Fillipo Brunelleschi blazed the trail as a trendsetter in Florence, Italy from where the Renaissance style of architecture quickly spread to other Italian cities. From there, it spread to France, Germany, England, Russia and feminism, other parts of Europe. The Renaissance approach to architecture is characterized by an emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as expressed in the architecture of classical ancient Rome of which many visible examples existed (Hale, 1971).
The underlying feature of Brunelleschi work was order. In the early 1400’s he observed that the buildings remaining among the ruins of ancient Rome appeared to respect a simple mathematical order in a way that Gothic buildings did not. From this observation came a desire for symmetry and careful proportion (Howard, 1993). Need essay sample on Architecture in the Renaissance Era ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for model essays only $12.90/page. The result was that in Brunelleschi buildings as a whole and all their subsidiary details, each has a fixed relationship. Each part in proportion to the next and the architectural features define exactly what those rules of proportion are (Sir, Banister, 1896), Brunelleschi architectural works include the brick done which covers the central space over feminism research Florence’s Cathedral, designed by Arnolfo di Cambia in the 14th Century but left unroofed. That was his fist commission which was followed later by the churches of critical on mark huckelberry San Lorenzo and San Spirito also in Florence where Brunelleschi new architectural philosophy is best demonstrated. In 1434, Brunelleschi designed the first Renaissance Central planned building, the church of Santa Maria Degli Angeli of Florence. Form then onwards numerous churches were built in variations of these designs (Rykwert Alberti, 1986). Michelozzo Michelozzo, (1396-1472) was an architect under the patronage of the Medici family and was one of the first architects to work in the renaissance style outside Italy by building a palace at Dubrovnik. His most famous work was the palazzo Medici at Fiesole build in 1444.
The Palazzo Medici Riccardi is research papers, classical work of Renaissance architecture which Michelozzo was commissioned to design for Casimo de Medici as well as the Library at the convent of San Marco, Florence. It would be improper to leave out Leon Battista Alberti, (1402-1472) a Humanists theoretician and designer whose book on architecture “De re Aedifictoria” had such a lasting effect on the architectural world. Alberti incorporated the aspect of humanism through his perception of the architect as a person with great social responsibilities. One of his greatest designs was that of the church of Sant’ Andrea in Mantua. An extremely dynamic building both without and within (Hale, 1971), two other buildings, the ico essay Palazzo Rucellai and the Santa Maria Novella, in Florence are some of Alberti’s best known works of architecture (Rykwert Alberti, 1986). Historians usually classify the papers Renaissance in Italy into three phases. The black economic conditions of the late 14th century did not produce building that are considered to be past of the Renaissance.
As a result the word, the word “Renaissance” among architectural historians usually applies to the period 1400 to CA 1525 (Hale, 1971) or later in the case of non-Italians Renaissances (Rykwert Alberti, 1986). The architects cited in this paper belong to the Renaissance period (CA, 1400-1500) also known as the Quattro cento or Early Renaissance. It was later followed by Cinquecento or High Renaissance (CA, 1500-1525) and narrative, later by feminism research papers Mannerism (CA 1520-1600). In the Quattro cento period which featured such as Brunelleschi, Michelozzo and Alberti the pioneers of Renaissance architecture, the american foreign theoretical concepts of feminism research architectural order were explored and rules were formulated. The study of classical relics led to phd thesis the adoption of classical detail and ornamentation space, as an. Papers. Element of architecture, was organized and utilized by proportional logic. Rather than being created by intuition as had been the case of medieval building in the middle ages, the form and rhythm of the new buildings were subject to phd thesis finance geometry as exemplified by the Pazzi chapel in feminism papers Florence by Fillipo Brunelleschi (Sir, Banister, 1896), With its origins in Italy, the phd thesis finance Renaissance spread throughout Tuscany to papers Lombardy, Rome and beyond. The courts of the lesser Italian states became centers for spreading Renaissance philosophy art and economics, architecture. The Renaissance flourished at the famous Ducal Palace at Urbino, among other places (Hale, 1971).
In southern Italy, Renaissance masters were called to Naples by feminism papers its conqueror, Alfonso V of Aragon. The most notable example of Renaissance architecture being the Cappella Caracciolo and the palazzo Orsini di Gravina build between 1513 and 1549. Eventually, the Renaissance spirit was exported to France, Portugal, Spain, England Germany, Sweden, Poland and Eastern Europe. It had to collaborate with local traditions and climates. Generally, it was not until about ico essay, 1500 that signs of Renaissance architectural style began to feminism research appear outside Italy (Sir, Banister, 1896), In France, Renaissance architecture developed to what has been termed as new-renaissance architecture. This developed during the early years of the 16th Century when the French were involved in american foreign wars with Northern Italy.
As their war boats, they not only brought back art treasures but also stylistic ideas which led to the new renaissance architectural style developed in France (Rykwert Alberti, 1986). There are no similarities involving Renaissance and Gothic Architecture. However, as the research French Renaissance evolved, the addition of Renaissance ornament to Gothic based buildings; on islamic occasion the two styles were mixed and resulted in new renaissance architecture. A good example of this is the National Museum in Stockholm completed in 1866. By the beginning of the 20th Century, new renaissance architecture was a common sight on the main streets of thousands of towns, large and small around the feminism research papers world. While new renaissance did not develop into a style as recognizable as that of the american essay theoretical Renaissance, it is easily recognizable as derivative of the renaissance form of architecture. Neo renaissance architecture, because of its diversity, is research papers, perhaps the only architectural style to american theoretical have existed in research so many forms yet still common to ico essay so many countries (Rykwert Alberti, 1986).
Hale, J.R. (1971). Research Papers. Renaissance Europe, 1480 – 1520. Fontana. Howard, S. (1993). Essays Twain's Huckelberry. Fillipo Brunelleschi: The Buildings. London: Zwemmer. Sir, Banister, F. Feminism Papers. (1896). A history of Architecture and the Comparative Method.
New York: Elsevier Science and Technology. Rykwert, J. Narrative Essay. Alberti, L. B. (1986) Architectural Design, Vol. 49, No. 5-6, London: Holland St.
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Feminism Research Papers Overview the Feminist Movement
Racial and Ethnic Minorities Essay. History of racial and ethnic minorities in policing. Racial and ethnic discrimination are actions that are morally wrong because they result to violation of peoples rights. Feminism. Humanity is guided by narrative reflective essay, the principle of equality that calls for equal treatment of all individuals, claiming that racial differences should not hinder equal treatment of one particular group. Equality is the act of treating all people as equals irrespective of research color, gender, age and ethnicity. The context of the equality principle differs from one factual environment to the other. For instance, in politics, equality refers to equivalent access to american essay, public resources, pay and job opportunities. Conversely, in criminal justice, the equality principle means the application of the rule of feminism research papers law to all individuals. Equality in criminal justice therefore, discourages instances of discrimination by the police towards any particular group of a-level essays individuals.
The history of ethnic and racial minorities in policing has been evident since slavery period. Various reforms and amendments have been developed in the United States criminal justice system to ensure fair treatment of all individuals by the police in policing. The world race is used to feminism research papers, refer to a particular group of people who share a common biological inheritance that makes them distinct from those in their neighborhood. Conversely, ethnicity can be described as a cultural trend that defines a person’s way of life. The world race does not have a profound foundation and critical essays twain's its existence does not have any biological value. Race is a literal word that was developed by individuals to refer to a particular group of people. In the United States, the feminism papers concept of race developed during slavery period, where some races were considered lesser than others. The criterion of race has been used by the US law enforcement systems in determining people’s rights. These events and activities gave rise to racism, a social practice whose virtues are racially based depending on a group’s race. How Should A Persuasive Be Written. Racism was therefore, practiced in three different aspects including personal intolerance, institutional racism and ideological racism. Ethnicity and racism were used as factors of consideration by the police in the course of performing their day to research, day activities of model a-level policing (Harrell 48).
Ethnicity and race has been used as one of the indicators to determine people’s attitude towards the police. The history of criminal justice and policing in research papers America works under racial and ethnic lines. Racism has been a major problem facing police organizations, despite the essay theoretical military trainings and policies that are laid before them. In criminal justice, policing lacks equal representation of every society. This has caused the minority groups to feminism papers, suffer discrimination from the whites because they associate their race with violence behavior and crimes. The methods of social control used by the police to the American communities differ according to ones race and ethnicity.
Most of the crime blames are placed on minority groups than the critical essays twain's finn whites. Institutional racism was and is the major and common form of racism practiced towards individual groups in the United States, which are also referred to as “petit apartheid”. It constitutes the interactions between citizens and feminism papers the police, featuring their relationship with particularly the minority groups. The police interact with people either openly or informally as they execute their day to day activities. The concept of petit apartheid was used by policing in the past, which determined most of their actions and ico essay decisions made within the criminal justice system. The apartheid concept promoted racism in feminism research policing, with the ethnic minorities facing biased treatments from the ico essay police like rough treatment and insults (Weitzer and Steven 34). The historical context of racism and ethnicity in policing. The history of racial and ethic minority discrimination is as old as creation.
The United States of America is a multi-racial state, with members from different societies including African Americans, Asians, and Mexicans that form the papers minority community. These minority groups have contributed greatly to the US culture and ico essay economic stability. There has been a tendency, however, by the whites to discriminate these groups. Members of the minority groups have faced great challenges throughout their life in the United States because of underrepresentation in almost all sectors that can make their living equal to those of the feminism Americans. The Criminal Justice department is among those sectors that are leading with actions of ico essay discrimination.
In policing, ethnic minorities are greatly discriminated in feminism papers the process of recruitment, police discretion, courts and in model a-level essays the process of criminal justice. American criminology is known for racial and ethnic discrimination in criminal justice and policing since its introduction. Racial and ethnic minorities’ discrimination in policing dates back to earlier times in papers the history of America and has been receiving consisted scrutiny to ensure equal representation of all the American societies by the Criminal Justice Department (Sampson and Janet 360). Racial and ethnic disparities are not a new norm in the American criminal justice system. In the antebellum period, ethnic and ico essay racial discrimination in policing was a common practice among the police. African Americans were the major victims of racial discrimination because of research their color and origin. Throughout the islamic finance history of the United States, racial discrimination began with the slavery system, extending through segregation and research papers exclusion, which were practiced both formally and informally through court decisions and policing legislations. Slaves were not considered as human beings, but servants to a-level, their masters because their race categorized them as inferior to the whites, since the feminism research papers beginning of slavery and slave trade in the seventeenth century to 1865.
Regulations were put against slaves, with each of them having a slave tag that denied them the opportunity to enjoy the enormous freedom enjoyed by the whites. Slaves were exposed to economics essays, plantation life to provide free and cheap exploitative labor through brutal treatment that was against feminism research papers, human nature. They did not have any rights and were expected to remain captives. In the advent of the civil war, slavery was abolished and the Bill of Rights Amendments were revised to bring to an end the practice. This was aimed at reflective essay ensuring that all individuals were granted equal freedom regardless of their ethnicity and feminism research papers race, and equal protection and treatment by model, the criminal justice system(Sharp and research papers Susie 754).. After the Civil War, actions of discrimination continued to persist. American Essay Foreign Theoretical. This was facilitated by the Jim Crow laws that were adopted by many states, which failed to effectively rationalize structures of discrimination in economic, social and legal forums. For instance, the African Americans could not participate in feminism research voting system because they did not have the right to vote. Additionally, they were racially separated from the whites under the established doctrine of “separate but equal.” The courts, however, held on to the Jim Crow laws. African Americans faced great challenges between mid 1800 to early 1900, caused by the practice of racism and their relations with the phd thesis islamic finance police were not perfected. In the twentieth century, however, African Americans were accorded legal rights and the doctrine of “separate but equal” was abolished.
Racal segregation was highly rejected and the civil rights required all people to be treated equally. Other minority groups who existed in the United States included the Latinos, Alaska Natives and American Indians. These groups were not an exception and faced the same treatment and forms of segregation as the feminism papers African Americans. All the minority groups in America since slavery period until 1900s faced criminal victimization from the police. They were considered as violent and criminals. This led to the number of minority individuals associated with actions of crime and violent behavior to increase compared to that of the whites. Economics Essays. Ethnic minority groups lived in slums and areas characterized by poverty, where instances of crimes were highly practiced. Papers. Conversely, the whites owned mansions and lived in areas that had sufficient security from the police.
Policing activities were biased and the minority groups faced great challenges from the police (Rosenbloom and Niobe 430). Biased policing practices raised many questions about the literature of the criminal justice system towards racial differences. This was facilitated by ico essay, the increased number of minority groups that were alleged with criminal activities. Study conducted by papers, various scholars showed that the criminal justice system was racially segregated and the ethnic minorities were underrepresented. A large percentage of the minorities remained unemployed because all the jobs available were allocated to ico essay, the whites. The police departments did not execute fair policing. In their study, Dobbins and Bass found out that the police were prejudice. They urged police officers to ensure fairness and equality when dealing with all individuals to improve their social relations with the minority groups. Race, crime, justice and criminology.
Debates about feminism research racial and ethnic disparities were introduced in the criminal justice system by Christiansons, who collected state-by-state lists concerning the number of black individuals imprisoned compared to be written, that of the whites. According to his study, Christiansons found out that the number of research blacks imprisoned was by far large that the whites. Critical. These conclusions were based on the general population that was present in all prisons in the United States. After this study, Christiansons developed the research papers conclusion that the disproportionate representation of blacks and whites in the criminal justice system was racially based. Is arguments were later contrasted by Klerk who after reviewing several studies came to the conclusion that the phd thesis criminal justice was not in way based on feminism research racial differences. He added that the increased number of blacks in prisons was facilitated by their violent behavior. Christiansons encountered a lot of criticism that was developed because of his argument that criminal involvement and crimes were not fairly judged. Most the crimes that required sentencing were concerned with blacks, an idea that Christiansons rejected. Blumstein, a member of the criminal justice argued that racial differences were considered as a factor when arresting criminals.
This was contributed by a-level economics essays, the desperate nature of the African-Americans who lived in slum isolated areas and did not have any activity to engage them. Blumstein concluded that 80percent of individuals imprisoned in courts were African-Americans, who were judged with serious disparities and violent crimes. Using information from a survey conducted by the National Crime Survey (NCS), Langan tried to research papers, avoid questions that required him to give responses concerning bias in criminal justice system. The surveys contained information provided by African-Americans who had been victims of the police behavior. After comparing the reports provided by direct victims of racial and ethnic discrimination in policing and the reports of NCS, Langan concluded that the criminal justice system was biased. How Should Essay. This information amounted to feminism, the increased racial disparities that were experienced in the court system. From this information, it was realized that ethnic and racial minority discrimination in policing was an ideology of the past.
Racial and ethnic minority disparities in policing. Evidence of racial and ethnic minority discrimination in policing has been proved through analysis of arrests, police contacts, intake decisions and referrals. Research conducted from the juvenile courts showed that 80 percent of arrests made were centered on blacks. This is because the police exercised a lot of power on crimes that were not weighty compared to those that required intervention of the juvenile court system. When executing their duties, the narrative essay police were featured African-Americans because of their race and ethnicity. According to research there is no great difference between the whites. This is research, according to Michael Griffith who stated that he had stayed with white children for the better part of phd thesis finance his life. In addition, Michael Griffith tried to interpret about his experience from the radicalized political leaders in his country.
According to papers, Griffith, the verdict set in narrative reflective court could be used to determine the worthiness of the blacks in the society. Papers. He further states that after the judgment concerning two whites who were convicted for murder, a certain reporter questioned whether the convictions had any connection with the worthiness of the black people in American society. As revealed through research the verdict was not based on the value of the life of blacks, the worthiness of all human life in the country. Race relations were first brought into worldwide view on the onset of Howard Beach incident. Ico Essay. This was a four men case with whom their car broke down as the travelled in the section of Howard Beach. These involved ‘Griffith’, aged 23, ‘Sandiford’, 36 ‘Timothy Grimes’, 18 and ‘Curtis Sylvester’, 19.
One of feminism papers them was left on the car as the rest walked in the major part of the beach for help. A group of white men spotted the as they were on their way from a neighborhood party. The picture presented here was that one group was black men, and the other white men. The black men were spotted by the whites in a pizza parlor as they gave themselves something to american policy theoretical, eat. The white men referred to feminism papers, the black as ‘riggers’ as the moved on ico essay to attack them at the pizza. The whites pounced on the black men as they strolled on feminism research the streets. They taunted the model essays blacks after which they begun to feminism papers, beat them.
It was a serious assault that left one of the black unconscious. With one of the essay blacks diving through a big hole, staggering to a shore park way for safety, he met with death in which a court officer and son of policeman driving an automobile struck and killed him. Majority of the witnesses were whites who chased the papers whites and called up the police. The police reached the scene and found two blacks, one lying dead while the other walked along the parkway dazed. Instead of the police believing the injured man and treat him as a victim of the beating, the treated him as a crime suspect. When the bare fact of this case was reached, in that the attack was ethnic based, and the whites attacked them only because they were blacks, an alarm was widely raised. This resulted in a widespread immediate attention. Islamic Finance. This crime was condemned, and demands of quick action demanded by the mayor, black leaders, and the police.
The report given by the researcher as he tried to answer the reporter was against the interpretation of other researchers who had varied arguments concerning the relations of the race between the West Indians and the blacks. Feminism. In addition, there are various procedural points, which can be used in understanding the racial disparity of the minorities, particularly, in the justice system. The enforcement agencies in critical huckelberry finn the United States submit many of the cases by juveniles in feminism research papers courts of the law although various people including parents and teachers petition the youths as well. Research also indicates that although the ico essay responsibility of the police is to feminism research papers, ensure that the inequality in the juveniles in limited through the reflective juvenile system, the feminism research papers differences in juveniles based on model a-level economics essays race is enhanced by the police. Details contained in all approaches of investigation by Michael Griffith and co-ethics showed that the criminal justice system was biased. The police carried out research papers a lot of attacks on African-Americans, who lived in slum areas because they were poor. After interpretation of reports provided by how should essay be written, different people, it was found out feminism research papers that most of the crimes were racially based. How Should Essay Be Written. Past criminal records also showed that the criminal justice system was biased. Feel free to papers, contact our custom essay writing service if you need a high-quality custom written paper. All essays and research papers are written by professional academic writers. Get professional essay writing help now!
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all biographies BY DARGAN THOMPSON CULTURE / BOOKS February 23, 2016. We all love a good story. Stories transport us to other times and places, they teach important lessons, they inspire us and show us what we have in common. Research? And while fiction is wonderful and valuable, stories are all the more compelling if they#8217;re true. It#8217;s impossible to compile a definitive list of ico essay best biographies and autobiographies—you could probably spend a lifetime reading well-written tales of feminism papers inspiring people—but here are a few we think are worth your time. Bonhoeffer: Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy by critical on mark twain's finn Eric Metaxas. The story of a German pastor and anti-Nazi who got involved with a plot to kill Hitler is interesting in and of itself, but Eric Metaxas broadens the story, showing the history of Hitler’s rise to power and feminism research papers weaving in Bonhoeffer’s writing and thoughts. The result is a fascinating narrative that is both informative and, in ways, devotional. While Bonhoeffer’s Ethics and The Cost of phd thesis finance Discipleship have become classics, the thoughts behind them are even more rich in the context of the what the writer himself had to sacrifice.
More than just a look into the mind of one of the great theologians of the 20th century, Bonhoeffer is a story of one man’s dedication to following Christ’s leading amid the changing morals of pre-WWII Germany. Research? Jack: A Life of C.S. Lewis by George Sayer. With its insertions of ico essay personal conversations with the author and descriptions of his life and times from real memories, Jack: A Life may be the best #8220;gateway biography#8221; for any Lewis enthusiast. Feminism Research Papers? This is the most personal of Lewis’ biographies, with an intimate feel that cannot be emulated by Lewis’ other biographers who did not know him as a friend. On Mark Twain's Huckelberry? Ask yourself who you would choose to research, write your own biography: a friend who knew you behind closed doors, or a scholar 30 years on, full of american foreign policy theoretical Freudian ideas of the subconscious, and working only on feminism research, your books, correspondence, and others’ recollections and impressions of you. Essay Foreign Policy? Granted, other biographies of Lewis are valuable because they are distant from him, but Sayer’s friendship with Lewis does not make him shy away from the controversial issues surrounding the author’s life. He faces them head on and judges fairly. The Long Loneliness by feminism papers Dorothy Day.
The Long Loneliness , Dorothy Day#8217;s story of model a-level essays conversion and dedication to feminism papers, the Catholic Worker#8217;s Movement, is a challenge to critical on mark twain's huckelberry, all Christians to love as Christ loved. Although her early adult life was spent as an iconoclast and a socialist, including stints in jail and an abortion, she began feeling the tug of the Holy Spirit. Upon the birth of feminism papers her first child, Day joined the ico essay, Catholic Church and eventually met Peter Maurin, with whom she would found the Catholic Worker Movement. Day#8217;s approach to the faith was at once orthodox and unconventional, deeply influenced by feminism research papers the teachings of Christ about the poor and oppressed—those on the fringes of society Day felt the critical on mark huckelberry finn, Church had become complacent toward. In spite of Day#8217;s controversial character, The Long Loneliness is a must-read “spiritual autobiography” with broad appeal across religious denominations, political affiliations and social views. Along with being a fascinating story of one of our country#8217;s founding fathers, John Adams is research papers, one of the few biographies on anyone to cross into the realm of beautiful writing and nearly perfect prose. It is not only a well-researched, well-paced biography, it is fine literature and can be as compelling and moving as any fiction. McCullough#8217;s portraits of 18th century Philadelphia, London, Paris, New York and critical finn Washington and feminism papers the personalities inhabiting those cities are just that, masterful portraits painted with a careful #8220;brush.#8221; What sets McCullough apart from other biographers is his impeccable choice of detail. He knows just when to describe a meal, a suit of clothes, or a weather forecast for a particular day. McCullough is to biography what Tolkien is to high fantasy—a towering genius unmatched by most of his imitators. The Hiding Place by Corrie Ten Boom.
Although it#8217;s an autobiography, Corrie Ten Boom#8217;s The Hiding Place is really the story of american a whole family and feminism research papers their dedication to serving Christ in Holland during WWII. The Ten Booms, a humble and simple family, risked their lives to hide Jews in their home. As a critical component of the essay policy theoretical, Dutch resistance movement, the family is forced to make difficult and often morally ambiguous choices that ultimately land them in research papers, Dutch and German concentration camps. The Hiding Place is not an easy read—it plumbs the depths of despair, hopelessness and doubt. Yet there#8217;s intense victory in the darkness, owing to a hidden Bible and the unwavering desire of Corrie and her sister to share Christ#8217;s love with the other prisoners and their Nazi captors. This is a biography that resonates long after the ico essay, final page is turned.
12 Years a Slave by Solomon Northup. Even if you#8217;ve already seen Steve Mcqueen#8217;s Oscar-nominated film adaptation, this autobiography is well worth reading. The story of a free black man in feminism, the North who#8217;s kidnapped and ico essay sold into slavery, 12 Years a Slave is a rare, heartbreaking look into what life was like for slaves in the South. Northup shows the cruelty and cowardice of the slave owners he witnessed with a fair hand, and keeps a hopeful tone even while depicting the horrors of slave life. While it#8217;s not an easy read (you may want to keep a box of tissues nearby), it#8217;s an important one. Chronicles of research papers Wasted Time by Malcolm Muggeridge. Malcolm Muggeridge earns his place as the post-Chestertonian voice of Christian reason in Chronicles of critical huckelberry Wasted Time —an autobiography cited by many as the single best of the 20th century. The work follows the journalist, intellectual, spy and papers onetime atheist and communist sympathizer from his early life through his conversion to Christianity. Chronicles is the rare work full of literary depth, social critique and brilliant humor in equal measure, with references to essay, a variety of characters from Churchill to Chanel. What makes it essential reading, however, is Muggeridge#8217;s life story, which spans nearly the entirety of the feminism research, 20th century and captures the wholeness of his conversion: from Stalin sympathizer to american policy theoretical, fierce critic, from hedonist to ascetic, from lifelong agnostic to Christian in his sixties.
It#8217;s a thrilling adventure that proves, in Muggeridge#8217;s own words, that “Every happening, great and small, is a parable whereby God speaks to us—and the art of life is to get the message.” Son of feminism research papers a Preacher Man: My Search for Grace in the Shadows by Jay Bakker. Sex, lies, drugs and greed: they sound like sketchy nouns reserved for scandalous TV shows or celebrity tabloids. But how does the narrative of those words change when they’re all intertwined with the family of a…preacher? You may or may not have heard of Jim Bakker. A famous televangelist in the 80’s, Bakker would be convicted of defrauding loyal followers of his “PTL (Praise the Lord)” ministry. His family was ravaged by finance drug abuse, adultery and, tragically the unabashed condemnation of other famous Christian leaders at the time. Feminism? In this book, Jim Bakker’s son Jay does more than offer a glimpse into the Bakker family: he rips down the entire curtain to show all the flaws and tribulations of a pastor, his wife, and their children. Despite the pain and shame felt by all members of the Bakker family, Jay shares just how God’s love and grace redeemed him and his family. Dargan is a-level economics essays, a former RELEVANT editor turned freelancer. Find her online at darganthompson.com or follow her extremely random train of thought on Twitter @darganthompson. 5 Things to Stop Doing in Your 20s.
5 Things Christians Should Know About Depression and feminism research papers Anxiety. The 5 Most Misused and Abused Bible Verses. Eden, Evil and the Surprising Message of critical on mark #8216;Wonder Woman#8217; Having Mental Health Issues Doesn#8217;t Mean You#8217;re a Bad Christian. RECOMMENDED FOR YOU. 11 Contemporary Authors Every Christian Should Read. 7 Books That Will Challenge Your Faith. 5 Books That Will Challenge Your Ideas About Race in America. Episode 569: Terry Crews #038; Derek Webb. 2017 RELEVANT Media Group. Feminism Research Papers? All Rights Reserved.
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essay - christianity ESSAY ON CHRISTIANITY. THE Being who has influenced in the most memorable manner the opinions and the fortunes of the feminism human species, is Jesus Christ. At this day, his name is connected with the devotional feelings of two hundred millions of the race of man. The institutions of the most civilized portions of the reflective essay globe derive their authority from the sanction of his doctrines; he is the hero, the God, of our popular religion. Papers? His extraordinary genius, the wide and rapid effect of essay, his unexampled doctrines, his invincible gentleness and benignity, the devoted love borne to him by his adherents, suggested a persuasion to them that he was something divine. The supernatural events which the historians of this wonderful man subsequently asserted to have been connected with every gradation of his career, established the feminism research papers opinion. His death is said to have been accompanied by an accumulation of tremendous prodigies.
Utter darkness fell upon the earth, blotting the noonday sun; dead bodies, arising from their graves, walked through the public streets, and an earthquake shook the astonished city, rending the rocks of the surrounding mountains. A Persuasive? The philosopher may attribute the application of these events to the death of a reformer, or the events themselves to a visitation of that universal Pan who—— The thoughts which the word God suggests to the human mind are susceptible of as many variations as human minds themselves. The Stoic, the Platonist, and the Epicurean, the feminism research Polytheist, the Dualist, and the Trinitarian, differ infinitely in their conceptions of its meaning. They agree only in considering it the most awful and most venerable of names, as a common term devised to express all of mystery, or majesty, or power, which the invisible world contains. And not only phd thesis islamic has every sect distinct conceptions of the application of this name, but scarcely two individuals of the same sect, who exercise in any degree the freedom of their judgment, or yield themselves with any candour of feminism research, feeling to the influences of the visible world, find perfect coincidence of opinion to exist between them. It is [interesting] to inquire in what acceptation Jesus Christ employed this term.
We may conceive his mind to have been predisposed on this subject to adopt the opinions of ico essay, his countrymen. Feminism Research? Every human being is indebted for a multitude of his sentiments to the religion of his early years. Jesus Christ probably [studied] the historians of his country with the ardour of a spirit seeking after truth. They were undoubtedly the companions of his childish years, the food and nutriment and materials of his youthful meditations. The Sublime dramatic poem entitled Job had familiarized his imagination with the boldest imagery afforded by the human mind and the material world. Ecclesiastes had diffused a seriousness and solemnity over the frame of his spirit, glowing with youthful hope, and [had] made audible to his listening heart The still, sad music of humanity,
Not harsh or grating, but of ample power. To chasten and subdue. He had contemplated this name as having been profanely perverted to the sanctioning of the most enormous and abominable crimes. We can distinctly trace, in the tissue of his doctrines, the persuasion that God is some universal Being, differing from man and the mind of man. According to Jesus Christ, God is neither the Jupiter, who sends rain upon the earth; nor the Venus, through whom all living things are produced; nor the islamic finance Vulcan, who presides over the terrestrial element of fire; nor the Vesta, that preserves the light which is enshrined in feminism research papers, the sun and moon and stars. He is model essays neither the Proteus nor the papers Pan of the material world. But the word God, according to the acceptation of Jesus Christ, unites all the narrative essay attributes which these denominations contain and is the [interpoint] and over-ruling Spirit of all the energy and wisdom included within the circle of existing things. It is important to observe that the author of the papers Christian system had a conception widely differing from the gross imaginations of the vulgar relatively to the ruling Power of the universe. He everywhere represents this Power as something mysteriously and illimitably pervading the phd thesis finance frame of things.
Nor do his doctrines practically assume any proposition which they theoretically deny. They do not represent God as a limitless and inconceivable mystery; affirming, at the same time, his existence as a Being subject to passion and capable—— Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Research? Blessed are those who have preserved internal sanctity of soul; who are conscious of no secret deceit; who are the same in act as they are in desire; who conceal no thought, no tendencies of thought, from their own conscience; who are faithful and sincere witnesses, before the tribunal of their own judgments, of all that passes within their mind. Such as these shall see God. What! after death, shall their awakened eyes behold the King of how should essay be written, Heaven? Shall they stand in research papers, awe before the golden throne on which he sits, and ico essay, gaze upon the venerable countenance of the paternal Monarch? Is this the reward of the virtuous and the pure? These are the idle dreams of the visionary, or the pernicious representations of feminism research, impostors, who have fabricated from the very materials of wisdom a cloak for their own dwarfish or imbecile conceptions. Jesus Christ has said no more than the most excellent philosophers have felt and expressed—that virtue is its own reward.
It is essays on mark true that such an expression as he has used was prompted by the energy of genius, and was the overflowing enthusiasm of a poet; but it is not the less literally true [because] clearly repugnant to the mistaken conceptions of the multitude. God, it has been asserted, was contemplated by Jesus Christ as every poet and feminism research, every philosopher must have contemplated that mysterious principle. Policy Theoretical? He considered that venerable word to research papers express the overruling Spirit of the collective energy of the moral and material world. He affirms, therefore, no more than that a simple, sincere mind is the indispensable requisite of true science and true happiness. He affirms that a being of pure and gentle habits will not fail, in ico essay, every thought, in every object of every thought, to be aware of feminism research, benignant visitings from the invisible energies by which he is surrounded.
Whosoever is free from the contamination of luxury and licence, may go forth to the fields and to the woods, inhaling joyous renovation from the breath of Spring, or catching from the odours and sounds of Autumn some diviner mood of sweetest sadness, which improves the softened heart. Whosoever is no deceiver or destroyer of his fellow men—no liar, no flatterer, no murderer may walk among his species, deriving, from the communion with all which they contain of reflective essay, beautiful or of majestic, some intercourse with the Universal God. Whosoever has maintained with his own heart the strictest correspondence of confidence, who dares to papers examine and to estimate every imagination which suggests itself to his mind—whosoever is that which he designs to become, and only aspires to that which the ico essay divinity of his own nature shall consider and approve—he has already seen God. We live and move and think; but we are not the creators of our own origin and existence. We are not the arbiters of every motion of feminism research, our own complicated nature; we are not the narrative essay masters of our own imaginations and moods of feminism papers, mental being. There is phd thesis islamic finance a Power by papers which we are surrounded, like the atmosphere in which some motionless lyre is suspended, which visits with its breath our silent chords at will. Our most imperial and stupendous qualities—those on which the majesty and the power of humanity is critical on mark huckelberry erected—are, relatively to the inferior portion of its mechanism, active and imperial; but they are the passive slaves of some higher and more omnipotent Power. This Power is God; and those who have seen God have, in the period of feminism, their purer and more perfect nature, been harmonized by their own will to so exquisite [a] consentaneity of power as to give forth divinest melody, when the breath of universal being sweeps over their frame. That those who are pure in heart shall see God, and that virtue is its own reward, may be considered as equivalent assertions.
The former of these propositions is a metaphorical repetition of the latter. The advocates of american essay, literal interpretation have been the most efficacious enemies of those doctrines whose nature they profess to venerate. Thucydides, in papers, particular, affords a number of how should a persuasive essay, instances calculated—— Tacitus says, that the Jews held God to be something eternal and feminism, supreme, neither subject to change nor to decay; therefore, they permit no statues in their cities or their temples. The universal Being can only be described or defined by negatives which deny his subjection to the laws of all inferior existences. Where indefiniteness ends, idolatry and anthropomorphism begin.
God is, as Lucan has expressed, Quodcunque vides, quodcunque moveris, Et coelum et virtus. The doctrine of what some fanatics have termed a peculiar Providence—that is, of some power beyond and superior to that which ordinarily guides the operations of the Universe, interfering to punish the vicious and reward the virtuous—is explicitly denied by Jesus Christ. The absurd and a persuasive be written, execrable doctrine of vengeance, in all its shapes , seems to have been contemplated by this great moralist with the profoundest disapprobation; nor would he permit the most venerable of names to be perverted into a sanction for the meanest and most contemptible propensities incident to the nature of man. Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, that ye may be the sons of your Heavenly Father, who makes the sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and the rain to fall on the just and unjust. How monstrous a calumny have not impostors dared to advance against the mild and gentle author of this just sentiment, and against the whole tenor of his doctrines and his life, overflowing with benevolence and forbearance and compassion! They have represented him asserting that the Omnipotent God—that merciful and benignant Power who scatters equally upon feminism, the beautiful earth all the elements of how should a persuasive be written, security and happiness—whose influences are distributed to all whose natures admit of a participation in them—who sends to the weak and feminism, vicious creatures of narrative, his will all the benefits which they are capable of sharing—that this God has devised a scheme whereby the body shall live after its apparent dissolution, and be rendered capable of indefinite torture. He is research papers said to have compared the agonies which the vicious shall then endure to the excruciations of a living body bound among the flames, and being consumed sinew by sinew, and bone by narrative reflective bone. And this is to be done, not because it is supposed (and the supposition would be sufficiently detestable) that the moral nature of the sufferer would be improved by his tortures—it is research papers done because it is just to be done. My neighbour, or my servant, or my child, has done me an injury, and islamic finance, it is just that he should suffer an injury in return.
Such is the doctrine which Jesus Christ summoned his whole resources of persuasion to oppose. Love your enemy, bless those who curse you: such, he says, is the feminism research papers practice of God, and such must ye imitate if ye would be the ico essay children of God. Jesus Christ would hardly have cited, as an research example of all that is gentle and beneficent and compassionate, a Being who shall deliberately scheme to inflict on a large portion of the human race tortures indescribably intense and narrative reflective essay, indefinitely protracted; who shall inflict them, too, without any mistake as to the true nature of pain—without any view to future good—merely because it is just. This, and no other, is justice:—to consider, under all the papers circumstances and consequences of a particular case, how the greatest quantity and purest quality of happiness will ensue from any action; [this] is to be just, and islamic finance, there is no other justice. The distinction between justice and mercy was first imagined in the courts of tyrants. Mankind receive every relaxation of their tyranny as a circumstance of grace or favour. Such was the clemency of Julius Caesar, who, having achieved by research a series of treachery and bloodshed the ruin of the liberties of his country, receives the fame of mercy because, possessing the power to slay the noblest men of Rome, he restrained his sanguinary soul, arrogating to himself as a merit an abstinence from actions which if he had committed, he would only have added one other atrocity to his deeds. His assassins understood justice better. They saw the most virtuous and civilized community of a-level essays, mankind under the insolent dominion of one wicked man; and they murdered him.
They destroyed the usurper of the liberties of their countrymen, not because they hated him, not because they would revenge the wrongs which they had sustained (Brutus, it is said, was his most familiar friend; most of the conspirators were habituated to domestic intercourse with the man whom they destroyed): it was in affection, inextinguishable love for all that is feminism research venerable and dear to the human heart, in the names of Country, Liberty, and Virtue; it was in a serious and solemn and reluctant mood, that these holy patriots murdered their father and their friend. They would have spared his violent death, if he could have deposited the rights which he had assumed. His own selfish and narrow nature necessitated the sacrifices they made. They required that he should change all those habits which debauchery and ico essay, bloodshed had twined around the fibres of his inmost frame of feminism research, thought; that he should participate with them and with his country those privileges which, having corrupted by assuming to himself, he would no longer value. Ico Essay? They would have sacrificed their lives if they could have made him worthy of the sacrifice. Such are the research papers feelings which Jesus Christ asserts to belong to the ruling Power of the world. He desireth not the death of a sinner; he makes the sun to shine upon the just and unjust.
The nature of a narrow and malevolent spirit is so essentially incompatible with happiness as to render it inaccessible to the influences of the american foreign benignant God. All that his own perverse propensities will permit him to receive, that God abundantly pours forth upon him. If there is the slightest overbalance of happiness, which can be allotted to the most atrocious offender, consistently with the nature of things, that is rigidly made his portion by the ever-watchful Power of God. In every case, the human mind enjoys the utmost pleasure which it is capable of enjoying. Feminism Research Papers? God is represented by Jesus Christ as the Power from which, and through which, the streams of all that is excellent and delightful flow; the ico essay Power which models, as they pass, all the elements of this mixed universe to the purest and most perfect shape which it belongs to feminism their nature to assume. Jesus Christ attributes to this Power the faculty of Will. How far such a doctrine, in its ordinary sense, may be philosophically true, or how far Jesus Christ intentionally availed himself of a metaphor easily understood, is foreign to the subject to consider. This much is certain, that Jesus Christ represents God as the fountain of all goodness, the eternal enemy of pain and evil, the uniform and unchanging motive of the salutary operations of the material world. The supposition that this cause is excited to action by some principle analogous to the human will, adds weight to the persuasion that it is foreign to its beneficent nature to inflict the slightest pain. According to Jesus Christ, and be written, according to papers the indisputable facts of the case, some evil spirit has dominion in this imperfect world. Narrative Reflective? But there will come a time when the human mind shall be visited exclusively by feminism the influences of the benignant Power.
Men shall die, and their bodies shall rot under the ground; all the organs through which their knowledge and their feelings have flowed, or in which they have originated, shall assume other forms, and become ministrant to purposes the most foreign from their former tendencies. There is a time when we shall neither be heard or be seen by the multitude of american essay theoretical, beings like ourselves by whom we have been so long surrounded. They shall go to graves; where then? It appears that we moulder to a heap of senseless dust; to a few worms, that arise and perish, like ourselves. Papers? Jesus Christ asserts that these appearances are fallacious, and that a gloomy and american foreign policy, cold imagination alone suggests the conception that thought can cease to papers be. Another and a more extensive state of being, rather than the complete extinction of being will follow from that mysterious change which we call Death. There shall be no misery, no pain, no fear. The empire of twain's, evil spirits extends not beyond the boundaries of the grave. Feminism Papers? The unobscured irradiations from the fountain-fire of all goodness shall reveal all that is mysterious and essays huckelberry, unintelligible, until the mutual communications of research, knowledge and reflective, of happiness throughout all thinking natures, constitute a harmony of good that ever varies and never ends. This is Heaven, when pain and evil cease, and when the Benignant Principle, untrammelled and uncontrolled, visits in the fulness of its power the feminism research universal frame of things. Human life, with all its unreal ills and transitory hopes, is as a dream, which departs before the dawn, leaving no trace of its evanescent lines.
All that it contains of pure or of divine visits the passive mind in some serenest mood. Most holy are the feelings through which our fellow beings are rendered dear and [venerable] to the heart. The remembrance of their sweetness, and the completion of the hopes which they [excite], constitute, when we awaken from the sleep of life, the ico essay fulfilment of the prophecies of its most majestic and beautiful visions. We die, says Jesus Christ; and, when we awaken from the languor of disease, the glories and the happiness of Paradise are around us. All evil and pain have ceased for ever. Our happiness also corresponds with, and is adapted to, the nature of what is most excellent in our being. We see God, and we see that he is good.
How delightful a picture, even if it be not true! How magnificent is the conception which this bold theory suggests to the contemplation, even if it be no more than the imagination of some sublimest and most holy poet, who, impressed with the loveliness and feminism research papers, majesty of his own nature, is impatient and discontented with the narrow limits which this imperfect life and the dark grave have assigned for ever as his melancholy portion. It is not to be believed that Hell, or punishment, was the conception of this daring mind. It is ico essay not to feminism be believed that the most prominent group of this picture, which is framed so heart-moving and lovely—the accomplishment of all human hope, the extinction of all morbid fear and anguish—would consist of millions of essays on mark, sensitive beings enduring, in every variety of torture which Omniscient vengeance could invent, immortal agony. Jesus Christ opposed with earnest eloquence the panic fears and hateful superstitions which have enslaved mankind for ages. Nations had risen against nations, employing the subtlest devices of mechanism and mind to waste, and excruciate, and overthrow. The great community of mankind had been subdivided into ten thousand communities, each organized for the ruin of the other. Wheel within wheel, the vast machine was instinct with the restless spirit of desolation. Pain had been inflicted; therefore, pain should be inflicted in return. Feminism? Retaliation of injuries is the only remedy which can be applied to violence, because it teaches the essay foreign theoretical injurer the true nature of his own conduct, and operates as a warning against its repetition.
Nor must the feminism papers same measure of calamity be returned as was received. If a man borrows a certain sum from how should essay be written me, he is bound to repay that sum. Shall no more be required of the enemy who destroys my reputation, or ravages my fields? It is just that he should suffer ten times the loss which he has inflicted, that the feminism legitimate consequences of his deed may never be obliterated from his remembrance, and finance, that others may clearly discern and feel the danger of feminism papers, invading the peace of human society. Such reasonings, and the impetuous feelings arising from them, have armed nation against nation, family against family, man against man. An Athenian soldier, in the Ionian army which had assembled for phd thesis islamic the purpose of vindicating the liberty of the Asiatic Greeks, accidentally set fire to Sardis. The city, being composed of combustible materials, was burned to the ground. Feminism Papers? The Persians believed that this circumstance of aggression made it their duty to retaliate on Athens. They assembled successive expeditions on phd thesis the most extensive scale. Every nation of the East was united to ruin the Grecian States.
Athens was burned to the ground, the whole territory laid waste, and every living thing which it contained [destroyed]. After suffering and papers, inflicting incalculable mischiefs, they desisted from narrative reflective essay their purpose only feminism research when they became impotent to effect it. The desire of revenge for the aggression of Persia outlived, among the Greeks, that love of liberty which bad been their most glorious distinction among the nations of mankind; and Alexander became the phd thesis islamic finance instrument of research papers, its completion. The mischiefs attendant on this consummation of be written, fruitless ruin are too manifold and feminism, too tremendous to be related. If all the thought which had been expended on the construction of engines of agony and death—the modes of aggression and defence, the raising of armies, and narrative reflective, the acquirement of those arts of tyranny and falsehood without which mixed multitudes could neither be led nor governed—had been employed to research papers promote the true welfare and narrative reflective, extend the real empire of feminism research papers, man, how different would have been the present situation of human society! how different the state of knowledge in ico essay, physical and moral science, upon which the power and happiness of mankind essentially depend! What nation has the feminism papers example of the desolation of Attica by Mardonius and Xerxes, or the extinction of the Persian empire by Alexander of Macedon, restrained from outrage? Was not the ico essay pretext of this latter system of spoliation derived immediately from the former? Had revenge in this instance any other effect than to increase, instead of diminishing, the mass of malice and evil already existing in the world? The emptiness and folly of retaliation are apparent from every example which can be brought forward. Not only Jesus Christ, but the most eminent professors of every sect of philosophy, have reasoned against feminism, this futile superstition. Legislation is, in one point of view, to a persuasive be written be considered as an attempt to provide against the excesses of this deplorable mistake.
It professes to assign the penalty of all private injuries, and feminism research papers, denies to individuals the right of vindicating their proper cause. This end is certainly not attained without some accommodation to the propensities which it desires to destroy. Still, it recognizes no principle but the production of the greatest eventual good with the least immediate injury—and regards the torture, or the death, of any human being as unjust, of whatever mischief be may have been the author, so that the result shall not more than compensate for the immediate pain. Mankind, transmitting from generation to ico essay generation the legacy of accumulated vengeances, and pursuing with the feelings of duty the misery of their fellow-beings, have not failed to attribute to the Universal Cause a character analogous with their own. The image of this invisible, mysterious Being is more or less excellent and perfect—resembles more or less its original—in proportion to the perfection of the mind on which it is impressed. Thus, that nation which has arrived at the highest step in the scale of feminism research papers, moral progression will believe most purely in that God, the knowledge of reflective, whose real attributes is considered as the firmest basis of the true religion. The reason of the belief of each individual, also, will be so far regulated by feminism research his conceptions of what is good. Thus, the conceptions which any nation or individual entertains of the God of its popular worship may be inferred from their own actions and opinions, which are the essay be written subjects of their approbation among their fellow-men. Jesus Christ instructed his disciples to be perfect, as their Father in Heaven is perfect, declaring at the same time his belief that human perfection requires the refraining from revenge and retribution in any of its various shapes. The perfection of the human and the divine character is thus asserted to be the same. Man, by resembling God, fulfils most accurately the tendencies of his nature; and feminism, God comprehends within himself all that constitutes human perfection.
Thus, God is a model through which the how should essay excellence of man is to feminism be estimated, whilst the abstract perfection of the human character is the type of the actual perfection of the divine. It is not to be believed that a person of such comprehensive views as Jesus Christ could have fallen into critical on mark so manifest a contradiction as to research assert that men would be tortured after death by that Being whose character is held up as a model to human kind, because he is incapable of malevolence and revenge. All the arguments which have been brought forward to justify retribution fail, when retribution is destined neither to operate as an example to other agents, nor to the offender himself. Essay Foreign? How feeble such reasoning is to be considered, has been already shewn; but it is the character of an evil Demon to consign the beings whom he has endowed with sensation to unprofitable anguish. The peculiar circumstances attendant on feminism papers the conception of God casting sinners to burn in critical essays on mark finn, Hell for ever, combine to render that conception the most perfect specimen of the research papers greatest imaginable crime. Jesus Christ represented God as the principle of all good, the source of all happiness, the wise and benevolent Creator and Preserver of all living things. But the interpreters of his doctrines have confounded the good and the evil principle. They observed the emanations of their universal natures to twain's huckelberry be inextricably entangled in the world, and, trembling before the power of the cause of all things, addressed to it such flattery as is acceptable to the ministers of human tyranny, attributing love and wisdom to those energies which they felt to be exerted indifferently for the purposes of papers, benefit and calamity. Jesus Christ expressly asserts that distinction between the twain's good and evil principle which it has been the practice of all theologians to confound. How far his doctrines, or their interpretation, may be true, it would scarcely have been worth while to inquire, if the one did not afford an example and an incentive to the attainment of true virtue, whilst the other holds out a sanction and feminism papers, apology for twain's huckelberry finn every species of feminism research, mean and cruel vice. It cannot be precisely ascertained in american foreign policy, what degree Jesus Christ accommodated his doctrines to the opinions of his auditors; or in what degree he really said all that he is related to have said.
He has left no written record of himself, and we are compelled to judge from the imperfect and obscure information which his biographers (persons certainly of very undisciplined and undiscriminating minds) have transmitted to posterity. Research? These writers (our only guides) impute sentiments to narrative Jesus Christ which flatly contradict each other. They represent him as narrow, superstitious, and exquisitely vindictive and malicious. They insert, in the midst of a strain of impassioned eloquence or sagest exhortation, a sentiment only feminism remarkable for its naked and drivelling folly. But it is not difficult to distinguish the inventions by which these historians have filled up the interstices of tradition, or corrupted the simplicity of truth, from the real character of their rude amazement. They have left sufficiently clear indications of the genuine character of Jesus Christ to rescue it for reflective ever from the imputations cast upon it by their ignorance and fanaticism. We discover that he is the enemy of oppression and of falsehood; that he is the advocate of equal justice; that he is neither disposed to sanction bloodshed nor deceit, under whatsoever pretences their practice may be vindicated. We discover that he was a man of papers, meek and majestic demeanour, calm in danger; of natural and simple thought and habits; beloved to adoration by his adherents; unmoved, solemn, and severe. It is utterly incredible that this man said, that if you hate your enemy you would find it to your account to return him good for evil, since, by such a temporary oblivion of vengeance, you would heap coals of fire on his head. Where such contradictions occur, a favourable construction is warranted by the general innocence of manners and comprehensiveness of views which he is represented to possess.
The rule of criticism to be adopted in judging of the life, actions, and words of a man who has acted any conspicuous part in the revolutions of the world, should not be narrow. We ought to form a general image of essay, his character and feminism research, of his doctrines, and refer to this whole the distinct portions of islamic finance, action and speech by which they are diversified. It is not here asserted that no contradictions are to be admitted to have taken place in the system of Jesus Christ, between doctrines promulgated in different states of feeling or information, or even such as are implied in the enunciation of a scheme of thought, various and obscure through its immensity and research, depth. It is not asserted that no degree of human indignation ever hurried him beyond the limits which his calmer mood had placed to disapprobation against vice and folly. Those deviations from the history of his life are alone to be vindicated which represent his own essential character in contradiction with itself.
Every human mind has what Bacon calls its idola specus—peculiar images which reside in the inner cave of thought. These constitute the essential and distinctive character of every human being; to which every action and foreign, every word have intimate relation; and by which, in depicting a character, the genuineness and feminism research papers, meaning of these words and actions are to be determined. Every fanatic or enemy of virtue is not at foreign, liberty to misrepresent the greatest geniuses and most heroic defenders of all that is valuable in this mortal world. History, to gain any credit, must contain some truth, and that truth shall thus be made a sufficient indication of prejudice and deceit. With respect to the miracles which these biographers have related, I have already declined to enter into any discussion on their nature or their existence. Feminism? The supposition of their falsehood or their truth would modify in no degree the hues of the picture which is attempted to be delineated. To judge truly of the moral and philosophical character of Socrates, it is not necessary to determine the question of the familiar Spirit which [it] is supposed that he believed to attend on him. The power of the human mind, relatively to intercourse with or dominion over the invisible world, is doubtless an phd thesis interesting theme of discussion; but the connexion of the instance of Jesus Christ with the feminism papers established religion of the country in which I write, renders it dangerous to theoretical subject oneself to the imputation of introducing new Gods or abolishing old ones; nor is the duty of mutual forbearance sufficiently understood to render it certain that the metaphysician and the moralist, even though he carefully sacrifice a cock to ?sculapius, may not receive something analogous to the bowl of feminism research, hemlock for the reward of his labours. Much, however, of what his biographers have asserted is not to be rejected merely because inferences inconsistent with the general spirit of narrative, his system are to be adduced from its admission. Jesus Christ did what every other reformer who has produced any considerable effect upon the world has done.
He accommodated his doctrines to research papers the prepossessions of those whom he addressed. Foreign Policy Theoretical? He used a language for this view sufficiently familiar to our comprehensions. Feminism Research Papers? He said,—However new or strange my doctrines may appear to you, they are in fact only the restoration and re-establishment of those original institutions and ancient customs of your own law and religion. The constitutions of your faith and policy, although perfect in their origin, have become corrupt and altered, and have fallen into decay. I profess to restore them to their pristine authority and a-level economics, splendour. Think not that I am come to destroy the Law and the Prophets. I am come not to destroy, but to fulfil. Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in nowise pass away from the Law, till all be fulfilled. Thus, like a skilful orator (see Cicero, De Oratore ), he secures the prejudices of his auditors, and induces them, by his professions of research, sympathy with their feelings, to enter with a willing mind into the exposition of his own.
The art of persuasion differs from that of reasoning; and it is how should essay of no small moment, to the success even of a true cause, that the judges who are to determine on its merits should be free from feminism research those national and religious predilections which render the multitude both deaf and blind. Let not this practice be considered as an unworthy artifice. It were best for the cause of reason that mankind should acknowledge no authority but its own; but it is useful, to a certain extent, that they should not consider those institutions which they have been habituated to reverence as opposing an obstacle to its admission. All reformers have been compelled to practise this misrepresentation of their own true feelings and opinions. It is deeply to be lamented that a word should ever issue from ico essay human lips which contains the minutest alloy of dissimulation, or simulation, or hypocrisy, or exaggeration, or anything but the precise and rigid image which is present to the mind, and which ought to dictate the expression. But the practice of utter sincerity towards other men would avail to no good end, if they were incapable of research papers, practising it towards their own minds. In fact, truth cannot be communicated until it is perceived. The interests, therefore, of truth require that an orator should, as far as possible, produce in foreign policy, his hearers that state of mind on which alone his exhortations could fairly be contemplated and examined. Having produced this favourable disposition of mind, Jesus Christ proceeds to qualify, and finally to abrogate, the system of the Jewish law. He descants upon feminism, its insufficiency as a code of critical on mark huckelberry, moral conduct, which it professed to be, and absolutely selects the law of retaliation as an instance of the absurdity and immorality of its institutions.
The conclusion of the speech is in feminism, a strain of the essay most daring and most impassioned speculation. He seems emboldened by the success of his exculpation to the multitude, to declare in public the utmost singularity of research papers, his faith. He tramples upon all received opinions, on phd thesis islamic finance all the cherished luxuries and superstitions of mankind. He bids them cast aside the chains of custom and blind faith by which they have been encompassed from the very cradle of their being, and receive the research papers imitator and minister of the Universal God. EQUALITY OF MANKIND. The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath chosen me to preach the gospel to the poor: he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, and to set at liberty them that are bruised. (Luke, Ch. IV. v. 18.) This is an model a-level enunciation of all that Plato and Diogenes have speculated upon the equality of papers, mankind. They saw that the great majority of the human species were reduced to the situation of squalid ignorance and moral imbecility, for the purpose of purveying for the luxury of a few, and contributing to the satisfaction of their thirst for power. Too mean-spirited and too feeble in resolve to narrative reflective attempt the conquest of their own evil passions, and of the difficulties of the material world, men sought dominion over their fellow-men, as an easy method to gain that apparent majesty and power which the instinct of their nature requires.
Plato wrote the scheme of feminism, a republic, in which law should watch over the equal distribution of the external instruments of unequal power—honours, property, c. Diogenes devised a nobler and a more worthy system of opposition to the system of the slave and tyrant. He said: It is in the power of each individual to level the inequality which is the phd thesis islamic finance topic of the feminism research papers complaint of mankind. Let him be aware of his own worth, and the station which he occupies in the scale of moral beings. Diamonds and essay, gold, palaces and sceptres, derive their value from the opinion of mankind. The only sumptuary law which can be imposed on feminism the use and fabrication of these instruments of mischief and twain's huckelberry, deceit, these symbols of successful injustice, is the law of opinion. Every man possesses the feminism research papers power, in this respect, to legislate for essays on mark huckelberry finn himself. Let him be well aware of his own worth and moral dignity. Let him yield in meek reverence to any wiser or worthier than he, so long as he accords no veneration to the splendour of papers, his apparel, the luxury of his food, the multitude of his flatterers and islamic, slaves.
It is because, mankind, ye value and seek the empty pageantry of feminism, wealth and social power, that ye are enslaved to its possessions. Decrease your physical wants; learn to live, so far as nourishment arid shelter are concerned, like the beast of the forest and the birds of the air; ye will need not to ico essay complain, that other individuals of your species are surrounded by feminism the diseases of luxury and the vices of subserviency and oppression. With all those who are truly wise, there will be an entire community, not only of thoughts and feelings, but also of external possessions. Insomuch, therefore, as ye live [wisely], ye may enjoy the how should community of whatsoever benefits arise from the inventions of civilized life.—They are of value only for purposes of mental power; they are of value only research papers as they are capable of being shared and applied to the common advantage of phd thesis islamic finance, philosophy; and, if there be, no love among men, whatever institutions they may frame must be subservient to the same purpose—to the continuance of inequality. If there be no love among men, it is best that he who sees through the hollowness of their professions should fly from their society, and suffice to his own soul.
In wisdom, be will thus lose nothing in research papers, power, he will gain everything. Critical Essays Twain's Finn? In proportion to the love existing among men, so will be the community of property and power. Feminism Research Papers? Among true and real friends, all is common; and, were ignorance and envy and superstition banished from the world, all mankind would be friends. The only perfect and genuine republic is that which comprehends every living being. Those distinctions which have been artificially set up, of ico essay, nations, societies, families, and religions, are only general names, expressing the abhorrence and contempt with which men blindly consider their fellowmen.
I love my country; I love the city in feminism research papers, which I was born, my parents, my wife, and the children of my care; and to this city, this woman, and this nation, it is incumbent on me to do all the benefit in my power. Essays Twain's Huckelberry Finn? To what do these distinctions point, but to an evident denial of the duty which humanity imposes on you, of doing every possible good to every individual, under whatever denomination he may be comprehended, to whom you have the power of doing it? You ought to love all mankind; nay, every individual of mankind. Research? You ought not to love the individuals of your domestic circles less, but to love those who exist beyond it more. Once make the feelings of confidence and of affection universal, and the distinctions of property and power will vanish; nor are they to be abolished without substituting something equivalent in mischief to them, until all mankind shall acknowledge an entire community of essays, rights. But, as the shades of night are dispelled by the faintest glimmerings of dawn, so shall the minutest progress of the feminism papers benevolent feelings disperse, in some degree, the a persuasive essay be written gloom of tyranny, and [curb the] ministers of mutual suspicion and abhorrence.
Your physical wants are few, whilst those of your mind and heart cannot be numbered or described, from their multitude and complication. To secure the gratification of the former, you have made yourselves the bond-slaves of each other. They have cultivated these meaner wants to so great an excess as to papers judge nothing so valuable or desirable [as] what relates to their gratification. Hence has arisen a system of passions which loses sight of the end they were originally awakened to ico essay attain. Fame, power, and gold, are loved for their own sakes—are worshipped with a blind, habitual idolatry. The pageantry of empire, and the fame of irresistible might, are contemplated by the possessor with unmeaning complacency, without a retrospect to the properties which first made him consider them of value. Feminism? It is from the essay cultivation of the most contemptible properties of human nature that discord and torpor and indifference, by feminism research papers which the moral universe is disordered, essentially depend. Narrative Reflective? So long as these are the ties by which human society is connected, let it not be admitted that they are fragile.
Before man can be free, and equal, and feminism research papers, truly wise, he must cast aside the chains of habit and superstition; he must strip sensuality of its pomp, and selfishness of its excuses, and contemplate actions and objects as they really are. He will discover the wisdom of universal love; he will feel the meanness and the injustice of phd thesis islamic, sacrificing the reason and the liberty of his fellow-men to the indulgence of his physical appetites, and feminism, becoming a party to their degradation by the consummation of his own. Such, with those differences only incidental to the age and narrative reflective, state of feminism research, society in which they were promulgated, appear to have been the doctrines of Jesus Christ. It is not too much to assert that they have been the doctrines of every just and compassionate mind that ever speculated on the social nature of man. The dogma of the equality of essays on mark huckelberry, mankind has been advocated with various success, in feminism research papers, different ages of the world. It was imperfectly understood, but a kind of instinct in its favour influenced considerably the ico essay practice of ancient Greece and feminism research papers, Rome. Attempts to establish usages founded on this dogma have been made in modern Europe, in several instances, since the revival of literature and the arts. Rousseau has vindicated this opinion with all the eloquence of sincere and earnest faith; and is, perhaps, the phd thesis islamic philosopher among the moderns who, in the structure of his feelings and understanding resembles most nearly the mysterious sage of feminism research, Judea. Model A-level Economics Essays? It is impossible to read those passionate words in which Jesus Christ upbraids the feminism research pusillanimity and sensuality of mankind, without being strongly reminded of the more connected and systematic enthusiasm of Rousseau. No man, says Jesus Christ, can serve two masters.
Take, therefore, no thought for to-morrow, for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. If we would profit by the wisdom of ico essay, a sublime and poetical mind, we must beware of the vulgar error of interpreting literally every expression it employs. Papers? Nothing can well be more remote from truth than the american policy literal and strict construction of such expressions as Jesus Christ delivers, or than [to imagine that] it were best for feminism man that he should abandon all his acquirements in phd thesis islamic, physical and intellectual science, and depend on the spontaneous productions of feminism research, nature for his subsistence. Nothing is more obviously false than that the remedy for the inequality among men consists in islamic, their return to the condition of savages and beasts. Philosophy will never be understood if we approach the study of its mysteries with so narrow and feminism, illiberal conceptions of its universality. Rousseau certainly did not mean to persuade the immense population of american policy, his country to abandon all the research arts of life, destroy their habitations and their temples, and become the inhabitants of the woods. He addressed the most enlightened of his compatriots, and endeavoured to critical essays on mark twain's huckelberry finn persuade them to set the example of a pure and feminism, simple life, by essay placing in the strongest point of view his conceptions of the calamitous and diseased aspect which, overgrown as it is with the feminism research papers vices of phd thesis islamic finance, sensuality and selfishness, is exhibited by civilized society. Nor can it be believed that Jesus Christ endeavoured to prevail on the inhabitants of Jerusalem neither to till their fields, nor to frame a shelter against the sky, nor to provide food for feminism research papers the morrow. He simply exposes, with the passionate rhetoric of enthusiastic love towards all human beings, the miseries and mischiefs of that system which makes all things subservient to the subsistence of the material frame of man. He warns them that no man can serve two masters—God and Mammon; that it is impossible at once to be highminded and just and wise, and to comply with the islamic accustomed forms of research papers, human society, seek power, wealth, or empire, either from the a persuasive be written idolatry of habit, or as the direct instruments of sensual gratification.
He instructs them that clothing and feminism papers, food and critical huckelberry, shelter are not, as they suppose, the true end of human life, but only certain means, to be valued in proportion to their subserviency to that end. These means it is the right of every human being to research possess, and that in the same degree. In this respect, the fowls of the air and model, the lilies of the field are examples for the imitation of mankind. They are clothed and papers, fed by the Universal God. Permit, therefore, the Spirit of essay, this benignant Principle to visit your intellectual frame, or, in other words, become just and pure. When you understand the degree of attention which the requisitions of your physical nature demand, you will perceive how little labour suffices for their satisfaction.
Your Heavenly Father knoweth you have need of these things. The universal Harmony, or Reason, which makes your passive frame of thought its dwelling, in proportion to the purity and majesty of its nature will instruct you, if ye are willing to research attain that exalted condition, in what manner to possess all the objects necessary for your material subsistence. All men are [impelled] to become thus pure and essays on mark twain's huckelberry finn, happy. All men are called to participate in the community of Nature's gifts. The man who has fewest bodily wants approaches nearest to the Divine Nature. Satisfy these wants at the cheapest rate, and feminism papers, expend the remaining energies of your nature in the attainment of virtue and knowledge. The mighty frame of the wonderful and lovely world is the food of your contemplation, and living beings who resemble your own nature, and a-level economics, are bound to papers you by similarity of sensations, are destined to be the nutriment of your affection; united, they are the consummation of the widest hopes your mind can contain. Ye can expend thus no labour on mechanism consecrated to luxury and pride. How abundant will not be your progress in all that truly ennobles and extends human nature!
By rendering yourselves thus worthy, ye will be as free in your imaginations as the swift and how should a persuasive be written, many-coloured fowls of the air, and as beautiful in pure simplicity as the lilies of the field. Research? In proportion as mankind becomes wise—yes, in exact proportion to that wisdom—should be the extinction of the unequal system under which they now subsist. Government is, in fact, the mere badge of their depravity. American Essay Policy? They are so little aware of the inestimable benefits of mutual love as to indulge, without thought, and almost without motive, in the worst excesses of selfishness and malice. Hence, without graduating human society into a scale of empire and subjection, its very existence has become impossible. It is necessary that universal benevolence should supersede the regulations of precedent and prescription, before these regulations can safely be abolished. Meanwhile, their very subsistence depends on the system of injustice and violence, which they have been devised to palliate. They suppose men endowed with the power of deliberating and determining for their equals; whilst these men, as frail and as ignorant as the multitude whom they rule, possess, as a practical consequence of this power, the right which they of necessity exercise to research prevent (together with their own) the physical and moral and intellectual nature, of all mankind. It is the how should object of wisdom to research papers equalize the distinctions on which this power depends, by exhibiting in their proper worthlessness the objects, a contention concerning which renders its existence a necessary evil. American Foreign? The evil, in research papers, fact, is virtually abolished wherever justice is practised; and phd thesis finance, it is abolished in precise proportion to the prevalence of true virtue.
The whole frame of human things is infected by an insidious poison. Hence it is that man is blind in his understanding, corrupt in feminism research, his moral sense, and diseased in his physical functions. The wisest and most sublime of the ancient poets saw this truth, and embodied their conception of its value in retrospect to the earliest ages of mankind. Essay Theoretical? They represented equality as the reign of Saturn, and taught that mankind had gradually degenerated from the virtue which enabled them to enjoy or maintain this happy state. Their doctrine was philosophically false. Later and research, more correct observations have instructed us that uncivilized man is the most pernicious and miserable of beings, and that the violence and phd thesis finance, injustice, which are the genuine indications of real inequality, obtain in the society of these beings without palliation. Their imaginations of a happier state of human society were referred, in truth, to feminism the Saturnian period; they ministered, indeed, to thoughts of despondency and sorrow. But they were the children of airy hope—the prophets and parents of man's futurity. Alan was once as a wild beast; he has become a moralist, a metaphysician, a poet, and an astronomer. Lueretius or Viril might have referred the comparison to themselves and, as a proof of the progress of the nature of man, challenged a comparison with the cannibals of Scythia. Essay Foreign Policy Theoretical? The experience of the ages which have intervened between the present period and that in which Jesus Christ taught, tends to prove his doctrine, and to illustrate theirs.
There is feminism research papers more equality because there is more justice, and there is more justice because there is more universal knowledge. To the accomplishment of such mighty hopes were the model economics essays views of research papers, Jesus Christ extended; such did he believe to be the essay tendency of his doctrines—the abolition of artificial distinctions among mankind, so far as the love which it becomes all human beings to bear towards each other, and the knowledge of truth from which that love will never fail to be produced, avail to papers their destruction. A young man came to Jesus Christ, struck by the miraculous dignity and american foreign policy, simplicity of his character, and attracted by the words of power which he uttered. He demanded to research papers be considered as one of the followers of his creed. Sell all that thou hast, replied the philosopher; give it to narrative the poor, and follow me. But the young man had large possessions, and he went away sorrowing.
The system of equality was attempted, after Jesus Christ's death, to be carried into effect by his followers. They that believed had all things in common; they sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need; and they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and research papers, breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart. ( Acts , Ch. II.) The practical application of the economics doctrines of strict justice to a state of society established in its contempt, was such as might have been expected. After the transitory glow of papers, enthusiasm had faded from the minds of men, precedent and habit resumed their empire; they broke like an universal deluge on a persuasive one shrinking and solitary island. Men to whom birth had allotted ample possession looked with complacency on sumptuous apartments and luxurious food, and those ceremonials of delusive majesty which surround the throne of power and the court of wealth.
Men, from whom these things were withheld by their condition, began again to gaze with stupid envy on pernicious splendour; and, by desiring the false greatness of another's state, to sacrifice the intrinsic dignity of their own. The demagogues of the infant republic of the Christian sect, attaining through eloquence or artifice, to influence amongst its members, first violated (under the pretence of watching over research papers their integrity) the institutions established for the common and equal benefit of all. These demagogues artfully silenced the voice of the moral sense among them by model a-level engaging them to feminism attend, not so much to the cultivation of a virtuous and model economics, happy life in this mortal scene, as to the attainment of a fortunate condition after death; not so much to the consideration of those means by which the state of man is adorned and improved, as an inquiry into the secrets of the connexion between God and the world—things which, they well knew, were not to be explained, or even to be conceived. The system of equality which they established necessarily fell to the ground, because it is a system that must result from, rather than precede, the moral improvement of human kind. It was a circumstance of no moment that the first adherents of the system of Jesus Christ cast their property into a common stock. The same degree of real community of property could have subsisted without this formality, which served only to research extend a temptation of dishonesty to the treasurers of so considerable a patrimony. Every man, in proportion to his virtue, considers himself, with respect to the great community of ico essay, mankind, as the steward and guardian of their interests in the property which he chances to possess.
Every man, in proportion to his wisdom, sees the manner in which it is his duty to research employ the resources which the phd thesis islamic finance consent of mankind has intrusted to his discretion. Such is the research papers [annihilation] of the unjust inequality of on mark twain's huckelberry finn, powers and conditions. existing in feminism papers, the world; and so gradually and inevitably is the progress of equality accommodated to the progress of wisdom and of virtue among mankind. Meanwhile, some benefit has not failed to flow from the imperfect attempts which have been made to erect a system of equal rights to property and power upon the basis of arbitrary institutions. They have undoubtedly, in every case, from the instability of their foundation, failed. Still, they constitute a record of those epochs at which a trite sense of justice suggested itself to the understandings of men, so that they consented to forego all the cherished delights of luxury, all the habitual gratifications arising out of the possession or the expectation of power, all the superstitions with which the accumulated authority of ages had made them dear and venerable. They are so many trophies erected in economics, the enemy's land, to mark the limits of the victorious progress of truth and justice. No mistake is more to be deplored than the conception that a system of morals and religion should derive any portion of its authority either from the circumstance of its novelty or its antiquity, that it should be judged excellent, not because it is reasonable or true, but because no person has ever thought of it before, or because it has been thought of from the beginning of time. The vulgar mind delights to [abstract?] from the most useful maxims or institutions the trite reasons of their preferableness, and to accommodate to research papers the loose inductions of islamic finance, their own indisciplinable minds. Thus mankind is governed by precedents for actions which were never, or are no longer, useful and deluded by the pretensions of research, any bold impostor.
Such has been, most unfortunately, the process of the human mind relatively to a persuasive essay the doctrines of Jesus Christ. Their original promulgation was authorized by an appeal to the antiquity of the institutions of Judaea; and in vindication of superstitious professing to be founded on them, it is asserted that nothing analogous to their tenor was ever before produced. The doctrines of Jesus Christ have scarcely the smallest resemblance to the Jewish law: nor have wisdom and benevolence and pity failed in whatsoever age of the world to generate such persuasions as those which are the basis of the moral system he announced. The most eminent philosophers of Greece had long been familiarized to the boldest and most sublime speculations on God, on the visible world, and on the moral and intellectual Nature of Man. The universality and unity of God, the omnipotence of the mind of man, the equality of papers, human beings and the duty of internal purity, is either asserted by Pythagoras, Plato, Diogenes, Zeno, and their followers, or may be directly inferred from their assertions. Ico Essay? Nothing would be gained by the establishment of the originality of Jesus Christ's doctrines but the feminism casting a suspicion upon its practicability. Let us beware therefore what we admit lest, as some have made a trade of its imagined mysteries, we lose the essays on mark huckelberry finn inestimable advantages of its simplicity. Let us beware, if we love liberty and truth, if we loathe tyranny and imposture, if, imperfect ourselves, we still aspire to the freedom of internal purity, and cherish the elevated hope that mankind may not be everlastingly condemned to the bondage of their own passions and feminism research, the passions of their fellow beings, let us beware. An established religion turns to narrative essay deathlike apathy the sublimest ebullitions of most exalted genius, and the spirit-stirring truths of a mind inflamed with the desire of papers, benefiting mankind.
It is the characteristic of a cold and tame spirit to imagine that such doctrines as Jesus Christ promulgated are destined to follow the fortunes and share the extinction of a popular religion. Forman's Editorial Preface: The Essay on Christianity was first given by Lady Shelley, in the Shelley Memorials (1859), where it is accompanied by the following note:—The reader will observe some unfinished sentences in the course of this Essay; but it has been thought advisable to print it exactly as it was found, with the exception of how should a persuasive essay be written, a few conjectural words inserted between brackets. In this and other respects the feminism text of the how should a persuasive be written Memorials is feminism research here followed; but I have added from the St. James's Magazine for March, 1876, what appears to be a part of a recapitulation and conclusion. It is reasonable to think that this would have been further developed; but the final sentences are peculiarly weighty, and likely to be the conclusion of the whole matter. Mr. Rossetti assigns this Essay, not very confidently, to the year 1815: if that be not the date, I should incline to place it a little later rather than earlier.—H.B.F. calculated——: It seems likely that it was a part of the scheme of this Essay to examine and phd thesis, illustrate the Beatitudes seriatim . The passage now printed as the conclusion of the Essay occupies a page and a half of a sheet of foolscap paper: on the other leaf of the sheet, and not continuously with the rest are written and cancelled the following passages:— I, the research papers Redeemer of mankind; I who dare to.
Lament no more ye meek and gentle beings: bear on against the oppressions of the hard and unfeeling world—with resolute and tranquil mind; for in the calmness of your own spirit shall be your reward, and the. him: See Note on this subject, Vol. III, p. Finance? 312. Scythia: Jesus Christ foresaw what the poets retrospectively imagined. [Shelley's Note.] Jesus Christ did not. It is at this point that the feminism papers Essay ends in finance, the Shelley Memorials . The rest is from the St. James's Magazine . superstitions professing. Cancelled reading, a system professing to be founded on these doctrines . produced: Cancelled reading, Let us proceed to vindicate . law: There is another erasure here, The Philosophers of Greece, and their imitators, the Romans, bear.
The: Cancelled reading, The doctrines were speculations of the most eminent, c. Plato: In the MS., The Platonists and feminism research, Stoics is here struck out. practicability: Cancelled passage, It promises , and again, would persuade man not to be tyrant of man . liberty and truth: In the MS., our fellow men is here struck out in favour of liberty and truth . It is the characteristic. Cancelled reading, It is a cold and palsying tame thought . follow the fortunes: In the MS. the islamic finance words share the fate originally stood here.