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Belonging: Past Hsc Student#8217;s Draft. The need to belong is a human phenomenon that is the underlying cause of our actions. As humans, we search for like-minded people with whom we can find a sense of ourselves as people. This is a product of the fact that belonging is integral to the formation of one’s identity. However, a sense of belonging is often achieved by following a path of alienation. Similarly, alienation leads to disillusionment with that (verbose line) which one once believed in. Apocalypse Now directed by Francis Coppola, John Steinbeck’s Tortilla Flat and Peter Skrzynecki’s poetry all deal with these three dimensions of belonging. Belonging and acceptance is integral to the formation of one’s identity.

Peter Skrzynecki’s poem 10 Mary Street illustrates the security and essay comfort that is a product of a sense of belonging. In this case, it is a sense of belonging to a family routine that occurs daily at number 10 Mary Street. The mundanity of the routine provides stability and familiarity. Skrzynecki uses time frames such as “5pm” and “For nineteen years” to plan establish a sense of book on writing repetition and order in the reader’s mind. Off A Book Report? Collective pronouns such as “we” connote collaboration and inclusion in book on writing, the family sphere. This family inclusivity allows the poet to establish his identity at an early age in a place in which he belongs, as shown when he describes him wandering in the garden after school. The simile “like a hungry bird” shows (avoid using ‘show’ repetitively) him to be curious and boisterous.

It connotes a healthy organic childhood. In the second stanza of the poem, Skrzynecki uses images of growth and nurturing to suggest a loving family environment and a sense of belonging to the land. Colonel Kurtz was the pride of the American Military Command. Having broken from the decrepit and corrupt school of thought that was the US army, Kurtz establishes his god-like rule over a clan of like-minded natives in questions, the jungles of Cambodia. His character extrapolates all issues surrounding America as a nation, from on writing, war crimes to environmental stability. In one of the most compelling scenes of the film, Kurtz expresses his thoughts to Willard, one of the first Americans he has encountered since his dissent. He speaks of his son at case home and his fear that if he were to be killed, his son would not understand his father’s actions. At this point, the extended close up shot of Kurtz’s face, half shrouded in darkness, changes slightly as he moves further into the light. This conveys that Kurtz still holds onto the hope that his son will one day come to understand his identity and book on writing essay why he acted in career for medical, the way that he did.

Kurtz is book on writing essay, not ashamed of his actions because ultimately, he has fully formed his identity. First he was transformed on the battlefields of Vietnam by the death and ignorance he encountered/witnessed and then again in the jungles of Cambodia amongst the natives and free thought. Case Study Strategy? Therefore, both 10 Mary Street and on writing essay Apocalypse Now effectively explore the concept that acceptance and belonging are integral to the formation of one’s identity. A sense of belonging is achieved by creating questions following a path of alienation. In Migrant Hostel, Skrzynecki’s family struggle to establish themselves in a new land. Skrzynecki delineates the sense of alienation that the on writing essay migrants have towards the pastries business plan rest of Australia. The “sealed off highway” demonstrates the separation they feel from the rest of the country. The simile of “rose and fell like a finger” demonstrates that they do not feel welcomed or accepted in their new land, but are constantly reprimanded, like a naughty child.

The line “needing its sanction” demonstrates how the migrants are enslaved to essay the entrapment they feel in the hostel. They need permission to continue living in a manner that doesn’t reflect their culture or beliefs. This alienation from their culture and freedom renders each migrant unimportant and attempts to destroy their sense of apple personal identity and book on writing belonging. However, it is because of this alienation that they achieve a sense of belonging and identity. American Association Essay? Nationalities ‘found each other’ based on their accents and the town they came from. Inside the on writing hostel, they keep the memory of their home and culture alive though they are haunted by the “memories of hunger and how to start off a book report hate” that destroyed their countries. Skrzynecki uses the simile “like a homing pigeon” to book essay connote the strong sense of survival and solidarity shared by the migrants.

The homing pigeon is arbitration essay, a survivor that travels great distances. Book Essay? Skrzynecki uses a reoccurring motif of birds throughout this poem as they have connotations of freedom and migration. This dimension of apple business belonging is book on writing essay, further explored in John Steinbeck’s novel Tortilla Flat. Danny, Pilon, Jesus Maria, Pablo, Pirate and essay questions Big Joe Portagee are half Spanish- Mexican, misfits who form a brotherhood of drunken antics that centre around the home they all share in Tortilla Flat in book essay, California. Dissertation Du Droit Louis Xvi? The book is written in an entirely episodic fashion to fit with the book allegory that Steinbeck creates, comparing the six men to King Arthur’s Knights of the business Round Table. However, instead of knights in shining armour, they are the unruly and book essay boisterous men upon whom the community of Monterey frown upon. Therefore Steinbeck creates a paradox within this novel because whilst this brotherhood is the only place that the men find a sense of belonging, it is also their association with each other that renders them unacceptable to normal society. Dissertation Histoire? Steinbeck quite obviously uses the technique of having his characters speak in language befitting the book essay Elizabethan era.

This reinforces the notion that they are all fallen from the grace of a former life not mentioned in apple case study business strategy, the novel, but they are fallen together. It is also a distinguishable way from separating the adopted brothers from those in normal society. It heightens not only the on writing sense of unreality that permeates the apple study whole book but also the sense of alienation from the outside world. The brothers eat, drink wine, sleep and book occasionally venture out to do good deeds for those around them. They live by an entirely alternative concept of time, space, possession and love. The growing sense of belonging that develops through the novel is conveyed through the slow gathering of the six men to form the brotherhood and the corresponding rising action. Once they are all convened under a banner of bemused freedom, Danny states, “we are now as one, as never such men have been before. Each member is crucial to american association essay the group’s dynamic and therefore to each individual member’s sense of belonging.

This is conveyed at the conclusion of the novel when, after Danny’s funeral, the essay house that was their home accidentally catches fire but instead of trying to save their one worldly possession, the pastries men allow it to book burn to the ground and then go their separate ways. The last words of the novel are “no two walked together” conveying that the bonds of brotherhood had been broken and that it was only with each other that they belonged. Therefore, both Migrant Hostel and Tortilla Flat effectively convey the idea that belonging is reached by a path of alienation. Alienation leads to disillusionment with that which one once believed in (is there a different way to express this? ). Skrzynecki’s poem In The Folk Museum describes the experiences of the poet as he becomes increasingly alienated from his heritage. After describing his parent’s typical migrant experience in Migrant Hostel, the poet now finds himself unable to empathise with a past that is not his own. The use of first person not only pastries business, allows the responder to connect on a deeper level with Skrzynecki, but also highlights the fact that he is alone in his musings about book on writing, a past that he does not fully comprehend. In turn, this adds to the bleakness of an already melancholic poem. The caretaker of the museum represents everything that alienates Skrzynecki from his Polish heritage. She is knitting and has grey hair demonstrating that she is a relic herself and incongruent to apple case study contemporary society, just as Skrzynecki views his dying past. The simile of “cold as water” further illustrates that the poet no longer empathises or has any emotional connection to the events of essay his past. Although it is pastries business, not as directly referred to in this poem(weak expression) as in others, In The Folk Museum also conveys how the poet’s disillusionment with his past leads to book essay a sense of belonging with his present.

The use of personification in “the wind taps hurriedly” communicates not only the poet’s frustration but also the determination of the outside world to remind him of the pointlessness of his reminiscing about his Polish heritage. The use of alliteration in “I leave without wanting a final look” conveys his speedy exit as well as his eagerness to regain the world outside of the study strategy museum, where he belongs. This notion of on writing essay disillusionment is creating essay questions, further explored in Francis Coppola’s film Apocalypse Now. Captain Willard, an American officer fighting in the Vietnam War, believes wholeheartedly in the US army and Western Civilisation as a whole. Essay? He belongs to war. At the beginning of the film, Willard is off duty in Saigon and business recounts one of his trips home. Book Essay? The use of direct speech narration adds depth and authenticity to Willard’s character. He states “I’d wake up and there’d be nothing.

Every minute I spend in this room, I get weaker and Charlie gets stronger. Pastries? ” The reference to the Vietcong warriors implies that Willard is more at ease when he is fighting in Vietnam. Book Essay? His alienation from normal society is further conveyed by du droit xvi a montage of images of war superimposed with Willard’s face. The non-digetic music of book on writing essay The End by The Doors plays, with lyrics such as “the west is the best” that further illustrates Willard’s faith in the American way of apple case study life and war. However, at the conclusion of this montage, Willard is left naked and bleeding, wrapped in a torn sheet and screaming on his hotel room floor, a high angle shot highlighting his vulnerability. This scene is purposely designed to alienate the audience from the character and connotes the detrimental effect that Western civilisation is having on him. The repetitious rigmarole of a soldier’s life is communicated through the undershot of the turning fan in Willard’s room. He stares up at it from the bed, implying that he is physically and mentally dominated by essay his life and career school routine as a soldier. As Willard travels further and further up river in search of Colonel Kurtz, he reads increasingly on Kurtz’s life and the events that have led him to the insanity that the on writing essay US army now deems dangerous.

Willard experiences more of the US army’s arrogance, blood-lust and drug use and becomes steadily disillusioned with the entity that he placed his faith in. Everything that is wrong with Western civilisation is represented through the goals essay for medical arrogant Bill Kilgore who infamously states “I love the smell of Napalm in the morning. As the boat travels further up river, there is a distinct change in book on writing, lighting. Effective Questions? Before Willard boards the boat, there is book, a reoccurring motif of brightly coloured flares. Case Business Strategy? The camera pans directly in front of the plumes of red, green and yellow smoke so that they form a veil over the scenes of battles and civilian deaths. However, once up river, the lighting becomes softer, greener and more defined. There is a distinct lack of smoke. This implies that Willard is travelling both physically and mentally away from the chaos of Western civilisation and heading deeper into Kurtz’s state of mind. Essay? Finally, Coppola uses the reoccurring motif of extreme close up shots on the faces of Willard and Kurtz. He does this to communicate that these two men are not necessarily similar but that they represent contrary facets of one human entity.

The extreme close up shots of pastries Willard and Kurtz reveal them to both be acutely serious men who have come to empathise with the same point of view. However, they are distinctly contrasted. Willard is often sweaty, dirty, constantly smoking whereas Kurtz is pristine, unchanging and aloof. This signifies that they will never be able to emulate the virtues of the other’s character that they themselves are deficient. Therefore, both In The Folk Museum and Apocalypse Now reveal themselves to be texts in which the view that alienation leads to disillusionment is explored. For humans to find where they truly belong, they must be placed outside of their comfort zone. They must travel beyond what they have before and thereby find something in the world, in book on writing, others or in themselves that gives them a sense of belonging. Peter Skrzynecki’s poetry, Apocalypse Now directed by Francis Coppola and John Steinbeck’s novel Tortilla Flat all successfully explore differing dimensions of belonging such as the necessity of belonging to shaping ones identity, that belonging is reached by how to start off a book a path of alienation and that alienation leads to disillusionment. (just check over your section on Apoc Now – it is very good, however ensure you are explicitly referring to book essay belonging – I would suggest that at essay school the moment it is implicit – and of course make sure you use the words of the question in your answer) Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]

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Second in Command: The Misunderstood Role of the Chief Operating Officer. Asking the question, “What makes a great COO?” is akin to asking “What makes a great candidate for U.S. vice president?” It all depends on the first name on the ticket—the CEO. New research sheds light on this most contingent, and most mysterious, of C-suite jobs. After in-depth conversations with dozens of executives who have held the position and with CEOs who have worked with COOs, the authors have concluded that different views of the COO role arise from the essay, different motives behind creating the position in the first place. There are seven basic reasons why companies decide to hire a COO: to apple case business strategy, implement the CEO’s strategy; to on writing, lead a particular initiative, such as a turnaround; to mentor a young, inexperienced CEO; to complement the strengths or make up for career for medical school the weaknesses of the CEO; to provide a partner to the CEO; to test out essay, a possible successor; or to career goals for medical, stave off the defection of on writing essay a highly valuable executive, particularly to a rival. This tremendous variation implies that there is no standard set of great COO attributes, which makes finding suitable candidates difficult for companies and dissertation histoire louis xvi, recruiters alike.

Still, certain common success factors came up consistently in the interviews, the most important being building a high level of trust between CEO and book on writing, COO. Trust comes from meeting obligations on both sides: The COO must truly support the arbitration association essay, CEO’s vision; keep ego in book check; and exhibit strong execution, coaching, and coordination skills. The CEO must communicate faithfully, grant real authority and decision rights, and not stymie the COO’s career. It’s surprising that COOs are not more common. Apple Case Business! They would be, the authors contend, if there were less confusion surrounding the role. As we continue to demystify that role, more companies will benefit from more effective leadership. When Larry Ellison, founder and CEO of Oracle, and book, his chief operating officer, Ray Lane, parted ways in 2000, the event inspired the kind of breathless reporting usually reserved for celebrity divorces. reporter David Einstein wondered in print, “Did Lane quit or was he fired?” and wished he had “a clue as to why Ellison’s second banana for the past eight years suddenly was cleaning out his office.” Soon afterwards, CNET weighed in with this: “The story of Lane’s plight at one of the most powerful companies in technology is how to book one of hubris, greed, betrayal and on writing, personal epiphany…” Readers were left with two puzzles to sort out. Apple Study Business Strategy! First: why Lane was leaving his position, given what seemed to be an unbroken string of admirable achievements. And second: why the event was wrapped in essay such drama. Executives change posts all the time, yet the business strategy, story, with its hints of palace intrigue and titanic clashes, was inherently captivating.

For us, it was another example suggesting that the role of the COO is, well, different. Our research since then has put a finer point on the difference. On Writing Essay! Through in-depth conversations with dozens of pastries business plan executives who have held the position and book, with CEOs who have worked with COOs, we’ve gained insight into a subject that has been largely neglected by organizational scholars. Our discoveries shed light not only on the dramatic executive breakups that intermittently make headlines but also on the successful experiences of many unsung COOs. In this article, we share the success and failure factors we’ve identified, as well as our analysis of such related questions as: Are there circumstances in which a number two role is essay for medical school particularly useful? Are there situations when it will inevitably produce tension and discord? Understanding what makes for book on writing a successful chief operating officer is vital because the pastries, effectiveness of COOs (or ranking operations executives by whatever name they are called) is critical to the fortunes of many companies—and could be to many more. As we will suggest, the second-in-command executive is book a role that by rights should become increasingly prevalent. It is prevented from doing so, perhaps, because it is so misunderstood.

When you start to start off a book, examine COOs as a class, one thing immediately becomes clear: There are almost no constants. People with very different backgrounds ascend to the role and succeed in on writing it. This variability makes the job difficult to study; it’s hard to know whether you are making proper inferences when comparing one COO with another. Salespeople or marketers who have developed the tools of their trade in arbitration one company can usually apply them to on writing essay, good advantage in another, even in a dramatically different industry. Financial and human resource executives likewise are schooled and practiced in standard ways of apple study doing things. Book On Writing! But it’s hard to discern whether a COO who has succeeded in one company has what it takes to career essay for medical, be COO in another; the skill set is neither generic nor very portable. Even within a single company, the right qualifications for the COO role can shift. Book Essay! Maynard Webb, COO at eBay, described for us the difference between his own technology background and that of his predecessor: “The first COO, Brian Swette, had a job that was nothing like my job….Brian was a sales and marketing guy.

He had the business units reporting directly to him and spent no time on any of my role.” It’s difficult to pinpoint the kinds of environments in which COOs thrive. Creating Essay Questions! While there is a general sense that COOs are most prevalent in operations-intensive businesses, they appear in every kind of on writing essay company, and every sector also features firms without them. Moreover, the same organization may sometimes operate with a COO and sometimes without one. A 2003 study by Crist Associates, for example, showed that only 17% of the corporations that promoted a COO to CEO in the previous year had replaced the COO. Finally, there is no single agreed-upon description of what the job entails or even what it’s called. Often, companies turn responsibility for all areas of operations over to the COO—this typically includes production, marketing and sales, and research and development.

In some firms, the how to start off a, job is to book on writing essay, be Mr. Inside to the CEO’s Mr. Outside. In others, the mission is focused on a specific business need. For example, last summer Microsoft filled the long-vacant position of COO with Kevin Turner from Wal-Mart.

In announcing his appointment, the company stated that Turner was expected to business plan, use his retail experience to lead Microsoft’s effort to book on writing, grow the consumer products business. The most cursory survey of COO job designs shows real disparity in spans of control, decision rights, reporting structures, and the like. How can a title accommodate such diversity and arbitration, still be meaningful? Answering that question requires a shift in perspective. The key is in the orientation of the role. While other jobs are primarily defined in relation to book, the work to be done and the structure of the business, organization, the COO’s role is defined in relation to book on writing, the CEO as an individual.

How can a title accommodate such diversity and still be meaningful? Answering that question requires a shift in perspective. As we will explore in the following section, that relationship can take various forms. In many cases, the COO is there to help make the CEO’s vision a reality. Sometimes, the COO is expected to arbitration essay, make the CEO more effective or more complete. Book! Often, the plan is for the COO ultimately to essay for medical school, fill the CEO’s shoes.

But in all of these constructions, the CEO is the magnetic force with which the book, COO must align. This makes asking the question “What makes a great COO?” akin to asking, “What makes a great candidate for U.S. vice president?” A Southern Baptist? A foreign-policy wonk? A charismatic campaigner? A centrist? It all depends on start report the other half of the equation, the book essay, first name on the ticket.

This, then, is why COOs remain mysterious as a class: The role is structurally, strategically, socially, and politically unique—and extraordinarily situational. If the COO role is defined primarily in relation to the CEO, and no two CEOs are exactly alike, does that mean the job simply defies definition? Not quite. What became clear in arbitration association the course of our research is that the differences among COO roles arise from the different motives behind creating the position in the first place. It turns out there are seven basic reasons why companies decide to hire a COO, and these yield seven roles that COOs can play vis-à-vis their CEOs. Readers will recognize that the seven reasons are not mutually exclusive, though in this initial presentation we treat them as such. “Asking what makes a great COO?” is akin to asking, “What makes a great candidate for book on writing U.S. vice president?” One role of a COO is to lead the apple case business, execution of strategies developed by the top management team. It’s simply a concession to the complexity and book on writing, scope of the CEO’s job today, with its numerous external commitments.

Managing large, often global, enterprises sometimes requires two sets of hands; in such cases, the COO typically takes responsibility for effective questions delivering results on a day-to-day, quarter-to-quarter basis. This is why the COO position is nearly ubiquitous in businesses that are operationally intensive, like the airline and automotive industries, as well as in organizations that operate in hypercompetitive and dynamic marketplaces like high-tech firms. At Seagate Technology, for example, CEO Bill Watkins relies on COO David Wickersham to book essay, keep the business performing at its peak. It’s not that Watkins lacks an execution mind-set himself; in fact, he ascended to his post after excelling as COO to the previous CEO, Stephen Luczo. But the demands of managing an $8 billion vertically integrated disk drive business are substantial.

By bringing in a COO to lead and oversee the creating effective, day-to-day operations, Seagate allows Watkins to focus on the strategic, longer-term challenges the company will face. CEO Watkins is book on writing essay clearly oriented with his “head up” to study strategy, understand success in the future, whereas COO Wickersham has his “head down,” focused on the operational details necessary for success today. Just as Microsoft did when it hired Kevin Turner, some companies name a COO to lead a specific strategic imperative, such as a turnaround, a major organizational change, or a planned rapid expansion. While the mandate is not as broad as the general execution of strategy, the magnitude of the challenge demands that the change-agent COO have a degree of unquestioned authority similar to that of an executor COO. This was, in essay fact, what led to Ray Lane’s arrival at Oracle. Larry Ellison hired Lane from apple case, consultancy Booz Allen Hamilton and tasked him with turning around the deeply troubled sales and marketing organizations.

His efforts ultimately contributed to a tenfold increase in sales, from $1 billion to on writing, more than $10 billion, and a threefold increase in how to net profits. Similarly, AirTran CEO Joe Leonard recruited COO Robert Fornaro to lead a dramatic turnaround. The company, in Leonard’s words, was “running on essay fumes” and american arbitration essay, needed dramatic efforts to stave off bankruptcy. Some companies bring a COO on board to mentor a young or inexperienced CEO (often a founder). A rapidly growing entrepreneurial venture might seek an industry veteran with seasoning, wisdom, and a rich network who can develop both the CEO and the emerging business. One could logically hypothesize that as the essay, CEO develops, this COO role might either disappear or be heavily restructured. By many accounts, this was what prompted the young Michael Dell to hire Mort Topfer in effective 1994. Dell was growing at book essay, a pace that threatened to get ahead of its founder’s managerial experience. Michael Dell was self-aware enough to acknowledge that he needed some seasoned executives around, both to capitalize on the market opportunity and to accelerate his own development as a leader. Topfer was in his mid-fifties at the time and was completing a successful career at Motorola. He clearly had no aspirations of becoming the chief executive officer at Dell—he was there to help the 29-year-old Michael.

We’ve seen very similar arrangements at start off a report, Netscape, where James Barksdale has served as mentor to book on writing essay, cofounder Marc Andreessen, and at Google, where Eric Schmidt was recruited to creating essay, support the cofounders, Larry Page and Sergey Brin. A company may bring in a COO not as a mentor, but as a foil, to complement the CEO’s experience, style, knowledge base, or penchants. Book! Observers have viewed the relationships between Bill Gates and two of his previous COOs, Jon Shirley and Michael Hallman, in this light. Jon Shirley, according to one observer, provided a “calm, self-effacing balance” to Gates’s brilliant and often intimidating affect. In such cases, the COO role is usually not meant to lead to a higher position—but sometimes it is. When Ken Freeman, now a managing director of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, was CEO at Corning spin-off Quest Diagnostics, he deliberately sought an heir with a different collection of skills than his. He ultimately hired Surya Mohapatra just when Quest was closing a deal to plan, acquire another large testing business. “I thought, in a company that was going from $1.5 billion in revenues to $3.2 billion,” he explained to book on writing, us, “it would be helpful to have somebody around that had strong health care experience—especially given that I had grown up in the glass business!” Sometimes, the creating essay questions, CEO is simply the kind of person who works best with a partner. This can lead to what’s been called a “two in a box” model and is similar to on writing, what authors David Heenan and how to start, Warren Bennis have termed “co-leadership.” Indeed, Heenan and Bennis contend that more companies should create and book on writing essay, cultivate co-leadership arrangements. Apple Case! But it’s probably true that, just as there are doubles specialists in book essay tennis, only some executives are more effective when paired. American Association! In any case, Michael Dell and book, Kevin Rollins, whom Dell introduced as COO in 1996, seem to operate in this mode.

Dell, as chairman, and Rollins, now as CEO, are committed to off a book report, leading the book on writing, firm together, even choosing to “co-office” in adjoining work spaces separated by only a glass partition. In many cases, the primary reason to establish a COO position is to apple case strategy, groom—or test—a company’s CEO-elect. The broad purview of the job allows an heir apparent to book on writing, learn the whole company: its business, environment, and people. Recent examples of firms using the COO position to develop the successor to the CEO include Continental Airlines, where CEO Gordon Bethune (who himself originally joined the airline as COO) recently passed the torch to his COO, Larry Kellner. Similarly, in the time after Rex Tillerson was appointed to the number two position at Exxon, observers noted that he was increasingly exposed to the public—a deliberate effort to american association, facilitate his succession to CEO Lee Raymond. And when Norfolk Southern appointed Charles Moorman as second in command, the book, transportation company touted him as the heir, continuing its avowed “practice of picking an executive young enough to lead the company for at least a decade.” Certainly, being identified as a likely heir does not represent anything approaching a guarantee. On the career essay for medical, one hand, an otherwise valuable senior executive may leave if the top job ultimately goes to someone else—or isn’t offered soon enough. Book Essay! On the effective, other hand, the COO’s performance can indicate that the heir title was inappropriately or prematurely bestowed. In the past few years, we’ve seen several prominent COOs who seemed to be on on writing essay the glide path to the CEO’s office instead leave their companies; they include John Brock (Cadbury Schweppes), Mike Zafirovski (Motorola), John Walter (ATT), and Robert Willumstad (Citigroup). Regardless of creating questions whether each left because he was passed over for the CEO position, because the timing was not as advertised, or because he found greener pastures, the succession plan unraveled.

Finally, some companies offer the job of COO as a promotion to book essay, an executive considered too valuable to lose, particularly to a competitor. This appears to have been the case at News Corporation’s Fox Entertainment Group subsidiary. It recently announced that its president and essay, COO, Peter Chernin, had signed a new employment agreement preventing a rumored move to rival Disney. Similarly, when McDonald’s restructured the roles of book essay its U.S. and Europe presidents during the summer of 2004, that was interpreted by analysts as an effort to ward off poachers. With this strategy, an organization may try to hedge its bets by creating effective essay, stopping short of identifying a specific heir or setting a time-table for leadership succession, in an effort to keep its high-potential executives intrigued about what the future might hold for them, should they stay on book on writing essay board. In truth, as we’ve said, the seven roles are not mutually exclusive. Essay! Though it’s hard to imagine a single person wearing several of these hats all at book essay, once, it’s quite possible that a COO could wear two of them simultaneously. Understanding the roles distinctly, however, and considering their differences reveals a few things clearly. First, the typology we’ve outlined makes it easy to see why COOs have been hard to investigate in any scientific sense. Even where studies have been done, it’s often impossible to draw useful lessons from them. For example, one of the few empirical examinations of the role was conducted by Donald Hambrick of Penn State and Albert Cannella, Jr., when he was at Texas AM.

As they reported in the October 2004 issue of Strategic Management Journal, a review of ten years of data on 400 companies showed that firms with a CEO-COO structure had underperformed relative to their industry peers. It’s a provocative finding, but its implications are far from apparent. Is the structure itself to blame? Or was a COO hired to compensate for a weak CEO? Put another way, is the pastries business plan, COO part of the problem or part of the solution? Hambrick and Cannella offered both explanations, and other theories could be constructed. Our work suggests that divining answers from book on writing, such broad surveys is inherently difficult because the essay, nature of the essay, COO job is so deeply contextual. Second, knowing the variety of roles that COOs play sheds light on the phenomenon of the “vanishing COO.” Some observers, counting the instances of effective essay questions companies declining to book on writing essay, fill vacated COO spots, have concluded that the dissertation histoire du droit louis, position is headed for extinction. After a COO departs, it often appears that his or her duties have been divided up among top managers without much disruption. When Steve Heyer left Coca-Cola, his responsibilities were dispersed in this fashion, and the position was not filled.

When COO Gary Daichendt left Nortel Networks (after just three months), his tasks were assumed by the then CEO, Bill Owens. Book On Writing Essay! But the job is oftentimes reinstated or created in a company that didn’t use it before. At Microsoft, for example, rumors of the COO job’s death turned out to have been exaggerated. Book! Although it sat idle for book on writing several years after Rick Belluzzo’s departure, it was revived when Kevin Turner was hired. Finally, the tremendous variation in career goals essay COO roles and responsibilities manifestly implies that there is no standard set of “great COO” attributes. This makes finding suitable candidates difficult for executive recruiters (as one of the authors can attest).

More important, it stymies the book on writing essay, CEOs and boards who must select among the candidates. The existence of seven different roles suggests at least seven different sets of attributes on top of the basic—and infinitely variable—requirement that there exist a personal chemistry between the COO and the current CEO. Even though the role is arbitration essay so contingent, we have identified some success factors that came up consistently in book essay our interviews with executives in widely varying situations. The single element most critical to the success of pastries business plan a CEO-COO pairing, we quickly saw, is the level of trust between the two individuals. Book! To speak of trust is almost a cliché, but the vehemence with which our research participants stressed it suggests they consider it more crucial here than in any other business relationship. Dissertation Du Droit Xvi! Wendell Weeks, who rose from COO to CEO at Corning, referred to the need for a “true partnership, in every sense of the word.” The trust has to be absolute, he said, “because there are those in the organization who are always seeking to drive wedges if they can.” Other executives specifically used the metaphor of having one another’s back. Hearing their comments, we were reminded of Harry Levinson’s insightful 1993 article, “Between CEO and COO,” in the Academy of on writing essay Management Executive . Apple Case Business Strategy! In it, he wrote, “The relationship…is fraught with many psychological complexities. Perhaps it is the most difficult of all organizational working relationships because more than others, it is a balancing act on the threshold of book power.” Levinson went on to explore the dysfunctions that can arise in such situations: unhealthy rivalries, defensiveness, overcontrol, rigidity, misconceptions, and doubt. How can a pair of executives get past such perils and develop an extraordinary level of trust? Again, consistent themes in our interviews suggest the answer.

The CEO must feel certain that the COO shares the vision, is histoire xvi not gunning for essay the top spot, and can get the job done. Conversely, the COO must be sure that the CEO will provide whatever is needed to pastries, do the job, will not put any obstacles in the way, and will not thwart future career advancement. Let’s explore this question more fully, framing it in terms of what each party owes the other. Because a chief executive relies so heavily on the second in command to accomplish mission-critical goals, it’s essential that the COO wholeheartedly believe in the CEO’s strategic leadership. Chief operating officers, by virtue of their inherent talents and their organizational position, are highly visible and powerful. If the COO is not aligned with the CEO’s vision, or not convinced that the CEO can find the best path forward, then that lieutenant is book on writing essay capable of real mischief. Dan Rosensweig, COO at Yahoo, described for us the hours he spent talking with CEO Terry Semel before joining the company. Rosensweig invested the apple case study business, time because, in his words, “you have to get in sync with the CEO.

If you have an agenda that is different than his or hers, you will absolutely fail the company.” In the interviews we conducted—particularly those with COOs—we heard repeatedly how critical it is for seconds in command to on writing, check their egos at how to report, the door. On Writing! It’s a tricky balance to achieve, given that COOs must obviously be self-confident leaders. Louis Xvi! “You have to lead while serving,” stressed eBay COO Maynard Webb, immediately adding, “It has been the on writing, hardest job that I have ever done.” Interestingly, he then followed up with another reason why the job is pastries hard: “It is not as immediate with gratification as any of the line jobs that I had. When you are solving technology issues, such as is the site up or not, it is on writing pretty black-and-white, and you see some of the results pretty quickly. But you are working on american arbitration association things through a lot more layers as COO, and the results come much slower.” These sound like two very different reasons for a job to be hard, but we suspect they may be intertwined.

Often, the book essay, results do come more slowly—and often they come in a way that makes their proper attribution more difficult to discern. Regardless, the COO is not necessarily in apple case business line to receive the kudos for a job well done. Back in the 1990s, people in book on writing essay organizations jokingly picked up on a phrase from the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation . Histoire! In it, starship captain Jean-Luc Picard, having settled on a course of action, would simply instruct his crew to “make it so.” CEOs in general can’t quite get away with that, but to on writing essay, the extent that they are focused on creating effective strategy, they rely on COOs to oversee much of the implementation. They must be able to trust that they can afford to book on writing essay, address longer-term and goals essay for medical school, bigger picture issues because their second in command will maintain a focus on the here and now. Even COOs who are not primarily playing the executor role should have an execution mind-set and a bias toward action. A COO must be able to direct and coach others throughout the business.

Steven Reinemund, now chairman and CEO at PepsiCo, gave us his thoughts on the challenge. He was promoted to COO after having led a business unit and, he told us, “I had to think long and hard about book, whether I really wanted to move out of running the day-to-day business into career goals for medical a role where I coach and coordinate.” Being a division president, he explained, “is a hands-on job. You get to mold the strategy; you get to direct the efforts every day. You have the book on writing, functional people that you work with, and that team performs against a mission, and it is an exciting experience.” The COO job, by career goals essay school, contrast, requires an individual who “can step out of doing day-to-day, hands-on directing and leading of a business, and direct and teach and coach others.” Again, regardless of which of the seven roles a COO plays, the CEO must be able to trust that these skills are in place. The COOs we spoke with understood that the onus was on them to on writing, embrace the CEO’s strategy and work to association, make it real. But no one can execute against a plan that’s not being communicated clearly and directly. CEOs constantly have fresh thoughts with operational implications; they must be in on writing essay the habit of discussing those with their COOs without delay. Ken Freeman told us how he and Surya Mohapatra kept the lines of communication active at Quest Diagnostics. “Sunday at 4:00 pm became the time for us to have lengthy discussions….We would see each other at the office, too, of course, but there we would be scurrying around working on the integration of the [merged] companies, driving the company’s performance, and off a book, making things go. We had each other’s undivided attention via telephone starting at 4:00, virtually every single Sunday for five years.” Another CEO we interviewed admitted an early mistake: locating his new COO’s office in a separate building, thereby failing to capitalize on the rich communication afforded by physical proximity. CEOs constantly have fresh thoughts with operational implications; they must be in on writing the habit of discussing those with their COOs without delay. To a person, the executives we interviewed stressed the need for explicit and reasonable lines of demarcation between CEO and COO responsibilities.

While there was no consensus on what exactly should be part of each job, everyone agreed that the matter had to be sorted out at the start of the relationship. It’s far easier to delineate boundaries when the two individuals clearly have complementary competencies and each naturally gravitates to different areas of expertise. The greater the overlap in competencies, the business, greater the likelihood that the book on writing essay, COO might feel (perhaps accurately) that the CEO is micromanaging and second-guessing decisions. Effective Essay! Such behavior on the part of the CEO communicates to the COO a lack of trust that is on writing likely to engender friction in the relationship. When we raised this point with Bob Herbold, another former COO at Microsoft, he responded: “To me, this is a key issue. How To Start! The way it gets worked out book essay, is the individuals—through trial and error, as well as through discussions—figure out who is going to be doing what and who needs to check with who on key decisions….How the pair will make that happen needs to be agreed to very early in the relationship.” Obviously, the creation of the COO role adds a layer of management; executives who previously had direct access to the CEO now have an intermediary to address. One of the COO’s first challenges is to develop relationships with direct reports that discourage them from seeking backdoor access to the CEO. Plan! At the same time, the COO must depend on the CEO to block efforts by those who might want to circumvent the position. This is book on writing not to say that restricting access to the CEO is the goal.

Ed Zander, now CEO of Motorola, previously served as COO of Sun Microsystems under Scott McNealy. American! Zander says the two made it clear that any of the COO’s direct reports was entitled to go to McNealy to talk about things. But the lines of responsibility were still respected. “One thing that Scott did very well was to never undermine me,” Zander told us. Essay! “He always backed all my decisions. Off A! He would hear people out but then send them to me.” A number of the people we interviewed noted how much personal discipline is required on the CEO’s part to maintain this kind of line. “I have been working on nailing that back door shut for a while,” eBay COO Webb told us. “I think it is a tough, tough thing to on writing, do, especially when you have a CEO that actually loves to get involved in problem solving and wants to help. I think what you have to do in that case is to enable, not control, communication and be transparent.” Without exception, the COOs we interviewed accepted the fact that their job was to dissertation histoire louis xvi, make the CEO successful—and that in doing so they in many ways rendered their own contributions less visible. But, especially for COOs who aspire to the top job, that creates a dilemma.

Jim Donald, president and CEO of on writing essay Starbucks, noted that what gets executives to the role of president and goals for medical school, COO “won’t necessarily earn them a CEO role. Once you are in the COO role, you have to…broaden the network of things you do. You need to work with the board, work with the CEO, and work to lead others to be successful.” It falls upon book on writing essay the CEO’s shoulders to make sure that this development takes place and to share the business, spotlight whenever appropriate. If the CEO is not deliberate about on writing essay, this, then the board will have no reason to apple case, be impressed by the number two, who may then prove ultimately unpromotable.

Kevin Sharer, who was COO at Amgen before he became CEO, lays heavy emphasis on this point. He told us that the success of the CEO-COO relationship is “75% dependent on a few things that the CEO does.” He framed those things for us as a series of book on writing important questions: Does the CEO give the pastries plan, number two real authority, real operating responsibility, power that is real, power that is seen by the rest of the company as real? Second, does the number one actually encourage and on writing, let the american essay, number two person have his or her own voice in board meetings and book essay, operating reviews? Third, does the CEO give coaching, counseling, and really see the success of the number two as part of the company’s success? Ask anyone who has worked as or alongside a COO—the job is demanding.

Now we know it’s unique, as well. Perhaps that’s why COO is the only C-suite title to apple case study business, which there is no magazine devoted. Essay! It’s a trivial observation but perhaps a telling one; the goals essay for medical, common set of book issues and interests that would imply simply does not exist. Is it a role in decline? Some observers, as we have said, certainly think so.

The Hambrick and dissertation du droit louis, Cannella study, for example, found a 22% decline over essay ten years in the number of firms with executives holding that title. Yet in the last few years, companies in a wide range of industries have announced new COOs, including Microsoft, RadioShack, Airbus, Allstate, KPMG’s U.S. subsidiary, Alcatel, Chiron, Nissan, BellSouth, Comcast, Eli Lilly, Apple, and Medtronic. We can easily argue that there is a growing need for the role. First, consider the widening scope of the CEO’s job. Today, we have bigger companies, with expanding global operations, aggressively pursuing acquisitions. CEOs are asked to be public figures, communicating with many constituencies at the same time that increasingly democratic and knowledge-based organizations require them to spend a great deal of career goals essay school time campaigning internally for any change they hope to book on writing, make. Second, companies are becoming more deliberate about business plan, succession planning. On Writing Essay! Boards are anxious to identify and groom heirs and often see the COO title as a useful step in the process. Finally, the easy mobility of top talent means companies must find ways to hold on to their most valuable non-CEO executives. Apple Case Study Business! The COO title can be effective in staving off wanderlust. In light of these trends, it’s surprising that COOs are not more common.

Our suspicion is that they would be if there were less variability and confusion surrounding the book essay, role. Business! Board members aren’t sure when the position will add value. Recruiters don’t have an obvious pool to tap. CEOs don’t know whom to trust. Potential COOs don’t know whether the on writing essay, job is right for them. This is creating effective essay why it’s vital to on writing essay, build on the work we’ve outlined here. Business! As we continue to demystify the role of the COO, more companies will benefit from essay, more effective leadership.

Nate Bennett is a professor with the Robinson College of Business at Georgia State University. He is the author of study Your Career Game and book, Riding Shotgun: The Role of the career essay, COO .

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AMCAS Work and on writing essay Activities Example. In this #8220;AMCAS Work and Activities example#8221; blog post, we show examples of how to write your AMCAS work and business activities descriptions. Contact our Cracking Med School Admissions team at book and we can help you edit your AMCAS, which make your overall application much more attractive to admissions officers. Here is an AMCAS Work and Activities Example . We#8217;ll walk you through what you should also do with your AMCAS activities descriptions. Common Mistakes on AMCAS Work and Activities Section.

One common mistake on the AMCAS work and activities section is that many medical school applicants we work with spend too much time describing the overall program. In fact, some students will write an entire paragraph about the organization and dissertation louis will fail to mention anything about themselves. Don’t make the book on writing essay same mistake! If you look at business strategy the AMCAS activities description above, the “Program Goal” is kept brief. If you’re going to write in on writing essay, bullet-point fashion, make sure to use strong action verbs . Effective Questions? Thoroughly describe your involvement and highlight what you did. Book On Writing Essay? If you feel like there’s an awesome experience you want to emphasize in this AMCAS work and pastries business activities example – in this case, attending the World Health Organization meetings – then don’t be shy to include these experiences in the description! Finally, in this AMCAS work and activities example the applicant highlighted a “presentation” given.

This is optional, and whether you include presentations / posters / publications can be determined on a case-by-case basis. Book Essay? Our Cracking Med School Admissions consultants have worked with hundreds of applicants to improve their personal statements and career goals for medical AMCAS applications. If you want more examples and tips, we highly recommend buying our book . Additionally, feel free to book on writing, email us at american association essay or by clicking the “Ask Us” button below. Whether you need a second opinion or help improving your first pass, our team will give you comprehensive feedback with very quick turnaround. Shadowing Experiences in AMCAS Work and book Activities.

Shadowing Activity Example: A common question the Cracking Med School Admissions team receives is : how do we write about our shadowing experiences in the AMCAS work and how to book activities section? The example below shows one approach to writing about book it. Here, the applicant has had several shadowing opportunities throughout college, so he decided to mention several of them. One thing you can do with your AMCAS Work and Activities description is to describe the significance of each shadowing experience or highlight key points. The benefits to having a wide range of shadowing experiences is that you can clearly convey that you’ve acquired a multifaceted perspective of healthcare. The best way to do this is to incorporate experiences unique to each specialty in how to start off a book, your description. Book Essay? Looking back on the above example, the following sentences definitely stand out on their own: “ observed open heart surgeries” (You’re never gonna see this in Family medicine!) “patient consultations…dialysis centers” (Again, unique to creating questions, nephrology) “attended international infectious disease conferences” (Sounds like an essay, exciting opportunity, and makes one think of the 1995 film Outbreak , starring Dustin Hoffman) Other shadowing specialties that you can discuss: OB/GYN: Shadowed live births or fetal ultrasound sessions Radiology: Shadowed dark room sessions during an ER shift and learned to differentiate matter based on density on MRI scans. Orthopedic Surgery: Shadowed rounds at apple case business strategy clubfoot clinic Plastic surgery: Shadowed cleft palate repair surgery and book on writing follow-up outpatient care clinic. By conveying these experiences, you’re painting a bigger picture with fewer words. Research Experiences AMCAS Work and goals for medical Activities Section.

Many of you will have research experience as one of your activities. We have stressed again, this is one of the most common fields in which applicants FAIL TO EFFECTIVELY SELL THEMSELVES. We have coached clients who’ invested three years into a research lab, but failed to effectively convey those experiences. Essay? From the above experience, note how the description is limited to one, brief sentence. How much of my experience has to career goals essay for medical school, be technical jargon? You should be able to describe key points of your research, i.e. Book? relevant information, utilized techniques and procedures, etc. in your activity. Pastries Business Plan? (Keep in mind that you may have to elaborate on book, your research during the interview). Apple Case Strategy? However, the bulk of your activity should include the book essay following activities. Leadership/Ownership: Did you create a project of your own? How far did you carry it out? Honors Recognitions on AMCAS Work and Activities Section.

The purpose of research in american essay, your AMCAS work activities is to demonstrate that you put tremendous time and effort in book on writing, an intellectually challenging environment. Any results from that, whether it be publications, poster presentations, etc. is a byproduct of start, your work, and should be mentioned briefly (It should also be mentioned in its own category). Be sure to mention all your awards! These include: Dean#8217;s Lists, Fellowships, Scholarships, Poster presentations, Papers published, Articles Publishes, and Newspaper features. Book On Writing? Lessons learned for the AMCAS Work and Activities Section. Our applicant research example in the AMCAS Work and study Activities section blog above emphasized two themes: (1) learning from his mistakes (“I never wasted my failures”) (2) establishing a pristine work ethic (“scrubbed flasks, washed counters, keeping my mind busy to rub away regrets, rinse thoughts, and repeat…”). Note that he referenced the context of his research to push these two themes. (admittedly, the applicant notes that he is ‘not at all a research person,’ and learned so from this experience). “Sounds great, but what if I don’t HAVE that many experiences?”

With some of our other applicants, they only book, have one or two shadowing experiences they want to write about. In these cases, we capitalize on the advantages of the applicant’s depth of experience, and have the pastries applicant write a short description of what they learned or an interesting moment that happened during their experience. Was there a particular patient story that moved you? Did your physician exhibit strength of character or moral judgment that inspired you? How was the book team dynamic of the hospital/clinic? You want to highlight these experiences, because they further demonstrate that you’ve made the most of your shadowing experiences. KEY POINT: Highlight experiences and stories that you have NOT used in how to report, your personal statement.

We hope this AMCAS Work and Activities Example blog was helpful for book on writing essay, you. We love advising and consulting for medical school applications, so feel free to du droit xvi, reach out to us! Check out our application packages here – the most popular products for pre-meds. Feel free to email us at or write to us in the contact form below. Ask us your questions about medical school applications. Your Cracking Med School Admissions Advisers.

Changing the trajectory of people’s lives. Medical School: Stanford School of essay, Medicine. Residency: Harvard, Emergency Medicine. Goals Essay School? What I did After College: • Improved vaccine distribution in developing countries. • Worked with the World Health Organization in the Philippines. • Launched a national HIV Awareness Campaign in the Philippines. • Produced an HIV awareness commercial for book essay, MTV. • Worked full-time at a healthcare consulting firm, advising pharmaceutical companies. • Created a public health program in Stanford’s Emergency Department. Helping students reach their full potential. Undergraduate: Columbia University. What I did after I graduated: • Worked at two education non-profits, improving public charter schools across the U.S. • Coached students to master interview, debate, and career speech techniques in the U.S. and Asia. • Advised students in China, Korea, and Japan with college applications to American Universities. • Developed mobile education content for iPhone apps. • Worked in investment banking, conducting industry analysis and advising technology companies. Advising students to attend their dream schools. Medical School: Stanford School of Medicine.

Residency: Pediatrics, Stanford. Masters: Masters in Medical Anthropology at the School of Oriental and African Studies; Masters of Science in Public Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. What I did after I graduated: • Interned with the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. • Founded and launched an book, NGO to improve the health and education of Ethiopian. • World Bank consultant who helped implement Ethiopia’s national nutrition program. Essay? • Partnered with the Ethiopian Ministry of essay, Health to study child health practices in plan, communities. Book Essay? Medical School Secondary Essays are so Overwhelming. Help!! 2017 Cracking Med School Admissions.

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Introduction to Musical Theatre Essay. The concept of musical theatre combines the drama and plot of book essay a stage play with a musical component; the extent of this musical collaboration has changed over the years, from operas to orchestras to full-fledged plays. From its humble beginnings to its current status as Broadway spectacle, the art form has carried a great influence in business, the world of performance. In this essay, a detailed history of book musical theatre, from dissertation histoire du droit louis xvi its infancy to book essay now, will be explored. Musical theatre has had a long, storied history; the style dates all the way back to ancient Greek theatre, back in the 5th century BCE. In that time, Greek comedies and creating effective, tragedies almost always had a musical component; songs and dance were common to book on writing the plays of Aeschylus and Sophocles, who acted as composers and choreographers to their own works. In Rome in the 3rd century BCE, Plautus wrote comedies that also had orchestrations and choreographed dances to business strategy their songs.

Roman theatre also innovated the process of dancing, creating crude tap shoes called sabilla , which were chips of metal attached to the shoes of performers to make their steps easier to hear and notice in book on writing, the large theatres they played in. The Middle Ages saw theatre take a much more mobile, nomadic route to performance; with traveling minstrels moving from career essay for medical town to town and village to village, performing songs and small routines. Small troupes of performers would do the book on writing same, offering slapstick-filled, delightful plays they would offer to effective questions those who would watch them. The 12th and on writing, 13th centuries saw the musical theatre advent of religious dramas, like The Play of career Daniel and The Play of Herod ; these dramatic works would have church chants interspersed within them, offering that musical component. Book On Writing Essay. This would evolve into the mystery play, which told a story of the Bible in a musical manner. The mobility of creating effective performing troupes would also be made more efficient through the advent of pageant wagons. These were mobile stages the troupe would bring with them to provide added production value to their plays; they would settle down, perform their show, and pack up. Book On Writing. These shows often consisted of poetic forms, prose dialogue, and musical numbers. In the Renaissance, musical theatre took a giant leap forward with the case study business development of commedia dell’arte, a type of musical theatre where well-known stories were improvised by actors using the art of clown to create broad humor throughout. Book On Writing. Music became a large part of Jacobean and louis xvi, Elizabethan plays; lutes, organs, pipes and more would play during these performances in order to enhance a scene. Often, if a play was a tragedy or a heavier historical, it would be interrupted with short plays filled with music to add levity.

This is where the jig was created; jiggs were broad, farcical afterpieces that followed these heavier works. In the Tudor period, court masques were created, where the first inklings of modern musical theatre were created. In these masques, elaborate set designs were combined with elegant and detailed costuming, as well as performances that combined singing, dancing and acting to music. Book. The purpose of these masques were often to flatter a royal patron or nobility that was in the audience at the time. The masques were popular types of theatre created by playwrights such as Ben Jonson and William Shakespeare. Soon, just the musical components of how to start off a masques would be made into operas altogether; acting as sung plays that would be the first templates of musical theatre. The famous French playwright Moliere created farces that would have musical components to them (song and dance numbers interspersed within the work). These developments led to the creation of English opera; some of the more famous playwrights were Thomas Shadwell, John Blow, Henry Purcell, and more.

By 1685, however, English opera started to lose its luster. In the book on writing 1700s, musical theatre in histoire du droit louis, England developed into on writing essay two distinct varieties: ballad operas and creating essay questions, comic operas. The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay is the quintessential example of the book on writing essay ballad opera; it offered new lyrics spoofing the popular songs of the time, the olde English equivalent of study business a jukebox musical. Comic opera, on essay the other hand, carried a romantic plot set to business plan original music; The Bohemian Girl by Michael Balfe is a fine example of a comic opera. In the book on writing essay meantime, lighter, more fleeting forms of opera were being created, like Comedie en vaudeville and opera comique, which led to the notions of burlesque, melodramas, vaudevilla, and effective questions, the notion of the music hall. Since many London theatres only book on writing essay got a license as a music hall, plays had to have music in them; therefore, musical theatre became a more popular part of theatrical life in England, and this led to the popularization of melodramas and burlettas. In Colonial America, the first real presence of theatre to be found did not happen until 1752, when a theatre was formed in Williamsburg, Virginia by William Hallam, which performed classic English plays. Du Droit Louis. Soon after, however, they moved to The Beggar’s Opera and other ballad operas and farces in New York. This theatrical presence slowly morphed into what would become Broadway in the 1920s and 1930s. These early plays were the first to be widely recorded and on writing, toured, with hundreds of performances in a single run for many musical plays.

The further evolution of musical theatre came with the development of the pastries business plan operette, which was created in 1850 by the French composer Herve. On Writing Essay. These were light musical comedies that would often provide broad satire and wit to the stage, combined with bright melodies and high energy. These would be the model for all musical theatre that would come after it. After Jacques Offenbach and Johann Strauss II would develop the style further, it would become popularized in the works of Gilbert and Sullivan, Irving Berlin and apple case, Rodgers and Hammerstein. The music hall and musical burlesques would comprise the majority of musical theatre in 19th century England.

The Black Crook proved to be the very first play that would fit the on writing essay modern conception of the musical – this combined dance and original music which would supplement the straightforward story being told. In 1866, this play premiered in New York and plan, became a staggering success. Other musical comedies came out around this year, and the late 19th century saw comedic musical theatre that spoke to the common man, adding legitimacy to the theatrical proceedings. On Writing. The stories were no longer broad, royal farce; they were meant to be more legitimate, with complex plotting and significant characters. By landing more reputable singers like Vivienne Segal, Fay Templeton and more, they offered significant credentials to those who put on these plays. Once the modern musical was developed, there were other changes to theatrical procedure that allowed for longer runs. With street lights and electricity, it was safer to goals essay come out at night; therefore, night shows became the norm, adding a larger number of performances for each show. With the money that came from the book added revenue these extra shows afforded them, production value of Broadway and West End shows increased substantially. Gilbert and Sullivan began producing large comic opera shows that would become extremely popular around this time; shows like HMS Pinafore and The Mikado , as well as The Pirates of Penzance , were family friendly and very accessible, leading to worldwide success. Due to their unparalleled success, the standards for theatrical popularity changed dramatically.

Gilbert and Sullivan also pioneered several conventions of the modern musical as well; in start book, their shows, the dialogue and the lyrics were combined to make the book story more understandable and sensible, even with the integration of music into the performance. P.G. Wodehouse, Ira Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Andrew Lloyd Weber and more would take this particular style of comic opera and develop it further. The Savoy operas in business, the 1880s began to enjoy considerable success in America as well. Unlike the tawdry sensibilities of previous musicals, these shows were thought to be family friendly and respectable, something that was harder to book essay look down upon.

Before these developments, musical theatre was often thought to be for perverts, a much seedier audience; now, theatre was for career goals essay school everyone, especially musical theatre. Broadway saw its fair share of musicals in the 1890s as well; attempting to ape Gilbert and Sullivan, many copycat productions took place, like El Capitan by book on writing John Philip Sousa. Essay. Ragtime became more popular as a freeform style of theatre, a different, more fast-paced and modern variety of vaudeville. Musical comedies continued throughout the early 20th century, through Tin Pan Alley-composed songs. In Broadway, the book on writing runs were shorter than in the West End (never reaching thousands of performances like some Gilbert and Sullivan shows), but often would have longer tours with the original cast. In the “Gay Nineties” (the subjectively wonderful 1890s in England, as they were known), musicals were becoming more popular on the London Stage. George Edwardes took over the Gaiety Theatre, seeking to change it from the bawdy burlesque show that it was and providing a straightforward, light musical alternative to plan the heavy, absurdist and essay, politically charged Savoy operas that were the flavor at the time. He decided to try doing family friendly, breezy, lighthearted comic romances, combined with style and spectacle. While there were burlesque elements to them, there were also comic opera traditions sprinkled throughout, and histoire du droit louis, the replacement of low-class burlesque dancers with respectable dancers and singers. These types of plays were such a success, they would determine the next thirty years of musical theatre in London. Many of book essay these plays, like The Shop Girl and A Runaway Girl , followed the tropes of romances where the poor maiden falls in business plan, love with royalty, and book on writing essay, faces many obstacles before finally winning him.

These set the start off a report tone for musical comedies that would sweep across the face of musical theatre in both England and America, as many other theatres would copy these shows with increasing complexity, including Sidney Jones’ The Geisha and book on writing essay, San Toy . During this time, the operetta had been essentially removed from the English stage due to the prevalence of how to Edwardian musical comedies, but it made a comeback in book, the early 20th century with the operetta The Merry Widow, which premiered in 1907 in how to report, London and Broadway. This success led to the direct competition of musicals and operettas for the next few years, with new and old operettas being brought out on the stages of both American and England. On Writing. New operettas that premiered at this time included the works of questions Victor Herbert ( Babes in Toyland, The Red Mill, The Fortune Teller ), and book on writing, modern musical plays that were a bit more intimate. In an attempt to cash in on the still-popular Gilbert and Sullivan-style musical, P.G. Widehouse, Jerome Kern and Guy Bolton all came out with “Princess Theatre shows,” which offered light entertainment while remaining continuous with its songs and plot, offering a complete, detailed and complex story throughout. Unlike the broader comedies of the time, and which had come before, situational comedies had a much greater influence, and how to off a book, the characters were more realistic. Essay. The songs were actually used to business develop the characters or move the plot along; this was a breakthrough in the plotting and book on writing, development of musical theatre.

With the dissertation louis xvi advent of the Princess Theatre musicals, these lighter shows proved they could integrate song and story just as well as Gilbert and book on writing essay, Sullivan could. The theatre experienced a boom in business with the start of World War I; given the devastation of the battlefield and the front, audiences flocked to the stages in order to creating effective questions get some escapism. Irene , a play by Harry Tiernet and Joseph McCarthy, premiered in 1919 to widespread popularity, holding the Broadway record for longest run (670 performances) for a long time. While those were impressive by American standards, they held nothing to the British capacity for holding a musical run; Chu Chow Chow ran for over two thousands performances. Revues started to become popular, as they incorporated light, multi-act performances that offered variety. As the 20th century chugged along, American musical theatre began to take dominance in both popularity and quality. The Theatrical Syndicate, led by book on writing essay Charles Frohman, spearheaded the dissertation histoire du droit xvi development of book shows like the Princess Theatre shows and many other Tin Pan Alley-inspired musicals. Jazz and ragtime became a much more popular component of modern musicals at the time, and the Gershwin brothers, as well as Irving Berlin and others, started to get shows produced.

This shift in apple study business strategy, American musical theatre’s popularity was due to the changes in society that were happening at on writing essay the time; the increase in vernacular and naturalism that was desired by pastries business audiences of the modern era led to book a slow death of the broad, the theatrical and american association, the operatic. On Writing. Shows and musicals were more direct with their plot, their characters and their intentions, and tradition gave way to innovation. The Roaring Twenties saw the advent of the motion picture, and essay, its rise in popularity; this proved to be a challenge for book on writing essay theatres. Even though they were silent at first, and so could not offer the audio component of theatre, the creation of talking films like The Jazz Singer meant that it offered a real threat to live theatre. Musicals in that era started to bring in bigger stars and greater spectacle, offering loudness and music hall sensibilities in lieu of complex plotting and character development. Despite the fact that there was not a whole lot tying these glorified revues together, they proved extremely popular and light entertainment.

Theatre writers began to transition into popular music, as most of the music people were listening to business at the time was what they heard in these reviews and vaudeville shows. Production values increased substantially during this time, making the musical more expensive to produce than ever. The concept of standards became popular in the 1920s; the lighthearted shows were never that memorable ( Sally, Oh, Kay! ), but their songs would stick in the public’s mind. Book. As a result, they would be covered by a variety of popular music artists, like Cole Porter, Marilyn Miller, Fred Astaire. Operettas also came back into american arbitration essay the limelight for a time, and Noel Coward and other composers started to enjoy newfound popularity.

Show Boat in book, 1927 proved to be one of the most complex mixes of score and book that there had been to date; even the Princess Theatre musicals lacked this level of sophistication. There existed dramatic themes that were told with every component of the show, from the movement to the setting. This integration of production value with narrative complexity that rivaled anything that had come before. While this was popular, events like the Great Depression led to people going back to lighter entertainment. When the Great Depression hit, it left people with little money to entertain themselves with; this mean substantially reduced ticket sales. For Medical. It was also cheaper to go to book the ‘talkies’ than see a show, making it even more challenging for theatres to find an audience. Vaudeville was eliminated by musical films, as they agreed to be filmed for histoire xvi one-off shows that effectively killed future live performances of their work. On Writing Essay. There were still Show Boat -like shows that were great hits for those who could afford the pastries business plan ticket price; Of Thee I Sing was the first musical that was given the Pulitzer Prize.

Anything Goes cemented singers like Ethel Merman, who would become the queen of musical theatre due to book essay her loud, booming voice. The first Broadway show to star a black person (Ethel Waters), was 1933’s As Thousands Cheer . Porgy and Bess proved to dissertation louis be a very popular musical, created by George Gershwin and released in book, 1935. Modern musicals like Knickerbocker Holiday by Kurt Weill provided satire of FDR and detailed the history of case business New York City. With these more complex works, there were still lighter hits on Broadway, like I’d Rather Be Right and book essay, The Dancing Years . Cole Porter came into popularity with Anything Goes and DuBarry Was a Lady . All of arbitration association essay these contributions led to the overall success and on writing essay, survival of musical theatre, which was a miracle in a time when economic destitution was the worst this country has ever experienced. The evolution of musical theatre at this time allowed for fast-paced music, staging, choreography and career goals essay school, more naturalistic dialogue, a far cry from the overt theatricality and melodrama of previous eras. Musical theatre in the 1940s would hit a new zenith with Rodgers and Hammerstein’s musical Oklahoma! Continuing the Show Boat tradition of essay having complex plotting and serious storytelling amongst musical numbers, the show offered dream ballets and integrated the music more cohesively into the story, rather than providing dance as an case study business strategy excuse for essay men to see barely-dressed women.

Agnes de Mille was the choreographer for this show, and it revolutionized the format of musical theatre by providing a decided lack of tawdriness and an earnest desire for storytelling that was not present at this level before. In the opening number, there were no showgirls, but instead the actual play began with “Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'”. This earnestness and quality of arbitration essay production gave the show rave reviews and unexpected popularity. It got the Pulitzer Prize, and the musical achieved new narrative heights. It turned into the first Broadway show to be considered a “blockbuster,” and was even adapted into film. In the canon of musical theatre, it was the essay first extremely successful Broadway musical, and it holds a beloved place as a milestone of theatrical history. The success of the play sent Rodgers and Hammerstein into incredible popularity, coming out essay for medical school with a string of further hits, like South Pacific, The King I and book, The Sound of Music. In all of their shows, dark themes were presented in a way heretofore unseen in musical theatre; Oklahoma’s villain was a murderer, and Carousel tackled the theme of domestic abuse. How To Book Report. Due to book on writing essay their vast creativity, everyone else wanted to emulate them, which meant a string of successive musicals in that vein; this led to the Golden Age of American musical theatre. The war itself was brought to the theatre, with many war-themed shows becoming popular; On the Town showcased a shore leave between soldiers and their women, bringing wartime uncertainty and pathos to the big stage. Annie Get Your Gun, Finian’s Rainbow, Kiss Me, Kate and other such plays were modeled after the Oklahoma! trend of having complex plots with integrated music within, enhancing the overall quality of the musical theatre canon.

In the 1950s, shows like Guys and Dolls, Paint your Wagon, My Fair Lady and more continued the tradition of dissertation du droit louis xvi complex characters within musicals; records continued to be shattered, with My Fair Lady running a record 2,717 performances. Each of these popular musicals would have film adaptations made of them as well, bringing in a newfound collaboration between Broadway and Hollywood. Stars like Julie Andrews and Judy Garland dominated musicals at this time. Off-Broadway musicals also came to prominence, with shows like The Threepenny Opera and The Fantasticks proving that a show does not have to be part of the Broadway system to on writing essay be critically and financially successful. The orchestras were smaller, and the scale was toned down, but they could still work.

West Side Story adapted Romeo and pastries, Juliet into book essay a modern New York City setting, and brought home significant box office returns and myriad Tonys. Apple Case Business Strategy. This cemented Stephen Sondheim’s reputation as a master composer for musicals. The 1960s saw even greater popularity and experimentation on the part of musicals. More blockbusters, such as Fiddler on the Roof, Hello Dolly!, Funny Girl and Man of La Mancha would be created, and book, some of the du droit louis overt sexuality of the burlesque would come back with the popularity of on writing Cabaret . The rock musical would then usurp these musical styles by the end of the 1960s. Dissertation. Stephen Sondheim and Jerry Herman would significantly shape the book pattern of musicals in this decade and business, the next, through the darker themes that he would explore in on writing essay, works like Sweeney Todd and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum . These plays were bloody, cynical, and gritty, eschewing the sunny dispositions of earlier musicals to make plays about singing surprisingly dark and brooding.

Into the Woods and Assassins explored these themes further, showcasing a sophistication in lyrics and apple business strategy, music that belied the overall exclusiveness of some of the plays’ themes. Soldheim tried a number of new things during this time, including reverse-engineering shows and breaking the essay fourth wall to the audience, all things that made musical theatre challenging and intriguing again. With the start of the musical Hair , rock music would be incorporated into musicals. Also, the Vietnam War was brought up as a theme, something which would prove controversial and creating effective essay, also indicative of musical theatre’s propensity to challenge societal attitudes at book essay the time. Racial tolerance was found in many Golden Age musicals, which were then resurfaced ( The King I, South Pacific , and more). Racial integration finally occurred in the end of the 1960s; homosexuality was first openly explored as a theme in career for medical, Hair , and essay, then moved onto other shows. In the 1970s, with the essay for medical school advent of the rock musical, The Rocky Horror Show, Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell and book on writing, more started to bring in this rapidly popular style of music to association essay the theatrical realm, bringing with it an added edge that was never before seen onstage. Some of these plays, like the Who musical Tommy , tended to work more towards concepts of opera than they did musicals, with little spoken dialogue and most of the story and character conveyed through song. African-Americans got their own musical representation onstage, portraying the black experience through The Wiz, Dreamgirls and more.

As the Broadway canon expanded, more and more variation occurred, with musicals of book on writing essay every genre coming into prominence. A Chorus Line proved to pastries be a giant among contemporary musicals; released in 1975, the play, which was about an book on writing essay audition for essay a musical, broke narrative conventions in a fascinating way, also providing with it amazing music and spectacle, busting box office records and book, reaching incredible critical acclaim. Start Book. This led to more plays along that same style, such as Chicago, Pippin, Nine, Evita and more. These were risque, tawdry yet liberating pieces, bringing sensuality to the stage without it being classless or inaccessible. In the 1980s and 1990s, pop music began to invade musicals to a larger degree, and larger production values brought incredible spectacle to these productions, like falling chandeliers in book on writing, The Phantom of the Opera . Novel and arbitration, literary adaptations were beginning to be the norm, and European influences were more and more prevalent. Andrew Lloyd Webber became an essay incredible mega-hit musical creator with Cats and Evita , The Phantom of the Opera and more. A greater emphasis on adaptations has been put forth as the 1990s rolled along; corporations began to get into the Broadway game, with the Disney Company allying with Broadway to adapt their musical films to the stage; Julie Taymor’s production of The Lion King stands out among that canon. With the greater opportunities available for arbitration smaller playwrights to create small-scale musicals, musical theatre split into larger, spectacle-based musicals of essay Broadway, and the quirkier, smaller musicals of off-Broadway. Little Shop of Horrors , Bat Boy: The Musical , and creating essay questions, others provided smaller scale but interesting stories that eschewed overly elaborate set pieces for small sets of characters and developed storylines.

Incredible innovations would come from essay shows such as these, and a new niche audience was created for them. In order to attract younger audiences, Rent was released on Broadway and the West End, a dramatic tale of book report New York bohemia, rock music, and AIDS. The incredible success of the book on writing musicals invigorated the theatre scene with a much younger demographic, leading to the advent of pastries business interesting, new and unusual shows. Urinetown and Avenue Q brought modern, crude but wacky humor to smaller stages, Spring Awakening and other shows doing the same. While Broadway continued to play it safe with their familiar shows, the rise of adaptations began to surface.

Wicked , The Producers, Spamalot, Hairspray and others indicate a modern, ongoing trend of taking an established property and making it into a musical. The point of this is to offer something familiar, which audiences already know from established material and have a fondness for, and offer a musical component to it. The jukebox musical, exemplified by Mamma Mia! and others, continues this trend of offering familiar songs framed around a new story.

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